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WEEKLY BRIEFING 3RD - 9TH OCTOBER 2013

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News in brief

IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi
Central African Republic
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC
Rwanda
Burundi
Central African Republic


Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Burundi


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC
Burundi
 
Other
DRC
Rwanda
Burundi

IPIS Recent publications
 

NEWS IN BRIEF


A delegation from the UN Security Council visited DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda to discuss the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement for Congo and the region signed in February in Addis-Ababa. In North Kivu, officials of the UN mission in DRC said that MONUSCO’s Intervention Brigade will also deal with the Islamist group ADF and with the FDLR, both as dangerous as the M23 rebel movement, and with all other armed groups, one by one.
 
While at the talks in Kampala between the Congolese Government and M23 no progress seems to have been made, the head of MONUSCO said they had irrefutable evidence of M23 material reinforcement, and that they were verifying reports of M23 recruiting ‘young people’ in Rwanda. Another UN official earlier said that child soldiers were lured from Rwanda.
 
In a new report, the Enough Project argues M23 has taken over a profitable part of the gold trade in eastern DRC.
 
Shabunda, South Kivu, saw new clashes between the army and the Raia Mutomboki rebels, and between two rival factions of the Raia. In Ango, Province Orientale, 67 people were abducted in three days by presumed LRA.
 
WWF filed a complaint with the UK Government against British oil company SOCO International plc., claiming that the company has breached the OECD corporate social responsibility standards in its oil exploration activities in North Kivu’s Virunga National Park.
 
 
Rwanda vehemently denies any connection with the recruitment of child soldiers by M23, after the US decided to block its military aid to the country. Meanwhile, the EU resumed its development aid to Rwanda.
 
 
The Central African Republic saw new clashes, in the southeast and the northwest, between Muslim ex-Seleka rebels and Christian local self-defence militias. In the east of the country, AU troops have resumed the hunt for the LRA.
The U
N is planning to vote a resolution on CAR, to reinforce its existing office in the country, BINUCA, and to explore the possibility of transforming the forthcoming AU Support Mission ‘MISCA’ into a UN peacekeeping operation.
 
 
In Burundi, parliament unanimously voted for a new mining code.
 
 
An extraordinary session of the African Union on Friday and Saturday will discuss whether African nations should pull out of the International Criminal Court (ICC).
 

 


IPIS’ Latest Publications



NEW* IPIS Insights: Why businesses should assess human rights impacts from the outset of projects. SOCO International Oil Company in Virunga National Park, DRC | 26 August 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS)
SOCO International, a British oil company, is prospecting for oil in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Virunga National Park – a World Heritage Site. For the past year, their presence has been criticised for putting a fragile environment at risk. However, more recently, their impact on human rights has also been questioned. In this Insights IPIS looks at why it is so vital for companies to employ rights-respectful processes, such as those advised in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, from the very beginning of the prospection stage.


Strijd tegen conflictmineralen: sleutel tot conflictresolutie in Oost-Congo? | 25 July  2013 | IPIS (Internationale Spectator)
De PDF van dit artikel is met toestemming van de redactie overgenomen uit de 'Internationale Spectator, Clingendael Magazine voor Internationale Betrekkingen', uitgegeven door de Koninklijke Van Gorcum, te Assen namens het Nederlands Instituut voor Internationale Betrekkingen ‘Clingendael’ te Den Haag.

Business, Human Rights, and Uganda's Oil. Part I: Uganda's oil sector and potential threats to human rights | 25 July 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS) – ActionAid International Uganda
The following report is the first of a series of four collaborations between IPIS Research and ActionAid International Uganda. The series sheds a light on the oil sector in Uganda, its possible impact on human rights, and how government, companies, and civil society can best enable a positive bond between oil and the welfare of the Ugandan people.


The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.
 
 
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region


Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
New Report: Completing the Mission – U.S. Special Forces Are Essential for Ending the LRA | 3 October 2013 | Enough Project
Michael J. Bittrick : "Sans sécurité, l'Afrique ne décollera pas" | 8 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Since 2011, approximately 100 U.S. military advisors have become integral to the operations to weaken the Lord’s Resistance Army, or LRA, and capture its leader, Joseph Kony. A new report by the Enough Project, “Completing the Mission: U.S. Special Forces Are Essential for Ending the LRA,” applauds the Obama administration's extension of the U.S. advisor mission into early 2014, examines the impact of U.S. advisors to the counter-LRA operations, and makes the case for maintaining the role of U.S. advisors in Uganda and the surrounding region until the capture of Kony.
 
ICC and Civil Society Want More Action On LRA Atrocities | 8 October 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
La LRA et son chef dans le collimateur de la CPI et de la société civile | 8 October 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency
The International Criminal Court (ICC) remains concerned by the failure to arrest Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony, who has been under an arrest warrant since 2005. This is stressed in the ICC's 2012-2013 annual report, received by Hirondelle on Tuesday. At the same time, African and Western NGOs urged more international action against Kony's LRA rebels, who continue to commit crimes against civilians, notably in the Central African Republic.
 
 
AU summit on African standby force
AU Security Experts Meet Over Standby Force Readiness | 8 October 2013 | Voice of America
A summit to determine the combat readiness of the African Union’s (AU) standby force will begin in Botswana’s capital, Gaborone Wednesday, says Major-General Samaila Iliya, the director of the AMANI Africa II exercise.
 

 

DRC 

UN Security Council visits DRC
UN Security Council to Visit Africa Great Lakes Region | 3 October 2013 | Voice of America
A delegation from the U.N. Security Council is heading to Africa to visit the volatile Great Lakes Region and discuss implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement signed in February, aimed at stabilizing the region.
 
UN Security Council: Address Rights Abuses in DR Congo | 3 October 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU : Il faut faire cesser les violations des droits humains en RD Congo | 3 October 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch demande à l’ONU d’empêcher des violations des droits humains en RDC | 4 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
United Nations Security Council members should use their visit to the Great Lakes region of Central Africa to help end human rights abuses and impunity for the worst crimes in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Human Rights Watch said in a letter to Security Council members.
 
Une délégation du Conseil de sécurité attendue à Kinshasa | 4 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le Conseil de sécurité à Kinshasa pour veiller sur la mise en œuvre de l’accord d’Addis-Abeba | 5 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: la délicate visite d'une délégation du Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU | 6 October 2013 | RFI
La délégation est conduite par Alexis Lamek, représentant permanent adjoint de la France, et Mohammed Loulichki, ambassadeur marocain à l’Onu.
 
DRC Signals Progress in Kampala Talks | 5 October 2013 | Voice of America
Members of a U.N. Security Council delegation visiting the Democratic Republic of Congo say they have reassuring signs from the government that it wants a positive outcome to talks with M23 rebels in the east.
 
DR Congo's M23 rebels cannot be defeated militarily: UN | 5 October 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : "pas de solution militaire" contre le M23 (Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU) | 5 October 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
The Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 rebels can only be defeated by political means and not militarily, a member of a UN Security Council delegation visiting the African country said Saturday.
 
RDC: le Conseil de sécurité de l’Onu salue la dynamique de paix enclenchée en RDC | 6 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Nord-Kivu: le Conseil de sécurité de l’Onu lance une mise en garde contre les groupes armés | 6 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Arrivés dimanche 6 octobre à Goma, chef-lieu du Nord-Kivu, les membres du Conseil de sécurité de l’Onu ont lancé une mise en garde contre les groupes armés qui troublent l’Est de la RDC.
 
U.S., Britain push Congo to prosecute soldiers over Minova rapes | 6 October 2013 | Reuters
The United States and Britain pushed Democratic Republic of Congo officials to prosecute soldiers accused of raping some 130 women and girls in Congo's volatile east, U.N. Security Council envoys said during a visit to the country on Sunday.
 
U.N. peacekeepers in Congo focus on new armed groups | 6 October 2013 | Reuters
Nord-Kivu: la Monusco va neutraliser toutes les forces négatives, promet le général Santos Cruz | 9 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
After an aggressive new U.N. brigade in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo scored a military victory over M23 rebels and forced them back to peace talks, U.N. peacekeepers are now turning their focus to two other equally dangerous armed groups.
 
RDC: le Conseil de sécurité appelle la population à s’approprier l’Accord d’Addis–Abeba | 6 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
During visit, Security Council members meet leaders of Africa’s Great Lakes countries | 7 October 2013 | UN News Centre
En mission dans les Grands Lacs, le Conseil de sécurité rencontre les chefs d'État de la région | 7 October 2013 | UN News Centre
 
Security Council Blames Weak DRC Institutions for Crisis | 7 October 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
 
 
Kampala talks
Kampala : Kinshasa accuse la facilitation de vouloir violer la souveraineté territoriale de la RDC | 4 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Alors que le délai de quatorze jours imparti au gouvernement congolais et à la rébellion du M23 pour clore les négociations de Kampala est largement dépassé, ces discussions ne sont pas prêtes à aboutir à un accord. Jeudi 3 octobre, le coordonnateur du mécanisme de suivi de l’accord-cadre de paix d’Addis-Abeba, François Muamba a accusé le facilitateur de vouloir «imposer un document qui viole la souveraineté et l’intégrité territoriale de la RDC».
 
DRC Signals Progress in Kampala Talks | 5 October 2013 | Voice of America
Members of a U.N. Security Council delegation visiting the Democratic Republic of Congo say they have reassuring signs from the government that it wants a positive outcome to talks with M23 rebels in the east.
 
Une liste de responsables du M23 exclus de l’intégration politique circule à Kampala | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Une liste comprenant les noms des chefs politiques du Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) exclus de toute intégration dans les institutions de la RDC circulerait à Kampala où se déroulent les négociations entre la rébellion et le gouvernement congolais.
 
 
M23, North Kivu
Le retour de réfugiés rwandais dans la zone du M23 suscite la controverse | 3 October 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Familles rwandophones à Rutshuru : Julien Paluku parle d’un renfort du Rwanda au M23 | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Familles rwandophones à Rutshuru : une infiltration rwandaise facilitée par le M23, selon la Société civile | 5 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
La Société civile du Nord-Kivu accuse la rébellion du M23 d’avoir facilité une infiltration rwandaise de la RDC en accueillant plusieurs familles rwandophones dans la partie du territoire de Rutshuru qu’elle occupe, dans le Nord-Kivu.
Pour Julien Paluku, le gouverneur du Nord-Kivu, l’arrivée des ces familles à Jomba lundi dernier est un renfort militaire apporté au M23 par le Rwanda.
 
Children lured from Rwanda to fight with Congo rebels: U.N. | 5 October 2013 | Reuters
A third of child soldiers who have escaped from Congolese rebel group M23 were lured from neighboring Rwanda with promises of cash, jobs and education, the United Nations said on Saturday.
 
Le M23 menace de « destruction immédiate » les hélicoptères survolant son « espace à très basse altitude » | 5 October 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
La rébellion du M23 menace au Nord-Kivu (Est de RD Congo) de « destruction immédiate et sans sommation » les hélicoptères qui survoleront son « espace à très basse altitude », à la suite de ce qu'il qualifie d'« actes de provocation ».
 
Nord-Kivu: les rebelles du M23 pillent 10 maisons à Kiwanja | 6 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les rebelles du M23 ont pillé, dans la nuit du vendredi 4 à samedi 5 octobre, dix habitations, à Kiwanja et ses environs dans le territoire de Rutshuru (Nord-Kivu). La société civile du Nord-Kivu a affirmé, dans un communiqué publié ce dimanche matin, que les assaillants ont emporté de l’argent, des téléphones portables et plusieurs autres biens de valeur.
 
Nord-Kivu: nouveaux pillages attribués aux rebelles du M23 à Kiwanja | 7 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Des hommes armés identifiés comme des rebelles du M23 ont attaqué, dans la nuit du dimanche 6 octobre, le Centre de santé CBCA Buturande, dans la cité de Kiwanja (Nord-Kivu).
 
Les quatre vérités de René Abandi, au nom du M23 | 8 October 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Interview de René Abandi, chef de la délégation du M23 négociant à Kampala et en charge des relations extérieures. Colette Braeckman l’a rencontré alors qu’il transitait par Bruxelles, en route vers Kampala où la négociation doit reprendre avec la délégation gouvernementale.
 
RDC : l'ONU inquiète d'un renforcement militaire du M23 | 9 October 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC: la Monusco dénonce un renforcement des positions du M23 | 9 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: le M23 se renforce et continue de recruter au Rwanda, selon les Nations unies | 10 October 2013 | RFI
La Mission de l'ONU en République démocratique du Congo (Monusco) s'est inquiétée mercredi d'informations faisant état d'un renforcement militaire de la rébellion Mouvement du 23 mars (M23), active dans l'est du pays.
 
New Evidence: M23 Rebels in Congo Conflict Gold Trade | 9 October 2013 | Enough Project
Striking Gold: How M23 and its Allies are Infiltrating Congo's Gold Trade | 9 October 2013 | Enough Project
The Enough Project has released a new report that documents the conflict gold smuggling network of the Eastern Congo-based M23 rebels. The report, “Striking Gold: How M23 and its Allies are Infiltrating Congo's Gold Trade,” reveals how M23 is involved in the lucrative gold trade in eastern Congo, which is worth approximately $500 million per year overall. Instead of controlling mines directly, M23 has built alliances with other armed groups in gold-rich areas and expanded its contacts with influential traders in Uganda, Burundi, and Congo to trade gold.
 
 
Part of MONUSCO to move to the east
Une partie de la Monusco va déménager dans l'est de la RDC | 10 October 2013 | RFI
La Monusco va déménager, du moins en partie. Tous les personnels qui jusqu'à présent travaillaient dans le domaine spécifiquement lié au maintien de la paix, vont être réaffectés à l'est du Congo, dans différentes villes. Un redéploiement progressif sur demande du Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU, mais qui pourrait prendre huit mois à un an.
 
 
Masisi, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : 10 000 déplacés à Masisi après les combats entre 2 groupes armés | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Environ dix mille personnes ont fui leurs villages pour trouver refuge dans les contrées voisines de Kashuga et Mwesso dans le secteur de Kalembe, à environ 35 km au Nord-Ouest de Kitchanga, en territoire de Masisi (Nord-Kivu).
 
MSF réduit ses activités médicales dans la région de Mweso | 7 October 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) a dû réduire ses activités médicales à l’hôpital de Mweso, ainsi qu’aux alentours. Ceci fait suite à une succession d’incidents durant lesquels le personnel médical de l’organisation a été intimidé, les patients menacés, les véhicules fouillés et l’enceinte de l’hôpital a été enfreinte.
 
Minova: une ONG locale répertorie plus de 150 conflits | 9 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
L’Association des jeunes volontaires pour le développement intégral (AJVDI) a annoncé mardi 8 septembre avoir recensé plus de cent cinquante conflits depuis le début de l’année dans le groupement Mupfuni Shanga au Sud-Kivu (ndlr. au Nord-Kivu, territoire de Masisi). (...) Pour Kasungu Shabampfuku, la persistance des conflits est à la base de la création de six groupes armés dans la région.
 
 
Walikale, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : de nouvelles violences risquent d’éclater à Walikale, selon le BDWa | 5 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le Bureau d’étude et de développement de Walikale (BDWa) prévient que de nouvelles violences risquent d’éclater dans ce territoire du Nord-Kivu. Cette organisation explique qu’une coalition entre les rebelles rwandais des FDLR et le groupe armé Nyatura menace d’attaquer des localités de Walikale depuis le territoire voisin de Masisi. En réponse, les paysans ont initié des collectes pour soutenir des jeunes rassemblés en force d’autodéfense populaire dans le but de combattre cette coalition.
 
Nord-Kivu: calme relatif à Luberike et Ihana depuis le déploiement des FARDC et de la Monusco | 7 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Un calme relatif est observé dans les groupements de Luberike et Ihana à Walikale (Nord-Kivu) depuis le déploiement il y a un mois des Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) et de la Mission des Nations unies pour la stabilisation au Congo (Monusco).
 
 
Raia Mutomboki in Shabunda, South Kivu
Sud-Kivu: les FARDC tuent 3 Raïa Mutomboki à Nyalukungu | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) ont abattu trois miliciens Raïa Mutomboki au terme d’un accrochage survenu, mardi 1er octobre, à Nyalukungu dans la chefferie de Wakabangu 1er, à l’Ouest du territoire de Shabunda (Sud-Kivu).
 
Sud-Kivu: affrontements entre deux factions rivales des Raïa Mutomboki à Shabunda | 9 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Deux factions rivales de la milice Raïa Mutomboki s’affrontent depuis le dimanche 6 octobre dernier dans la localité de Nyalubemba territoire de Shabunda.
 
 
Kidnappings by presumed LRA in Ango, Province Orientale
Province Orientale : des kidnappings attribués à la LRA à Ango | 9 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Flash update LRA dans les UELE au 09 octobre 2013 | 9 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Soixante-sept personnes ont été enlevées entre le 2 et le 4 octobre par des présumés rebelles ougandais de la Lord’s resistance army (LRA) dans deux localités du territoire d’Ango en Province Orientale.
 
 
Fighting between military and Mai-Mai poachers in Lomami Park, Opala, Province Orientale
Province Orientale: plus de 100 déplacés sans assistance à Opala | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Une centaine des personnes ont fui les combats entre les militaires et les braconniers Maï-Maï au parc de la Lomami pour se réfugier à Opala dans la Province Orientale.
 
 
Mai-Mai surrender in Katanga
Katanga : la Monusco demande une meilleure prise en charge d’anciens miliciens Maï-Maï | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
La Monusco craint le retour dans la forêt des certains miliciens Maï-Maï qui se sont rendus aux Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) ces dernière semaines.
 
Katanga: le chef milicien «Yorgo» se rend aux FARDC | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le chef milicien Albert Kisimba surnommé “Yorgo” s’est rendu le samedi dernier aux Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) à Manono au Nord du Katanga.
 
Pweto: transfert de 300 miliciens Bakata Katanga à Lubumbashi | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Plus de trois cent combattants Bakata Katanga, qui s’étaient rendus aux FARDC il y a une semaine à Pweto, ont été transférés samedi 5 octobre à Lubumbashi.
 
 
National Consultations on SSR
Concertations nationales: le groupe désarmement recommande la restructuration des FARDC | 4 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les recommandations des groupes thématiques aux concertations nationales ont été validées, jeudi 3 octobre, à l’assemblée plénière au Palais du peuple, à Kinshasa. Les membres du groupe thématique désarmement ont recommandé une série d’actions pour l’instauration d’une véritable paix, le renforcement de lautorité de l’Etat et de la cohésion nationale en RDC, fondement d’un développement durable. Parmi ces actions, il y a notamment l’accélération du processus de restructuration des Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC), de la police et des services de sécurité.
 
 
Regional police summit
Kinshasa: les chefs de police d’Afrique centrale veulent lutter contre la criminalité transfrontalière | 7 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDCongo : réunion des chefs de police de l’Afrique centrale | 9 October 2013 | RFI
Le commissaire général de la police congolaise, Charles Bisengimana a ouvert, lundi 7 octobre à Kinshasa, les travaux du XIVè sommet des chefs de police d’Afrique Centrale. Les responsables de la police de cette région veulent renforcer la coopération entre leurs pays pour combattre la criminalité transfrontalière. Ils veulent notamment lutter contre le trafic et la circulation d’armes à feu, le trafic d’êtres humains et de la drogue, le terrorisme ainsi que la cybercriminalité.
 
 
Sexual violence
RDC : au moins 40 cas de violences sexuelles enregistrées chaque jour | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Au moins 40 femmes sont violées chaque jour en RDC, soit plus d’une femme toutes les heures, selon un rapport rendu public mardi 8 octobre à Kinshasa par la ministre du Genre, de la Famille et de l’Enfant, Geneviève Inagosi.
 

 
 

Uganda

Visit UN Security Council
Rwanda, Uganda tell U.N. envoys peace in Congo is not their problem | 8 October 2013 | Reuters
The presidents of Rwanda and Uganda told U.N. Security Council envoys on Monday that their countries were not responsible for bringing peace to neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo's volatile east, which has long been mired in conflict and is bristling with armed groups.
 
During visit, Security Council members meet leaders of Africa’s Great Lakes countries | 7 October 2013 | UN News Centre
En mission dans les Grands Lacs, le Conseil de sécurité rencontre les chefs d'État de la région | 7 October 2013 | UN News Centre
As part of an official visit to countries in Africa’s Great Lakes region, the 15 members of the United Nations Security Council have over the past few days met with various heads of State to discuss the implementation of the broad based peace accord agreed earlier this year.
 
 
Sudanese diplomat expelled
Uganda Expels Sudan Diplomat Accused of Spying | 8 October 2013 | Voice of America
Sudanese diplomat Jad-el-Seed Mohammed Elhag has been expelled from Uganda on suspicion of espionage, Ugandan foreign ministry officials said Tuesday.
 

 
 

Rwanda

US blocks military aid over recruitment of M23 child soldiers in Rwanda
US Sanctions Five Nations Over Child Soldiers | 3 October 2013 | Voice of America
U.S. State Department Daily Press Briefing: Rwanda, CAR | 3 October 2013 | US Department of State | allAfrica
US blocks military aid to Rwanda over alleged backing of M23 child soldiers | 4 October 2013 | The Guardian
The United States moved to block military assistance to five countries, including three in Africa, over their use of child soldiers in armed conflicts, U.S. officials said on Thursday. The sanctions affect Central African Republic, Rwanda and Sudan as well as Burma (also known as Myanmar) and Syria, according to the U.S. State Department.
 
Enfants soldats dans le M23: Washington annonce des sanctions contre Kigali | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les États-Unis sanctionnent le Rwanda, accusé de soutenir le recrutement d'enfants-soldats par le M23 | 3 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Les Etats-Unis suspendent leur aide militaire au Rwanda pour son soutien au M23 | 4 October 2013 | RFI
Les États-Unis ont annoncé jeudi qu'ils avaient pris des sanctions contre le Rwanda. Washington accuse Kigali d'être impliqué dans le recrutement d'enfants-soldats, via un soutien au Mouvement du 23-Mars, en RDC.
 
Rwanda slams US sanctions over rebel use of child soldiers | 4 October 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Rwanda condemns US M23 child soldiers sanctions | 4 October 2013 | BBC News
Le Rwanda dénonce la suspension de l'aide militaire américaine | 5 October 2013 | RFI
Rwanda denies M23 child soldier claims as 'ludicrous' | 7 October 2013 | BBC Africa
Le Rwanda dément soutenir le M23 | 7 October 2013 | BBC Afrique
Le Rwanda dément les accusations de recrutement d'enfants soldats pour le compte du M23 | 8 October 2013 | RFI
Rwanda has condemned the US imposition of sanctions, denying any links to the use of child soldiers by rebels in Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
Children lured from Rwanda to fight with Congo rebels: U.N. | 5 October 2013 | Reuters
A third of child soldiers who have escaped from Congolese rebel group M23 were lured from neighboring Rwanda with promises of cash, jobs and education, the United Nations said on Saturday.
 
Rwanda Demobilizes Some Child Soldiers | 8 October 2013 | Voice of America
Over the past 16 years, Rwanda has demobilized some 3,000 child soldiers. Yet as these efforts continue, the United Nations claims that Kigali has been helping a Congolese rebel group, the M23, recruit children in Rwanda to send to fight in the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
 
EU resumes aid
EU gives Rwanda $54 mln for roads as aid picks up again | 4 October 2013 | Reuters | Reliefweb
The European Union has given Rwanda 40 million euros ($54 million) to improve roads to help foodstuffs get to market, the EU and Rwanda said on Friday. International lenders, including the EU, had delayed aid to Kigali last year over Rwanda's alleged backing of rebels in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo, which the government of President Paul Kagame denies.
 
 
Visit UN Security Council
Le Conseil de sécurité presse le Rwanda d'aider à éliminer les groupes armés | 7 October 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Une délégation du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies a appelé lundi le Rwanda à participer, avec les autres pays de la région, à l'élimination des groupes armés opérant dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC).
 
Rwanda, Uganda tell U.N. envoys peace in Congo is not their problem | 8 October 2013 | Reuters
The presidents of Rwanda and Uganda told U.N. Security Council envoys on Monday that their countries were not responsible for bringing peace to neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo's volatile east, which has long been mired in conflict and is bristling with armed groups.
 
During visit, Security Council members meet leaders of Africa’s Great Lakes countries | 7 October 2013 | UN News Centre
En mission dans les Grands Lacs, le Conseil de sécurité rencontre les chefs d'État de la région | 7 October 2013 | UN News Centre
As part of an official visit to countries in Africa’s Great Lakes region, the 15 members of the United Nations Security Council have over the past few days met with various heads of State to discuss the implementation of the broad based peace accord agreed earlier this year.
 
L'ONU invite le Rwanda à respecter ses engagements vis à vis de la RDC | 8 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
En mission à Kigali, les représentants des pays membres du Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU ont appelé, lundi, le Rwanda à respecter ses engagements pris lors de la signature de l'accord d'Addis-Abeba, en février.
 
 
Former FDLR in Rwanda
Rwanda : FDLR à bout de souffle | 8 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Épuisés par deux décennies de guerre, traqués au fin fond des forêts congolaises, près de 10 000 anciens rebelles des FDLR sont rentrés dans leur pays, le Rwanda, depuis 2001. Reportage.
 

 
 

Burundi

Anti-terrorism measures
Burundi Security Forces Arrest 11 in Terror Crackdown | 6 October 2013 | Bloomberg
Burundi police arrested 11 people in an anti-terrorist crackdown made in the wake of an attack by militants on a shopping mall in Nairobi last month in which at least 67 civilians and security personnel were killed.
 
Vaste coup de filet antiterroriste au Burundi | 8 October 2013 | RFI
Après les attentats de Kampala, en Ouganda en 2010, et l’attaque menée dans un centre commercial de Nairobi au Kenya en septembre 2013, le Burundi est à son tour sous la menace d’une action terroriste. Le pays a en effet déployé des troupes au sein de l’Amisom, en Somalie, comme les deux autres pays d’Afrique de l’Est touchés par des attaques revendiquées par les shebabs. Les autorités burundaises ont donc multiplié les mesures de sécurité : patrouilles de police et de l’armée, contrôles renforcés aux frontières, mais surtout perquisitions de quartiers entiers comme c’était le cas à Bujumbura ces derniers jours.
 

 
 

Central African Republic

Seleka disarmament
Centrafrique : selon son commandant, "la Fomac est prête à employer la force pour désarmer la Séléka" | 3 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Les enjeux du désarmement «forcé» | 8 October 2013 | Africa Info (Douala) | allAfrica
Renforcée par l'arrivée de quelque 400 soldats tchadiens, la Fomac (la Force multinationale de l'Afrique centrale) a pris, ce week-end, la direction des opérations de désarmement des éléments de l'ex-rébellion Séléka à Bangui. Son commandant, le général Jean-Félix Akaga, assure de sa détermination.
 
 
New violence
RCA: Bossangoa, là où la peur règne encore | 4 October 2013 | RFI
 
RCA: montée des tensions entre chrétiens et musulmans à Bangassou | 5 October 2013 | RFI
RCA: les Mbororo, stigmatisés, se disent eux aussi victimes | 5 October 2013 | RFI
RCA: la Fomac envoie des troupes à Bangassou | 5 October 2013 | RFI
Fourteen killed in clashes in Central African Republic | 6 October 2013 | Reuters
UN chief strongly condemns latest attacks in Central African Republic | 6 October 2013 | UN News Centre
Le Secrétaire général condamne les attaques contre les civils en République centrafricaine | 6 October 2013 | UN News Centre
Centrafrique: calme précaire à Bangassou après l’arrestation du faux «colonel Abdallah» | 7 October 2013 | RFI
Fourteen people have been killed in violent clashes between Christians and Muslims that began last week in Bangassou, an isolated town in eastern Central African Republic.
 
23 Killed in CAR Unrest | 8 October 2013 | Voice of America
Dozens killed in northwest CAR clashes | 8 October 2013 | Al Jazeera
Central African Republic violence leaves 30 dead | 8 October 2013 | BBC Africa
Centrafrique : de nouvelles violences font au moins trente morts dans le nord-ouest | 8 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Around 60 dead in clashes in Central African Republic | 9 October 2013 | Reuters
RCA: calme précaire à Gaga après des heurts meurtriers entre ex-rebelles et groupes armés | 10 October 2013 | RFI
Around 60 people have been killed in sectarian clashes in Central African Republic between local militias and former rebels, witnesses and a local official said on Wednesday, as France increased pressure for international intervention.
 
RCA : Bangui nomme des commandants de régions pour restaurer son autorité | 9 October 2013 | RFI
Les autorités centrafricaines affichent, sur le papier, leur volonté de restaurer l’autorité de l’Etat dans les provinces.
 
 
Meeting in Addis Ababa on planned AU support mission
Addis Abeba: réunion préparatoire sur la mission de stabilisation de l'UA en Centrafrique | 7 October 2013 | RFI
La Communauté internationale se réveille enfin | 7 October 2013 | L’Observateur Paalga | allAfrica
Une réunion se tient ce lundi 7 octobre à Addis Abeba sur la Mission de stabilisation de l'Union africaine en Centrafrique (Misca) qui intègrera les contingents de la Fomac, les forces militaires d'Afrique centrale, déjà en place.
 
 
UN prepares resolution on CAR
U.N. urged to consider Central African Republic peacekeepers | 8 October 2013 | Reuters
L'ONU se penche sur la Centrafrique | 9 October 2013 | RFI
The U.N. Security Council is planning to vote this week on a draft resolution that would urge the United Nations to explore the possibility of establishing a U.N. peacekeeping force in Central African Republic, diplomats said on Tuesday.
 
 
US sanctions CAR over child soldiers
US Sanctions Five Nations Over Child Soldiers | 3 October 2013 | Voice of America
U.S. State Department Daily Press Briefing: Rwanda, CAR | 3 October 2013 | US Department of State | allAfrica
US blocks military aid to Rwanda over alleged backing of M23 child soldiers | 4 October 2013 | The Guardian
The United States moved to block military assistance to five countries over their use of child soldiers in armed conflicts, U.S. officials said on Thursday. The sanctions affect Central African Republic, Rwanda and Sudan as well as Burma (also known as Myanmar) and Syria, according to the U.S. State Department.
 
 
AU troops back in CAR to chase LRA
UPDF Launches Fresh Bid to Capture Kony | 6 October 2013 | New Vision
The Ugandan-led African Union (AU) troops have resumed the offensive against the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels in the Central African Republic (CAR), several months after suspending military operations there following a violent coup in the nation.
 
 
Analysis
Chaos en Centrafrique : à qui la faute ? | 7 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Il en aura fallu, du temps et des morts, avant que des voix s'élèvent, le 25 septembre à l'ONU, pour s'inquiéter du sort de la Centrafrique. Et il n'est même pas sûr que cela suffise à briser l'indifférence de la communauté internationale.
 
La Centrafrique inquiète le Tchad | 8 October 2013 | DW
Après avoir appuyé la prise du pouvoir par les rebelles de la Seleka, N'Djamena ne cache plus son inquiétude face aux répercussions que l'instabilité à Bangui pourrait avoir sur toute la région y compris le Tchad.
 

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Les députés de l’Ituri appellent le Gouvernement à assister 120 000 déplacés de Walendu Bindi | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Province Orientale: plus de 100 déplacés sans assistance à Opala | 3 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
DRC Army and UN Peacekeepers Try to Help Displaced Persons | 7 October 2013 | Voice of America
 
Une équipe de l’ONU évalue la situation humanitaire à Soke en Ituri, en province Orientale | 7 October 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
Ituri: près de 50 000 déplacés vivent sans assistance humanitaire à Soke | 7 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
RDC: 600 nouveaux réfugiés centrafricains enregistrés à Bondo | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Equateur: les refugiés centrafricains au camp d’Inke déplorent leurs conditions de vie | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Refugee from Central African Republic finds "promised land" in UNHCR-run camp | 8 October 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
 
DR Congo: UN agency in need of funding to assist growing number of displaced persons | 8 October 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC: le PAM a besoin de fonds pour aider un nombre croissant de déplacés | 8 October 2013 | UN News Centre
 
 
UNOCHA bulletins
RD Congo/Province du Nord-Kivu : Personnes déplacées internes dans les sites et camps (au 25 sept. 2013) | 3 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
RD Congo/Nord-Kivu : Mouvements de population au 25 septembre 2013 | 7 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Maniema No. 29/13, 01 octobre 2013 | 3 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Sud-Kivu, N° 40/13, 3 octobre 2013 | 3 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Hostilités et déplacements au Sud Irumu - 07 octobre 2013 | 8 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Sud-Kivu, N° 41/13, 8 octobre 2013 | 9 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Crise humanitaire au Sud Irumu, District de l’Ituri, Province Orientale 9 octobre 2013 | 9 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Flash update Uele au 09 octobre 2013 | 9 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 


 

Rwanda

Rwanda Is Committed to Continue Working With All Countries Hosting Its Refugee Towards Their Successful Repatriation | 2 October 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
 
Host States Urged to Facilitate Return of Rwandan Refugees | 3 October 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
 

 
 

Burundi 

"Former Burundian Refugees Still in Need of Reintegration Support" says IOM | 8 October 2013 | International Organization for Migration | Reliefweb
 

 
 

Central African Republic

Central African Republic: Humanitarian Snapshot (as of 22 Sep 2013) | 9 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Central African Republic: Humanitarian Dashboard (30 Sep 2013) | 9 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Central African Republic: Situation Report No. 28 (as of 04 October 2013) | 5 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
République centrafricaine : Rapport de situation No. 28 (04 octobre 2013) | 5 October 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
 
CAR refugees in DRC
Refugee from Central African Republic finds "promised land" in UNHCR-run camp | 8 October 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
RDC: 600 nouveaux réfugiés centrafricains enregistrés à Bondo | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Equateur: les refugiés centrafricains au camp d’Inke déplorent leurs conditions de vie | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
 


 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region


Forthcoming AU meeting on relationship with ICC
AU Summit to Deliberate On Africa's Relationship With ICC | 7 October 2013 | Ethiopian Radio and Television Agency | allAfrica
The African Union is due to hold an Extraordinary Session this week on Friday and Saturday (October 11 and 12) to discuss Africa's future relationship with the International Criminal Court (ICC).
 
Kofi Annan Defends Hague Court | 7 October 2013 | allAfrica
Strong and Cohesive Societies - the Foundations for Sustainable Peace | 7 October 2013 | Kofi Annan Foundation | allAfrica
Kofi Annan : un retrait de la CPI serait une "honte" pour les pays africains | 8 October 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Cape Town — Five days before crucial talks on whether African nations should pull out of the International Criminal Court (ICC), former United Nations secretary-general Kofi Annan has come out in vigorous defence of the court.
 
African Bloc 'Unlikely' to Leave ICC | 7 October 2013 | Institute for War & Peace Reporting | allAfrica
Despite talk of a mass walk-out, African Union members are not united in opposing the international court, experts say.
 
130 Groups Across Africa Call for Countries to Back ICC | 7 October 2013 | Human Rights Watch
CPI : 130 organisations à travers l'Afrique appellent les pays à soutenir la Cour pénale internationale | 7 October 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Groups Rally Support for ICC | 7 October 2013 | Voice of America
Johannesburg – 130 groups from across Africa called on African members of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in a letter made public today to affirm their support for the court at an extraordinary summit of the African Union (AU).
 
Africa must strengthen the International Criminal Court for its own sake | 9 October 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
The ICC is the world’s first permanent international criminal court. Since its inception in 2002, its cases have focused on African atrocities, of which there are an abundance. This African focus is not, however, entirely of the court’s own making.
 



 DRC

Congolese call for International Criminal Court on DRC
Les Congolais réclament un Tribunal pénal international pour la RDC | 7 October 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Plus de 800 délégués de toutes les couches sociales ont recommandé, à la fin des Concertations nationales tenues à Kinshasa du 7 septembre au 5 octobre 2013, la création d'un Tribunal pénal international pour juger les crimes de guerre et les crimes contre l'humanité commis sur le territoire congolais depuis 1993.
 


 

Rwanda 

Genocide Suspect Referred to Dutch Court, Faces Extradition | 3 October 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
A 37-year-old man was on Tuesday referred to a Dutch court for a hearing that will determine whether he will be extradited to face trial for his role in the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi.
 

 
 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region


Adoption of Convention on Mercury
United Nations Convention Tackling Hazardous Mercury to Open for Signature | 7 October 2013 | United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) | allAfrica
Conference for adoption of Minamata Convention on Mercury | 7 October 2013 | The Diplomat, Economist Blog | Mines and Communities
A landmark treaty to curb the use of mercury will open for signature on Wednesday, 9 October in Japan, marking a further watershed moment towards the global phase-out of the notorious heavy metal in many products and industries where mercury is used, released or emitted.
 
Groundbreaking Treaty on Toxic Mercury | 6 October 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Traité historique sur le mercure, un métal toxique | 6 October 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Governments around the world should immediately sign the new, groundbreaking Minamata Convention on Mercury, Human Rights Watch said today. Officials around the world will meet in Kumamoto, Japan beginning October 7, 2013, to formally adopt the treaty. Once adopted, it will be opened for signature and ratification.
 
 
Forest protection
New report shows citizens are key to forest protection but lack support and voice | 7 October 2013 | Global Witness
Un nouveau rapport montre que les citoyens sont essentiels pour la protection de la forêt mais qu’ils manquent de soutien et de voix | 7 October 2013 | Global Witness
International schemes to protect forests are unlikely to succeed until they ensure that local civil society and communities are at the heart of forest monitoring, according to a new report published by twelve NGOs today.
The study, by independent researchers, was commissioned by Global Witness, FERN, and ten forest monitoring groups from Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Indonesia, Liberia, and the Republic of Congo.
 
 
(Mis)management of natural resources
Africa Must Benefit from its Mineral Resources | 8 October 2013 | United Nations Economic Commission for Africa | allAfrica
Blog. Africa's political economy is deeply ingrained with its history of the exploitation and (mis)management of its mineral and natural resources.
 



DRC 

DR Congo: Cursed by its natural wealth | 9 October 2013 | BBC
The Democratic Republic of Congo is potentially one of the richest countries on earth, but colonialism, slavery and corruption has turned it into one of the poorest, writes historian Dan Snow.
 
 
Conflict gold
New Evidence: M23 Rebels in Congo Conflict Gold Trade | 9 October 2013 | Enough Project
Striking Gold: How M23 and its Allies are Infiltrating Congo's Gold Trade | 9 October 2013 | Enough Project
The Enough Project has released a new report that documents the conflict gold smuggling network of the Eastern Congo-based M23 rebels. The report, “Striking Gold: How M23 and its Allies are Infiltrating Congo's Gold Trade,” reveals how M23 is involved in the lucrative gold trade in eastern Congo, which is worth approximately $500 million per year overall. Instead of controlling mines directly, M23 has built alliances with other armed groups in gold-rich areas and expanded its contacts with influential traders in Uganda, Burundi, and Congo to trade gold.
 
 
Prospects for mineral production
La production de cuivre devrait augmenter de 600 000 tonnes en 2013 à 1 million en 2014 en RDC | 8 October 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le dynamisme observé dans le secteur des industries extractives en République démocratique du Congo (RDC) fait projeter une production de cuivre dépassant 600 000 tonnes en 2013 et atteignant environ 1 million de tonnes en 2014. Celle de l'or, qui est estimée à 2 tonnes pour 2013, devrait grimper à 14 tonnes en 2014.
 
 
Hydropower
Congo Open to More Investors Joining Inga 3 Hydropower Project | 9 October 2013 | Bloomberg
The Democratic Republic of Congo is open to more investors joining three groups of companies bidding to construct the $12 billion Inga 3 hydropower project, Energy Minister Bruno Kapandji said.
 
Le ministre Bruno Kapandji satisfait de l’avancement des travaux de construction du barrage de Kakobola dans le Bandundu | 9 October 2013 | ACP | Digitalcongo.net
La centrale hydroélectrique de Kakobola, avec une capacité installée de 10,5 mégawatts, va alimenter les villes de Kikwit, de Gungu et d’Idiofa.
 
 
Timber operators accused of violating forest code
Equateur: les exploitants du bois accusés de violer la règlementation forestière | 6 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le Réseau ressources naturelles (RRN) accuse les exploitants industriels et artisanaux du bois de violer la réglementation en la matière, dans la province de l’Equateur.
 
 
Plan for Virunga National Park
Virunga National Park Offers Economic Boost to Eastern Congo | 8 October 2013 | Voice of America
Congo's Mountain Gorilla Park Announces Partnership for Economic Revival in War-Torn Eastern Province | 8 October 2013 | PR Newswire | allAfrica
The Virunga National Park in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC, announced it has a 10-year plan to re-invigorate the local economy and create tens of thousands of new jobs. The plan, called “The Virunga Alliance,” is a partnership with other groups including the Howard G. Buffett Foundation. It’s providing early technical and financial support for the project, including a network of off-grid hydro-electric plants along the banks of the Rutshuru River.
 
Nord-Kivu : des élus tentent de réconcilier l’ICCN et les riverains du parc des Virunga | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Des députés nationaux ont négocié une cohabitation pacifique entre l’Institut congolais de conservation de la nature (ICCN) et les paysans riverains du parc national des Virunga, dans le Nord-Kivu.

 
 

Uganda

Oil
How Should Oil Money Be Spent? | 3 October 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The value of the 3.5 billion barrels proven oil assets is not yet known -at least the public does not know yet. But rough estimates, according to industrial players, put the finds to over and above $400b in monetary terms.
 
Oil - 'We Are On a Steady and Sure Path' | 4 October 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
On Sept. 25, 2013, Acting Energy and Mineral Development Minister Peter Lokeris announced the handing over of the country's first oil production licence to the Chinese company CNOOC Uganda Ltd for the development of the Kingfisher Oil field. This is an abridged version of his speech.
 
Oil Dollars in Sight | 4 October 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
When on Sept. 25 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development officials appeared before the media to announce the issuing of the country's first production licence to the Chinese firm, CNOOC, both excitement and tension were evident in the air.
 
 
Uganda Seeks Investor to Build $2.5 Billion Oil Refinery | 8 October 2013 | Bloomberg
Oil - Govt Calls Bids for Refinery | 9 October 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Uganda is looking for a lead investor to develop a refinery estimated to cost $2.5 billion, two weeks after issuing its first production license to China National Offshore Oil Corp. as it seeks to exploit reserves.
 
 
Minerals
Mining - Uganda At Defining Moment | 6 October 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
They are poor and live in dreadful shelters. Basic infrastructure like clean running water and electricity is missing. And at dawn, they retire to drink the local gin, continuing that pattern over and over again. This is the kind of life many people in Buhweju district, western Uganda, wake up to every day. A number of these mud-and-wattle houses sit on gold reserves. Today, a couple of residents use rudimentary and artisanal means to mine the resource. But it has not turned their lives into what they dream of.
 
Museveni Calls for Mineral Value Addition | 5 October 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has asked the budding mining sector to pay more attention to minerals value addition saying only then will Uganda and the continent realise its true worth.
 
 
Hydropower
Questions Over Karuma Dam | 4 October 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Will electricity finally get cheaper when the 600MW Karuma Hydropower Dam is completed sometime in 2018? Possibly not. But a lot depends on outcome of a meeting that took place in China on Sept. 27 between a delegation from Uganda and their Chinese counterparts.
 
Museveni Flags-Off Construction of Isimba Power Dam | 6 October 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has laid the foundation stone of the proposed 183 megawatts (MW) Isimba Hydropower Project along the River Nile. This signifies the commencement of work for the $556m dam. The contractor, China International Water and Electric Corporation, pledged to complete the project in 40 month.
 
Karuma, Isimba to Boost Uganda's Energy Needs | 8 October 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
The construction of Karuma and Isimba hydro power dams are expected to boost the availability of electricity in the country, and spur the much-needed seven per cent economic growth that Uganda is targeting in the medium term, government officials say. 
 


Burundi 

New mining code
Burundi's assembly passes bill on mining code | 9 October 2013 | Xinhua | India Daily News
Burundi : L'Assemblée Nationale adopte un nouveau code minier | 8 October 2013 | Xinhua | Arib News
The lower house of the Burundian Parliament has unanimously passed a new bill on the mining code, opening doors to the private sector that will need to inject assets into the mining sector in the East African country. The new bill replaces the one existing since 1976.
 


 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

WWF files OECD complaint against SOCO’s oil exploration in Virunga National Park
Soco’s oil exploration in Virunga violates OECD guidelines | 7 October 2013 | WWF UK
Specific Instance OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: SOCO's oil exploration in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo | 7 October 2013 | WWF International
Soco’s exploration in Virunga violates OECD guidelines, WWF alleges | 7 October 2013 | WWF Global
Parc des Virunga: le WWF porte le cas de l’exploration pétrolière de Soco devant l’OCDE | 7 October 2013 | WWF International
African gorillas are under threat from oil survey | 6 October 2013 | The Guardian
UK and conservationists express opposition towards drilling in Virunga National Park.
Conservation group seeks to stop Congo sanctuary exploration | 8 October 2013 | Reuters
RDC : pour sauver le parc de Virunga, WWF porte plainte contre le pétrolier Soco | 8 October 2013 | RFI
Pétrole du Virunga : WWF porte plainte contre la firme britannique Soco | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
WWF has filed a complaint alleging that British oil company Soco International PLC has breached international corporate social responsibility standards. WWF contends that, in the course of Soco’s oil exploration activities in and around Virunga National Park, the company has violated environmental and human rights provisions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.
 
Statement on complaint by WWF | 7 October 2013 | SOCO International plc
SOCO International plc is aware of the complaint raised by the WWF to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”). SOCO welcomes the scrutiny of such a well respected 3rd party organisation and takes this matter extremely seriously. SOCO would like to make it clear that all alleged breaches of the voluntary guidelines raised are absolutely ill-founded, tendentious and not supported by the facts.
 
 
Corruption
Corruption in the Congo: How China Learnt from the West | 3 October 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
To single out Chinese companies for entering into shady business in the DRC is to miss a fundamental point: Western firms have been at it for centuries, and still are.
 
 
Gecamines
Gecamines of Congo Studies Selling Stake in Glencore Copper Mine | 6 October 2013 | Bloomberg
Gecamines, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s state-owned mining company, may sell its 20 percent stake in Glencore Xstrata Plc’s Kamoto Copper Co. to raise money for other projects, said Chairman Albert Yuma.
 
Gecamines of Congo May Take Action Against Partners After Audit | 7 October 2013 | Bloomberg
Gecamines, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s state-owned miner, may take action against some of its partners after an audit of its joint ventures showed the company has been treated unfairly, Chairman Albert Yuma said.
 
 
Mining companies polluting in Katanga
Katanga : une ONG accuse 14 entreprises minières de polluer les rivières à Likasi et Kambove | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
L’ONG Umoja accuse quatorze entreprises minières de polluer le sol et les rivières de la ville de Likasi et du territoire de Kambove dans le Katanga.
 
 
Greenock
Greenock Resources: Corporate Update | 3 October 2013 | Greenock Resources Inc. | Marketwired
Toronto, Ontario - (...) Greenock is discussing cooperative strategies with Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) to maximize the value of technical studies owned by PTM Minerals (Cayman) Ltd. that have demonstrated the significant economic value of the Kakanda copper cobalt project. The Kakanda area is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the Katanga Province adjacent to the major operating copper cobalt mine and plant known as the Tenke Project which is operated by Freeport McMoran Copper and Gold Inc. and Lundin Mining Corporation.
 
Ruashi Mining
Lubumbashi: l’opération de dynamitage suspendue à la carrière de Kalukuluku | 7 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le maire de Lubumbashi (Katanga), Jean-Oscar Sangouza, a suspendu, le week-end dernier, l’opération de dynamitage dans la carrière de Kalukuluku, appartenant à l’entreprise Ruashi Mining, dans la commune de la Ruashi. Il a pris cette décision suite aux dégâts que cause cette opération sur l’environnement et aux plaintes des populations riveraines.
 
Tenke Fungurume
Tenke Fungurume tells Ponyo it’s fed up | 8 October 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The biggest private investor in Democratic Republic of Congo - it put up $3 billion- the Tenke Fungurume Mining (TFM) complex is being hampered by poor power supply.
 
Mawson West
Mawson West Operations & Corporate Update | 8 October 2013 | Mawson West Ltd. | Marketwired
Perth, Australia - Mawson West Limited provides an update on copper and silver output from its Dikulushi mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo where steady state production continued during the quarter.
 
 
Kilo Goldmines
Kilo Goldmines pulls in horns | 8 October 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
While waiting for the results of its latest drilling campaign on its Kitenge and Manzako projects in the Kilo belt in Democratic Republic of Congo, Kilo Goldmines has set out on a cost-cutting exercise.

 
 
 

Uganda

Total
Total to Resume Search for Oil in Nwoya District | 7 October 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Total E&P says it is waiting for UPDF clearance to resume three dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys for oil in the northern district of Nwoya. The move follows the recent discovery of unexploded ordinances.
 

 
 

Rwanda

Pella
Pouroulis in a cassiterite play | 8 October 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Pella Rwanda Resources Ltd., a subsidiary of Guernsey-incorporated Pella Resources Ltd, a firm set up by Adonis Pouroulis, founder of Petra Diamonds, was awarded a license to mine cassiterite, tantalum and tungsten in Rwamagana district in Rwanda’s eastern Province in late September.
 
 

 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 


EITI
Why I am proud to champion the UK’s EITI commitments | 8 October 2013 | EITI
The UK Minister in charge of the country's EITI process explains why in this blog post.


 

DRC

SEC & Dodd-Frank Act
SEC’s White Says Lawmakers Should Respect Agency’s Independence | 4 October 2013 | Bloomberg
US SEC chair chastises Congress over new disclosure rules | 4 October 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Mary Jo White said lawmakers left the agency “no room” for independent judgment when they mandated rules related to mining safety and conflict minerals.
 
 
iTSCi Conflict Minerals Programme
Growing Global Participation In iTSCi Conflict Minerals Programme | 8 October 2013 | ITRI
iTSCi is pleased to announce another milestone in the continually growing support for the supply chain initiative membership Programme, which from just a handful of supporters in 2011 has now achieved 130 participating companies in a truly global system stretching across 23 different countries.
 
 
EITI
DRC civil society calls for judicial investigation over missing funds | 3 October 2013 | EITI
Revenue collection agency questioned about US $26 million that has not been traced.
 

 
 

Burundi

New mining code
Burundi's assembly passes bill on mining code | 9 October 2013 | Xinhua | India Daily News
Burundi : L'Assemblée Nationale adopte un nouveau code minier | 8 October 2013 | Xinhua | Arib News
The lower house of the Burundian Parliament has unanimously passed a new bill on the mining code, opening doors to the private sector that will need to inject assets into the mining sector in the East African country. The new bill replaces the one existing since 1976.
 


 
 

Other


 

DRC

National Consultations
RDC: l’idée d’un gouvernement d’union nationale émerge des concertations | 4 October 2013 | RFI
Concertations nationales congolaises | 4 October 2013 | BBC Afrique
Concertations nationales : les conclusions des groupes thématiques diversement appréciées | 4 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: une partie de l'opposition sceptique sur les conclusions des concertations nationales | 5 October 2013 | RFI
En République démocratique du Congo, les rapporteurs des différentes commissions des concertations nationales se sont succédés à la tribune du Parlement de Kinshasa. Ils ont présenté leurs conclusions devant des centaines de délégués réunis en séance plénière. On a aussi vu émerger l'idée d'un gouvernement d'union nationale.
 
Congo's Kabila pledges to implement reforms after national dialogue | 5 October 2013 | Reuters
Concertations nationales : Joseph Kabila promet des décisions importantes pour le pays | 5 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: les concertations nationales concluent à la nécessité de profondes réformes | 6 October 2013 | RFI
Congo's President Joseph Kabila pledged on Saturday to turn the recommendations from three weeks of national dialogue into policies to tackle the central African nation's daunting social, institutional and economic problems.
 
Concertations nationales: Minaku est satisfait | 8 October 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
 
EU aid not effective
Europe in the Congo: high ambitions, big money, limited impact | 3 October 2013 | African Arguments
By Kris Berwouts
 
L’efficacité de l’aide de l’Europe à la RDC remise en question | 4 October 2013 | RFI
 
 
Economic growth contrasts with poverty
RDC : la croissance de l’économie contraste avec la pauvreté de la population | 8 October 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le taux de croissance de l’économie congolaise est passé de 7,8% à 8% en septembre, soit une augmentation de 0,2%.
 


Rwanda

Debating Rwanda under the RPF: gap between ‘believers’ and ‘unbelievers’ remains wide – By Magnus Taylor | 8 October 2013 | African Arguments
On Friday and Saturday I spent a strange couple of days attending a conference at SOAS (partially sponsored by the RAS). It was called ‘Rwanda under the RPF: assessing 20 years of post-conflict governance.’
 
 
Bilateral cooperation and local power dynamics: the case of Rwanda | October 2013 | ODI
​Paper.
In order to understand political dynamics in a country, it is not sufficient to know what formal institutions it has. It is necessary to grasp the nature of the prevailing elite bargain or political settlement – the particular way the institutions shape and are shaped by structures of power.
 
 

Burundi

Rival Burundi political supporters in street battles | 7 October 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Supporters of rival political parties in Burundi clashed in street battles that left five people seriously wounded, government officials said Monday, the latest tensions in the small central African nation.
 
 
Burundi : le torchon brûle au sein de l’ancien parti unique | 7 October 2013 | RFI
L'ancien parti unique au Burundi est confronté à une profonde crise interne : la direction de l'Uprona demande le départ du vice-président, sans succès pour l'instant. Mais ces tensions pourraient avoir des conséquences sur l'ensemble de l'appareil politique.
 
 

 

IPIS Recent Publications



Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
 
 
 
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