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WEEKLY BRIEFING 22ND - 28TH AUGUST 2013

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Editorial
 
IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi

CAR
 

Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi

CAR
 

Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
Burundi
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC
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IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

This week has seen not only the eruption of heavy fighting in eastern DRC but the resultant ratcheting of tensions on a more regional level. With the deployment of the South African contingent of MONUSCO’s intervention brigade, hostilities in North Kivu heightened as both the M23 and the UN backed FARDC came to blows north of Goma. Dozens of people have been killed and injured in fierce fighting. Shelling of the provincial capital on Thursday, Saturday and this Wednesday has seen outcry over civilian deaths, with the provincial authorities alleging that some of the shelling has come from Rwandan territory, stoking claims of continued Rwandan support for the M23. These have been met by the Rwandan authorities with counter allegations that the Congolese army has directed rockets at the Rwandan town of Rubavu, whilst the coil tightened between Kigali and Tanzania this week with reports of hostile exchanges between the two states. Back in the DRC, a brief relative lull in hostilities was cut short by further clashes on Monday and reports of one peacekeeping fatality and five injuries during an offensive operation to drive the M23 back from Goma.
 
Meanwhile on the DRC/Uganda border in Province Orientale a frontier dispute between Congolese customs officials and the Ugandan authorities is said to have turned belligerent after the movement of a customs barrier in Mahagi is alleged to have prompted the deployment of 300 Ugandan troops to the border, entering Congolese territory to occupy the village of Sisi. Elsewhere in the province the successful ouster of the FRPI from 12 villages, including two trading centres, is said to have claimed the lives of 30 rebels and 3 Congolese soldiers, only for the militia to regain a number of localities following what FARDC claims was a strategic retreat in response to further hostilities.
 
In South Kivu, last weekend saw clashes between the FARDC and a coalition of armed groups headed by Yakutumba, whilst Katanga witnessed the demobilisation of 80 Mai-Mai in Mitwaba. The date for the commencement of the long awaited Congolese national dialogue has been set for Wednesday 4th September.
 
Further north, in the Central African Republic as Djotodia’s inauguration entourage prompted rebuke from the EU in response to the presence of Sudan’s ICC indicted Defense Minister, Seleka raids on the north of Bangui have caused further displacement. Air traffic to and from the capital was hampered this week as IDPs took refuge in the National Airport where French troops are responsible for security.
 
Following UN calls for an investigation into the disappearance of three Rwandan refugees from Uganda, one of these individuals is said to have been found unconscious and exhibiting signs of torture, according to Ugandan officials.

 

 


IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

NEW* IPIS Insights: Why businesses should assess human rights impacts from the outset of projects. SOCO International Oil Company in Virunga National Park, DRC | 26 August 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS)
SOCO International, a British oil company, is prospecting for oil in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Virunga National Park – a World Heritage Site. For the past year, their presence has been criticised for putting a fragile environment at risk. However, more recently, their impact on human rights has also been questioned. In this Insights IPIS looks at why it is so vital for companies to employ rights-respectful processes, such as those advised in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, from the very beginning of the prospection stage.


Strijd tegen conflictmineralen: sleutel tot conflictresolutie in Oost-Congo? | 25 July  2013 | IPIS (Internationale Spectator)
De PDF van dit artikel is met toestemming van de redactie overgenomen uit de /Internationale Spectator, Clingendael Magazine voor Internationale Betrekkingen/, uitgegeven door de Koninklijke Van Gorcum, te Assen namens het Nederlands Instituut voor Internationale Betrekkingen ‘Clingendael’ te Den Haag.

Business, Human Rights, and Uganda's Oil. Part I: Uganda's oil sector and potential threats to human rights | 25 July 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS) – ActionAid International Uganda
The following report is the first of a series of four collaborations between IPIS Research and ActionAid International Uganda. The series sheds a light on the oil sector in Uganda, its possible impact on human rights, and how government, companies, and civil society can best enable a positive bond between oil and the welfare of the Ugandan people.


The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Rwanda accused of shelling North Kivu
 
Les obus tombés à Goma seraient partis du Rwanda, selon le vice-gouverneur du Nord-Kivu | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
At least two people were killed and fourteen wounded by shells that fell on the city of Goma and surrounding areas on Thursday, August 22. The vice governor of North Kivu, Feller Lutahichirwa gave this assessment on Friday after an on-site evaluation. According to him, the initial findings indicate that these shells were fired from Rwanda.
 
Goma: la RDC accuse le Rwanda de crimes de guerre | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Shells that fell on the city of Goma on Thursday had been fired from Rwanda, confirmed the spokesperson of the Congolese government, Lambert Mende. At a press conference on Friday, August 23 in Kinshasa, he called "this act of Rwanda directed at civilians a war crime and crime against humanity", inviting the United Nations and the International Criminal Court of draw conclusions.
 
La RDC accuse le Rwanda de monter « le même scénario qui avait précédé l'invasion de Goma en novembre 2012 » | 23 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le gouvernement de la RD Congo a accusé vendredi 23 août 2013 à Kinshasa le Rwanda de monter « le même scénario qui avait précédé l'invasion de Goma par les forces rwandaises », à la suite d'un communiqué du ministère rwandais de la Défense alléguant que les FARDC auraient « tiré délibérément une roquette de 107 mm dans le village de Bugu, dans le district de Rubavu ».
 
RDC: Kigali dément avoir tiré des roquettes sur le Nord-Kivu | 23 August 2013 | RFI
Dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo, les combats entre les forces congolaises et le M23 se sont poursuivis ce vendredi 23 août, à une quinzaine de kilomètres de Goma. Les Casques bleus sont désormais engagés aux côtés de l'armée congolaise, selon le porte-parole militaire de l'ONU. Décision prise jeudi après que plusieurs obus ont touché la capitale du Nord-Kivu. Kinshasa assure que certains de ces obus ont été tirés depuis le territoire rwandais pour soutenir le M23, ce que dément Kigali.
 
DRC accused of firing rockets at Rwanda
 
DRC Forces Fire Rocket Into Rubavu District | 23 August 2013 | The New Times (Kigali) | allAfrica
The Rwandan government has requested the Expanded Joint Verification Mechanism (EJVM) to visit Rubavu to verify effects of a rocket bomb that landed in the district from a Congolese area controlled by FARDC.
 
Le Rwanda met en garde la RDC après de nouveaux bombardements | 24 August 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
L’armée rwandaise a accusé la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) d'avoir à nouveau bombardé son territoire et averti qu'elle ne resterait pas indéfiniment sans réagir.
 
Bomb Attacks Worry Rubavu | 27 August 2013 | Rwanda Focus (Kigali) | allAfrica
Residents in Rubavu are in fear of their lives after a series of rockets were launched in various areas of the district last week.
 
Escalation of border tensions between the DRC and Uganda
 
Tensions frontalières entre la RDC et l’Ouganda à Mahagi | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Tension has mounted for two months at the border between the DRC and Uganda at Mahagi, Ituri, Orientale Province. In June, the Congolese authorities moved their Assina customs barrier 400 meters towards the border, expressing a desire to fight against customs fraud. The are accused of violating the DRC’s border, and Ugandan troops have been deployed in the area, with the issuance of a 48 hour ultimatum to the Congolese authorities to remove the barrier.
 
RDC: des militaires ougandais font une incursion à Mahagi | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than 300 Ugandan soldiers have invaded the Congolese village of Sisi, in Mahagi, since Sunday, August 25. Civil society in Mahagi states that officers of the Directorate General of Customs and Excise (LDB), the Directorate General of Migration (DGM) and border police have withdrawn from Sisi. The Ugandan troops had offered the customs officers 48 hours to remove their customs barrier which has been a source of transboundary tension.
 
Mahagi: 800 ménages abandonnent leurs localités après l’incursion des militaires ougandais | 29 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
About eight hundred households abandoned their communities for four days to take refuge in the city of Mahagi and its surroundings. According to sources in the region, the displaced have fled the presence of Ugandan soldiers who occupy their localities.


Tensions between Rwanda and Tanzania
 
Le Rwanda et la Tanzanie à couteaux tirés | 27 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Paul Kagamé a menacé de "frapper" Jakaya Kikwete. Mais ce dernier n'est pas en reste et a promis de faire subir à son voisin "de sinistres conséquences".
 
War Mongers in Tanzania Media - Rwanda Supports Peace, Not War | 26 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
A Tanzanian Kiswahili newspaper- Mwanainchi came up with a story whose title translates to mean that it takes years to build a country but a minute to destroy. The warning directed at President Paul Kagame, further claims that Rwanda is counting on Uganda and Burundi for help, reminding that Tanzania also has friends who can help (presumably in case of war between the two countries).
 
Tanzania, Rwanda spat threatens to worsen Great Lakes crisis | 28 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
A war of words between Rwanda and Tanzania is enflaming tensions in Africa's resource-rich Great Lakes region, adding a new, potentially dangerous dimension to one of the continent's longest-running conflicts.

Rwanda blocks UN sanctions on M23
 
Rwanda blocks proposed U.N. sanctions for two Congo rebels | 28 August 2013 | Reuters
Rwanda blocked a joint U.S.-French proposal to impose U.N. sanctions on two senior commanders in the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo, arguing that the evidence against the men was weak, Rwandan and other U.N. envoys said on Wednesday.
 
Tripartite Summit on the DRC in Angola
 
Jacob Zuma à Luanda pour un mini-sommet sur la situation sécuritaire dans l'Afrique des Grands Lacs | 23 August 2013 | RFI
Zuma in Angola for Talks On DRC | 23 August 2013 | SouthAfrica.info | allAfrica
President Jacob Zuma arrived in Luanda on Thursday for consultations with Angolan President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) President Joseph Kabila.
 
Final Communiqué of Tripartite Summit, Angola, Ministry of External Relations | 23 August 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
Kabila, Santos et Zuma conviennent à Luanda d'un mécanisme pour la pacification de la RDC | 24 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le Président Joseph Kabila fixe l’opinion sur la tripartite de Luanda | 26 August 2013 | ACP | Digitalcongo.net
The Presidents of the Republic of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Joseph Kabila Kabange and of the Republic of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, met at a Tripartite Summit on 23 August 2013 in Luanda to review the current situation in the DRC, in the light of the implementation of the UN/AU Framework-Agreement for Peace, Stability and Cooperation in the DRC, signed on 24 February 2013 in Addis Ababa.
 
RDC: accord militaire avec l’Angola | 23 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
La RDC, l'Angola, et l'Afrique du Sud ont signé un accord de coopération militaire.
 
South African troop contribution to the Intervention Brigade
 
Deployment of South African National Defence Force to the Democratic Republic of Congo in Fulfilment of a UN Obligation | 23 August 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
President Zuma Employs SANDF in the DRC | 23 August 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
President Jacob Zuma has informed parliament of the employment of 1345 members of the South African National Defence Force for service in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in fulfilment of the international obligations of the Republic of South Africa towards the United Nations.
 
SANDF Denies DR Congo Clashes | 24 August 2013 | sapa | allAfrica
The SA National Defence Force (SANDF) on Saturday denied reports that South African troops had clashed with rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
RDC: l'armée et la Monusco repoussent les rebelles près de Goma | 29 August 2013 | RFI
En RDC, les combats ont repris mercredi 28 août entre les M23 et les FARDC, soutenues par la Monusco. Un casque bleu a été tué, cinq autres ont été blessés - trois Tanzaniens et deux Sud-Africains - lors de cette opération de soutien à une offensive de l'armée gouvernementale près de Goma.
 
US diplomacy on the DRC crisis
 
RDC: 6 sénateurs américains préconisent une solution politique à la guerre de l’Est | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
During a mission in the Great Lakes region, six U.S. senators have called for a political solution to the conflict in eastern DRC. They gave their position on Sunday, Aug. 25 in Goma (North Kivu), emerging from a meeting with Martin Kobler.
 
Statement on Situation in Eastern Congo | 25 August 2013 | U.S. Department of State
U.S. urges restraint as fighting escalates in eastern Congo | 25 August 2013 | Reuters
The United States said on Sunday it was alarmed by an escalation in fighting in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo between M23 rebels and Congolese soldiers, and again called on neighboring Rwanda to stop its support for the rebels.


DRC 

MONUSCO
 
DR Congo: UN peacekeepers ready to protect civilians as clashes continue in North Kivu | 22 August 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : la MONUSCO assure la protection des civils alors que les combats entre le M23 et l'armée ont repris | 22 August 2013 | UN News Centre
U.N. peacekeepers in Congo ordered to protect civilians after city shelled | 22 August 2013 | Reuters
RDC : plusieurs obus tombés à Goma, au moins 2 morts et 17 blessés | 22 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
The head of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has ordered peacekeepers to take necessary action to protect civilians and prevent armed groups from advancing in the North Kivu province in response to renewed fighting in the region.
 
Shelling that left 3 injured in DRCongo 'targeted UN' | 22 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Nord-Kivu : la ville de Goma visée par des tirs d’obus | 22 August 2013 | RFI
Mortar shells that left three injured on the outskirts of Goma Thursday were targeted at UN positions, the new head of the UN mission to Democratic Republic of Congo said.
 
U.N. Intervention Brigade fires on Congo rebel positions | 23 August 2013 | Reuters
UN troops in DR Congo shell M23 rebels near Goma | 23 August 2013 | BBC Africa
DRC Welcomes ‘Action’ by UN Intervention Brigade | 23 August 2013 | Voice of America
A special U.N. brigade formed to neutralize armed groups in Congo has taken its first military action, firing artillery at rebels menacing the border city of Goma, U.N. and Congolese military officers said on Friday.
 
Deployment of South African National Defence Force to the Democratic Republic of Congo in Fulfilment of a UN Obligation | 23 August 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
President Zuma Employs SANDF in the DRC | 23 August 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
President Jacob Zuma has informed parliament of the employment of 1345 members of the South African National Defence Force for service in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in fulfilment of the international obligations of the Republic of South Africa towards the United Nations.
 
Lieutenant-colonel Basse : « La Monusco est engagée aux côtés des FARDC » | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The fighting intensified on Thursday, August 22 between the FARDC and the M23 at Kibati, about 20 km from Goma. Shells fired from the frontline killed four people in the Munigi community, about 5 km from Goma. In this interview MONUSCO military spokesman, Lt. Col. Felix Prosper Basse talks about steps taken to ensure the protection of civilians.
 
Combats entre FARDC et M23: Martin Kobler visite la ligne de front de Kanyaruchinya | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Martin Kobler has stayed in Goma since Friday, August 23, accompanied by the Force Commander of MONUSCO. He visited the front line of Kanyaruchinya, about ten miles north of Goma.
 
Martin Kobler : «La brigade d’intervention de la Monusco n’est pas une solution magique» | 24 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
"The intervention brigade is here, but it is not a magic solution. Other means should be used in parallel to solve the problem”, said Martin Kobler on Friday, August 23,  referring to the recurring crisis in the east.
 
DR Congo: UN Great Lakes Envoy calls for immediate end to fighting in Goma | 24 August 2013 | UN News Centre
 
Warring parties in eastern DR Congo must protect civilians, UN agencies urge | 24 August 2013 | UN News Centre
 
Chief of UN mission in DR Congo deplores death of demonstrators in Goma | 24 August 2013 | UN News Centre
The head of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) today deplored the death of two civilians killed in demonstrations in Goma, the main city in the vast country's strife-torn eastern region, and has called for an inquiry into the incident.
 
Goma: Martin Kobler visite les FARDC et les casques bleus blessés au front | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
MONUSCO chief, Martin Kobler, visited FARDC soldiers and peacekeepers from the Swift Operation Squad injured in Kibati during clashes with the M23, at a military hospital in Goma. He expressed his sympathy and solidarity with these victims of war, who he called "heroes who fight to restore peace in North Kivu."
 
RDC : deux manifestants tués, des témoins accusent les Casques bleus | 25 August 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
RDC: la Monusco demande l'ouverture d'une enquête après la mort de deux manifestants | 25 August 2013 | RFI
Goma: la Monusco mise en accusation | 25 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
RDC : la Monusco accusée d'avoir tué deux civils à Goma, ouverture d'une enquête | 26 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
DR Congo unrest: UN investigates Goma protest deaths | 26 August 2013 | BBC Africa
United Nations troops accused of killing two civilians in Congo | 26 August 2013 | The Guardian
Fusillade de Goma en RDC: les casques bleus urugayens mis en cause | 27 August 2013 | RFI
The UN has opened an investigation into reports that its troops killed two Congolese civilians during protests in the eastern city of Goma, amid fighting with rebels.
 
Heavy Casualties on Both Sides as Congo Soldiers Fight Rebels Near Eastern City | 25 August 2013 | The Associated Press | The New York Times
Heavy Casualties in Eastern Congo Fighting | 25 August 2013 | Voice of America
Goma : lourd bilan des derniers combats | 26 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
Congolese soldiers and rebel forces suffered heavy casualties on Sunday as they fought for a fifth day near the eastern city of Goma, a doctor near the front line said.
 
Martin Kobler: «La Monusco n'est pas responsable de tout ce qui se passe en RDC» | 26 August 2013 | RFI
En République démocratique du Congo, Goma a été frappée par de nouveaux tirs d'obus ces derniers jours. Des tirs qui ont fait trois morts et ont déclenché des manifestations d'habitants en colère contre la mission de l'ONU qu'ils accusent d'être inactive face à la rébellion du M23. Dans ce contexte, Martin Kobler, chef de la Monusco et représentant spécial du secrétaire général de l'ONU Ban Ki-moon en RDC, est allé passer trois jours à Goma.
 
RDC - Omar Kavota : "la Monusco doit poursuivre l'offensive contre le M23" | 26 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Alors que l'UE invite les groupes armés actifs dans l'est de la RDC à "déposer les armes", Me Omar Kavota, vice-président et porte-parole de la société civile (un regroupement d'ONG) du Nord-Kivu, de retour d'une mission de plaidoyer à Washington, appelle la brigade d'intervention de la Monusco  à "poursuivre" l'offensive contre les rebelles du Mouvement du 23-Mars (M23) et demande l'ouverture d'une "enquête mixte" sur la mort, le 24 août, de deux manifestants anti-Monusco dans la ville de Goma. Interview.
 
UN's peacekeeping offensive in DRC | 27 August 2013 | Al Jazeera
Can an aggressive intervention brigade help achieve peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo?
 
RDC: premier tête-à-tête Martin Kobler – Joseph Kabila à Kinshasa | 28 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Joseph Kabila received Martin Kobler, the new head of MONUSCO this Tuesday, August 27 to discuss the security situation in the eastern DRC. This was the first official meeting since Mr. Kobler took office.
 
U.N. peacekeeper killed in Congo fighting; three others wounded | 28 August 2013 | Reuters
Eastern DR Congo: UN peacekeeper killed in clash with armed groups near Goma | 28 August 2013 | UN News Centre
La MONUSCO condamne le meurtre d'un Casque bleu par le M23 | 28 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Peacekeeper Killed as UN Battles Rebels in Congo | 28 August 2013 | Voice of America
RDC : un Casque Bleu tué pendant l'opération de la Monusco contre le M23 | 28 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
RDC: un casque bleu tanzanien tué par le M23 près de Goma | 29 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
A U.N. peacekeeper from Tanzania was killed and five others were wounded on Wednesday in an operation with the Congolese army to drive back M23 rebels from the city of Goma in eastern Congo, a U.N spokesman said.
 
RDC: l'armée et la Monusco repoussent les rebelles près de Goma | 29 August 2013 | RFI
En RDC, les combats ont repris mercredi 28 août entre les forces du Mouvement du 23-Mars (M23) et les Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC), soutenues par la Mission de l'ONU pour la stabilisation de la République démocratique du Congo (Monusco). Un casque bleu a été tué, cinq autres ont été blessés - trois Tanzaniens et deux Sud-Africains - lors de cette opération de soutien à une offensive de l'armée gouvernementale près de Goma.
 
Human rights in the DRC
 
Respect for human rights key to stabilizations of DR Congo – UN official | 28 August 2013 | UN News Centre
« Le respect des droits de l'homme, seule voie possible pour la RDC », selon la Haut Commissaire adjointe | 28 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Strengthening respect for human rights and fighting impunity are essential for the stabilization of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a United Nations official said today, stressing the need to protect the rights of those most vulnerable in the country.
 
Province Oriental
 
Tensions frontalières entre la RDC et l’Ouganda à Mahagi | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Tension has mounted for two months at the border between the DRC and Uganda at Mahagi, Ituri. In June, the Congolese authorities moved their Assina customs barrier 400 meters towards the border, expressing a desire to fight against customs fraud. They are accused of violating the DRC’s border, and Ugandan troops have been deployed in the area, with the issuance of a 48 hour ultimatum to the Congolese authorities to remove the barrier.
 
Ituri: les FARDC récupèrent une dizaine de villages occupés par des miliciens FRPI | 24 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Loyalist forces regained a dozen villages occupied by the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI) of Cobra Matata on Friday, after an army offensive against the positions of the militia in Walendu Bindi, Ituri. Among the recovered villages, are the trading centers of Bavi and Olongba, more than 60 km south of Bunia.
 
Ituri: les FARDC tuent plus de 30 miliciens FRPI à Nombe | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than 30 militiamen of the FRPI of Cobra Matata were killed in fighting against the FARDC in Nombe on Friday, 40 km south of Bunia, Ituri. Sources in the region indicate that three soldiers were killed and seven others were injured during the clashes.
 
RDC: 4 villages de l’Ituri attaqués par des hommes armés | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
A group of unidentified armed men attacked four villages in the chiefdom of Kakwa and Kaliko in Aru territory in Ituri on Saturday.  The attackers were finally dislodged by FARDC from these two locations. The toll of the clashes between the two parties is not yet available.
 
Clashes in DRC’s Ituri District displace thousands | 26 August 2013 | IRIN
Thousands of people have been displaced by clashes between government forces and an armed group in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) Ituri District, according to civil society and aid workers.
 
RDC: des militaires ougandais font une incursion à Mahagi | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than 300 Ugandan soldiers have invaded the Congolese village of Sisi, in Mahagi, since Sunday, August 25. Civil society in Mahagi states that officers of the Directorate General of Customs and Excise (LDB), the Directorate General of Migration (DGM) and border police have withdrawn from Sisi. The Ugandan troops had offered the customs officers 48 hours to remove their customs barrier which has been a source of transboundary tension.
 
RDC: la milice de Cobra Matata déloge l’armée de certaines localités de l’Ituri | 28 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Fighting erupted again on Tuesday, August 27, between the FARDC and the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI) of Cobra Matata. Several sources indicate that the militiamen have retaken Gety-center, and the villages of Tchekele, Koni and Olongba. No official report of the battle is yet available.
 
Ituri : les FARDC font un « repli stratégique » de Walendu Bindi | 28 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese army is no longer present in several localities that it had taken from the Popular Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI) in Walendu Bindi, Ituri three days before. The 9th Military Region has said that it has made a strategic retreat, whilst the militia, in turn, claim victory over the FARDC. They propose the establishment of a cease-fire in the combat zone for the new school year, a proposal rejected by the military hierarchy.
 
Mahagi: 800 ménages abandonnent leurs localités après l’incursion des militaires ougandais | 29 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
About eight hundred households abandoned their communities for four days to take refuge in the city of Mahagi and its surroundings. According to sources in the region, the displaced have fled the presence of Ugandan soldiers who occupy their localities.
 
North Kivu
 
Kinshasa déplore une multiplication des actes de persécution des populations à « Rutshuru occupé par le M23 et ses alliés » | 22 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le gouvernement de la RD Congo a reçu lundi 20 août 2013 du vice-Premier ministre Alexandre Luba Tambo, ministre de la Défense et des Anciens combattants, l'information selon laquelle il y a, « dans le territoire de Rutshuru occupé par le M23 et ses alliés, une multiplication des actes de persécution des populations par le M23 ».
 
Fighting Resumes Outside Goma in DRC | 22 August 2013 | Voice of America
RDC: reprise des combats au Nord-Kivu | 22 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
RDC : la Monusco "en appui" des FARDC contre le M23 à Kibati, près de Goma | 22 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
After a three-week lull, heavy fighting has resumed outside Goma in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. M23 rebels and the DRC army blame each other for renewing hostilities.
 
DR Congo: UN peacekeepers ready to protect civilians as clashes continue in North Kivu | 22 August 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : la MONUSCO assure la protection des civils alors que les combats entre le M23 et l'armée ont repris | 22 August 2013 | UN News Centre
U.N. peacekeepers in Congo ordered to protect civilians after city shelled | 22 August 2013 | Reuters
RDC : plusieurs obus tombés à Goma, au moins 2 morts et 17 blessés | 22 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
The head of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has ordered peacekeepers to take necessary action to protect civilians and prevent armed groups from advancing in the North Kivu province in response to renewed fighting in the region.
 
Shelling that left 3 injured in DRCongo 'targeted UN' | 22 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Nord-Kivu : la ville de Goma visée par des tirs d’obus | 22 August 2013 | RFI
Mortar shells that left three injured on the outskirts of Goma Thursday were targeted at UN positions, the new head of the UN mission to Democratic Republic of Congo said.
 
Nord-Kivu: reprise des combats entre FARDC et M23 à Kibati | 22 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Congo Clashes Leave 17 Rebels Dead; Civilians Are Killed in Goma | 23 August 2013 | Bloomberg
Dozens of M23 rebels were killed and twelve others captured during fighting between the M23 and the FARDC in Kibati, 15 km from Goma. According to military sources in the area, the FARDC also recovered three heavy weapons during these clashes.
 
Nord-Kivu: des tirs d’obus font 5 blessés à Goma | 22 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Congo Civilians, UN Hit by Fight Between Army and Rebels in East | 22 August 2013 | Bloomberg
Five persons including three children were injured by shelling in Goma on Thursday, August 22. A primary school and three homes were completely or partially destroyed. These blasts have created panic in the city in the afternoon as residents rushed to return to their homes. The shells fell in two areas of the city.
 
Les obus tombés à Goma seraient partis du Rwanda, selon le vice-gouverneur du Nord-Kivu | 23 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
At least two people were killed and fourteen wounded by shells that fell on the city of Goma and surrounding areas on Thursday, August 22. The vice governor of North Kivu, Feller Lutahichirwa gave this assessment on Friday after an on-site evaluation. According to him, the initial findings indicate that these shells were fired from Rwanda.
 
Rebel mortar attack kills at least three in east Congo: U.N. | 24 August 2013 | Reuters
Shells fired by M23 rebels killed at least three people in Congo's eastern city of Goma on Saturday, the United Nations said, as Congo and Rwanda traded accusations over days of border clashes that have drawn in a new, robustly mandated U.N. force.
 
Nord-Kivu : marche de colère après la mort de 3 personnes tuées par des obus à Goma | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three people were killed and five others injured in explosions as shells fired by the M23 on Saturday hit the Ndosho district of Goma. A woman and a teenager were among the victims. These shells have also caused damage. Angry people took to the streets to protest against the violence.  Martin Kobler, staying in Goma, has promised a "firm and strong" response to these attacks.
 
UK government staff withdraw from DRC city of Goma | 24 August 2013 | BBC Africa
UK Foreign Office staff who had been working in Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo are to leave the city following heavy fighting in the area, the department has said.
 
RDC : deux morts dans des bombardements près de Goma | 25 August 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
RDC: Goma à nouveau la cible de tirs d'obus meurtriers | 25 August 2013 | RFI
Des bombardements ont frappé samedi les alentours de Goma, dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo, faisant deux morts et provoquant une vive tension dans la ville, trois jours après la reprise des affrontements entre rebelles du M23 et armée gouvernementale, selon des témoins.
 
Goma: les tirs d’obus sur la population sont un crime de guerre, selon le général Carlos Cruz | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
General Carlos Alberto Do Santos Cruz, has said that firing shells on the civilian population constitutes a war crime.
 
Nord-Kivu: Mary Robinson dénonce les attaques «inacceptables» contre les civils  | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Mary Robinson, has denounced M23 attacks against civilians and peacekeepers in Goma as "unacceptable".
 
Flavia Pansieri se dit préoccupée par les attaques contre les civils à Goma | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The UN Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights, Flavia Pansieri, has expressed concern about the situation in Goma where shells fell late last week due to the resumption of fighting between the M23 and FARDC in Kibati. Visiting Bunia Sunday, August 25, she also called for an end to attacks against civilians.
 
Congo army battles M23 rebels near eastern city of Goma | 26 August 2013 | Reuters
A UN brigade tasked with neutralizing armed groups in Congo has assisted the country's army in clashes with eastern rebels on Monday, ending a brief lull in days of fighting that has killed and wounded dozens.
 
Nord-Kivu: accalmie sur le front à Kibati | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu: nouveaux accrochages entre FARDC et M23 à Kibati | 27 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Clashes were reported on Monday afternoon between the FARDC and the M23 around the area commonly known as "Three Antennas" in Kibati, about 20 km north Goma in the territory of Nyiragongo.  Sunday observed a relative lull in the combat zone. Colonel Olivier Hamuli said that the lull should not be construed as any cease-fire but a military tactic. The army says the situation is under control.
 
Nord-Kivu : reprise de combats entre FARDC et M23 après 3 jours d’accalmie | 28 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
U.N. helicopters attack M23 rebels in eastern Congo | 28 August 2013 | Reuters
U.N. helicopters and artillery attacked M23 rebel positions near the city of Goma in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo on Wednesday in support of an offensive by the Congolese armed forces.
 
U.N. peacekeeper killed in Congo fighting; three others wounded | 28 August 2013 | Reuters
Eastern DR Congo: UN peacekeeper killed in clash with armed groups near Goma | 28 August 2013 | UN News Centre
La MONUSCO condamne le meurtre d'un Casque bleu par le M23 | 28 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Peacekeeper Killed as UN Battles Rebels in Congo | 28 August 2013 | Voice of America
RDC : un Casque Bleu tué pendant l'opération de la Monusco contre le M23 | 28 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
RDC: un casque bleu tanzanien tué par le M23 près de Goma | 29 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
A U.N. peacekeeper from Tanzania was killed and five others were wounded on Wednesday in an operation with the Congolese army to drive back M23 rebels from the city of Goma in eastern Congo, a U.N spokesman said.
 
RDC: l'armée et la Monusco repoussent les rebelles près de Goma | 29 August 2013 | RFI
En RDC, les combats ont repris mercredi 28 août entre les forces du Mouvement du 23-Mars (M23) et les Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC), soutenues par la Mission de l'ONU pour la stabilisation de la République démocratique du Congo (Monusco). Un casque bleu a été tué, cinq autres ont été blessés - trois Tanzaniens et deux Sud-Africains - lors de cette opération de soutien à une offensive de l'armée gouvernementale près de Goma.
 
RDC : quatre obus sur Goma en début de soirée font un mort et plusieurs blessés | 28 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Quatre obus sont tombés sur différents quartiers de Goma mercredi en début de soirée faisant un mort et une quinzaine de blessés, a-t-on appris auprès de témoins à Goma dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC).
 
La bataille de Kibati a commencé | 28 August 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Les obus lancés la semaine dernière sur Goma étaient ils aussi des bombes à retardement ? Leurs ondes de choc se font lourdement sentir dans la capitale du Nord Kivu. En effet, les esprits échauffés ont choisi la Monusco comme bouc émissaire, les casques bleus étant accusés de passivité, les Blancs, symboles d’une « communauté internationale » impuissante sont régulièrement pris à partie et les Tutsis, même s’ils sont loin de tous soutenir le M23, se sentent de plus en plus mal à l’aise.
 
South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu : deux miliciens tués dans des combats contre des FARDC à Rurambwe | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Last weekend FARDC clashed with a coalition of armed groups led by militia leader Yakutumba in the mountainous region of Rurambwe. Military sources indicate that two militiamen were killed and four soldiers wounded in the fighting. Several dozens of families who have fled the fighting are descending from the mountains to find refuge in the city of Mboko.
 
Katanga
 
Katanga : 80 miliciens Maï-Maï, dont 37 mineurs, se rendent aux FARDC | 27 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Over 80 Mai-Mai, including 37 children, turned themselves in to the Congolese Armed Forces in Mitwaba in Katanga on Sunday, August 25, allegedly in response to strong pressure on militias by FARDC, as well as an awareness campaign led by the President of the Provincial Assembly of Katanga.

 

Uganda

Rwandan refugees disappear in Uganda
 
UN protests at 'Rwandan refugee abductions' in Uganda | 22 August 2013 | BBC Africa
Kigali montré du doigt dans une série de disparitions de réfugiés rwandais en Ouganda | 24 August 2013 | RFI
The UN has called for an investigation into the "disappearance or abduction" of three Rwandan refugees, including two ex-presidential guards, from neighbouring Uganda.
 
Rwandan Pascal Manirakiza found 'tortured' in Uganda | 27 August 2013 | BBC Africa
A Rwandan refugee who went missing in Uganda last week has been found tortured and unconscious, a Ugandan official has said.
 
Children rescued from ADF
 
Rescued ADF 'Child Soldiers' Taken Back Home | 22 August 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Twelve children who were rescued by the Uganda People Defense Force (UPDF) army and police as they were on course to join the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) in the DR Congo have been returned and handed over to their relatives in Mayuge district.


Rwanda

Rwandan refugees disappear in Uganda
 
UN protests at 'Rwandan refugee abductions' in Uganda | 22 August 2013 | BBC Africa
Kigali montré du doigt dans une série de disparitions de réfugiés rwandais en Ouganda | 24 August 2013 | RFI
The UN has called for an investigation into the "disappearance or abduction" of three Rwandan refugees, including two ex-presidential guards, from neighbouring Uganda.
 
Rwandan Pascal Manirakiza found 'tortured' in Uganda | 27 August 2013 | BBC Africa
A Rwandan refugee who went missing in Uganda last week has been found tortured and unconscious, a Ugandan official has said.
 

CAR

Security situation in Bangui
 
Centrafrique: l'opération de désarmement marque-t-elle le retour des «seigneurs de guerre» à Bangui? | 23 August 2013 | RFI

Poursuite des incursions des combattants de Séléka dans certains quartiers du nord | 26 August 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
La population du quartier Kaka-Mangoulou, situé dans le 4ème Arrondissement de Bangui, a dénoncé avec la dernière rigueur les exactions de certains éléments de Séléka dans leur zone.
 
Nouveaux tirs et pillages à Bangui | 27 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
Des tirs nourris suivis de pillages ont de nouveau eu lieu à Bangui dans la nuit de lundi à mardi dans le quartier Boy-rabe situé dans le quatrième arrondissement de la capitale.
 
Displacement to Bangui Airport
 
Centrafrique: plusieurs centaines de familles réfugiées dans l'aéroport de Bangui | 28 August 2013 | RFI
Empêchement de vol et d’atterrissage sur la piste de l’aéroport Bangui M’Poko | 28 August 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Depuis mardi soir, des centaines de familles se sont réfugiées sur le tarmac de l'aéroport, une zone sécurisée par des troupes françaises. Ils fuient de nouvelles incursions de la Seleka dans leur quartier, Boeing, au nord de la ville, et craignent des exactions.
 
Centrafrique : l'aéroport de Bangui pris d'assaut par des milliers de réfugiés | 28 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Une nouvelle incursion, le 28 août, d'éléments incontrôlés de l'ex-rébellion Séléka dans le nord de Bangui a contraint plusieurs milliers de réfugiés à se réfugier sur le tarmac de l'aéroport international de la capitale centrafricaine.
 
RCA: 5 mille personnes assiègent l'aéroport | 29 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
Au moins 5 mille personnes ont assiégé l'aéroport de Bangui forçant l'annulation des vols au départ et à l'arrivée de la capitale centrafricaine.
 
CAR protesters occupy Bangui airport | 29 August 2013 | Al Jazeera
Thousands flee to airport in Central African Republic capital after raids by former rebel group in their neighbourhoods.
 
International response to security situation
 
RCA: l'appel de Hollande à l’ONU | 23 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
Centrafrique: des ONG à l’Elysée pour alerter sur une situation humanitaire «catastrophique» | 24 August 2013 | RFI
France's Hollande urges U.N. action on Central African Republic | 27 August 2013 | RFI
Central African Republic (Q&A - Excerpt from the daily press briefing - August 28, 2013) | 28 August 2013 | France Diplomatie
French President Francois Hollande called on the U.N. Security Council and the African Union on Tuesday to stabilize the situation in the Central African Republic, warning it was at risk of going the way of Somalia.
 
Centrafrique : Face à la violence, le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies doit agir | 24 August 2013 | FIDH
 
CAR government response to crisis
 
RCA: le ministre de l'Intérieur limogé | 23 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
Remaniement en Centrafrique: le numéro deux de la Seleka remplacé par un fidèle de Bozizé | 28 August 2013 | RFI
Le ministre centrafricain de l'Intérieur et de la Sécurité, le général Mahamat Nouradine Adam a été démis de ses fonctions par le président Michel Djotodia.
 
Centrafrique : la Séléka exclue des opérations de maintien de l’ordre | 28 August 2013 | Afrik.com
La Séléka est exclue, depuis ce mardi, des opérations de maintien de l’ordre à Bangui. Une décision émanant des autorités centrafricaines, annoncé à la radio ce mercredi, par le ministre de la Sécurité, Josué Binoua.
 
Sudanese defence minister at Djotodia’s inauguration
 
Un ministre soudanais recherché par la CPI présent à l'investiture de Djotodia | 27 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Visé par un mandat d'arrêt de la Cour pénale internationale, le ministre soudanais de la Défense nationale, Abd el-Rahim Muhammad Hussein, était présent le 18 août à Bangui lors l'investiture de Michel Djotodia. Dans un communiqué publié lundi 27 août, l'Union européenne a estimé que ceci constituait "une violation des obligations de la République centrafricaine en tant que partie au Statut de Rome".
 
Roland Marchal : "Le Soudan n'a pas d'agenda politique en Centrafrique" | 28 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Chercheur au Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), spécialiste de la Centrafrique et du Soudan, Roland Marchal revient sur la présence de Soudanais dans l'entourage du président de la transition, Michel Djotodia. S'il concède leur influence, Roland Marchal estime qu'ils agissent en toute indépendance du régime de Khartoum. Interview.

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Humanitarian Reports
 
Nord-Kivu : Situation des personnes déplacées internes (PDI) au 25 juillet 2013 | 28 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
DR Congo UNHCR Fact sheet 31 July 2013 | 22 August 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Note d’information à la presse, 21 août 2013 | 22 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Katanga No. 32/13, 21 août 2013 | 22 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale No 33/13, 21 août 2013 | 22 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Sud-Kivu : Mouvements de population dans la Plaine de la Ruzizi (Territoire d’Uvira). Opérations militaires unilatérales et conjointes FARDC – MONUSCO. Update No 1 du 22 août 2013 | 22 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Nord-Kivu : De nouveaux combats entre l'armée nationale et le M23 dans la périphérie de Goma - Flash Update du 23 août 2013 | 23 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Maniema No. 24/13, 20 août 2013 | 26 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu No 35/13, 27 août 2013 | 27 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale No 34/13, 27 août 2013 | 27 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu No 28/13, 27 août 2013 | 28 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Katanga No. 33/13, 28 août 2013 | 28 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Le FRPI lance une contre offensive, certaines personnes déplacées tentent de retourner chez elles pour s’approvisionner dans les champs - Flash update Ituri du 28 août 2013 | 28 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Press on IDPs
 
Goma running out of space for DRC's displaced | 23 August 2013 | IRIN
Plus de place pour les déplacés de RDC à Goma | 25 August 2013 | IRIN
 
Katanga : plus de 43 000 déplacés enregistrés en juillet à Pweto, selon Ocha | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than forty-three thousand eight hundred new IDPs were registered in Pweto last July in Katanga, displaced by new Mai-Mai incursions and FARDC search operations.
 
DR Congo: UN agency assists newly displaced Congolese as fighting escalates in eastern provinces | 27 August 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC: le HCR prête assistance aux civils déplacés par l'escalade des combats dans les provinces de l'Est | 27 August 2013 | UN News Centre
UNHCR: DRC Civilians at Risk | 27 August 2013 | Voice of America
 
Clashes in DRC’s Ituri District displace thousands | 26 August 2013 | IRIN
Ituri : plus de 90 000 déplacés enregistrés à Walendu Bindi | 27 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than ninety thousand people have fled their homes after clashes last week between the FARDC and the FRPI (Patriotic Resistance Front in Ituri) south of Bunia in Orientale Province. They began to arrive from Friday, August 23 in the Walendu Bindi where they live in poverty. 
 
Flavia Pansieri déplore la dégradation de la situation humanitaire au Nord-Kivu et en Ituri | 29 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The UN Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights, Flavia Pansieri has expressed concern about attacks against civilians and especially the constant deterioration of the humanitarian situation in North Kivu and Ituri (Province Orientale). She has also strongly condemned the multiple cases of sexual violence committed by armed groups, security forces and civilians.
 
Mahagi: 800 ménages abandonnent leurs localités après l’incursion des militaires ougandais | 29 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
About eight hundred households abandoned their communities for four days to take refuge in the city of Mahagi and its surroundings. According to sources in the region, the displaced have fled the presence of Ugandan soldiers who occupy their localities.
The Congolese Alur community and civil society Mahagi indicate that the living conditions of the displaced are likely to deteriorate, if this situation continues.
 
Press on refugees
 
UNHCR condemns killing of civilians in Eastern DRC, seeing new displacement into Burundi | 27 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Sud-Kivu: 5 000 réfugiés rwandais rapatriés en une année à partir de Minova | 28 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than five thousand Rwandan refugees were repatriated between May 2012 and May 2013 by the Church of Christ in Congo (ECC) in collaboration with the National Commission for Refugees (CNR). 
 

Uganda

Congolese refugees
 
MSF Increases Assistance to Refugees Fleeing Violence in DRC | 28 August 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
MSF Scales Up Congolese Refugee Aid in Uganda | 28 August 2013 | Voice of America
Humanitarian aid group Doctors Without Borders (MSF - Médecins Sans Frontières) is scaling up operations in Uganda, where a new influx of refugees has arrived after renewed fighting between rebel group M23 and Democratic Republic of Congo forces.

 

Rwanda

Refugees
 
Rwanda: Population Movement DREF operation n° MDRRW010 | 22 August 2013 | IFRC | Reliefweb
 
Sud-Kivu: 5 000 réfugiés rwandais rapatriés en une année à partir de Minova | 28 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than five thousand Rwandan refugees were repatriated between May 2012 and May 2013 by the Church of Christ in Congo (ECC) in collaboration with the National Commission for Refugees (CNR). 

 

Burundi 

Congolese refugees
 
Influx from the DRC to Burundi, UNHCR Emergency Update #2, 22 - 23 August 2013 | 23 August 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
Influx from the DRC to Burundi, UNHCR Emergency Update #3, 25 - 26 August 2013 | 27 August 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
UNHCR Burundi - Afflux des demandeurs d'asile congolais dans la province de Cibitoke (23 Aout 2013) | 23 August 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb

UNHCR condemns killing of civilians in Eastern DRC, seeing new displacement into Burundi | 27 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb

 

CAR

International Medical Corps Expands to Reach Abandoned Communities in CAR | 22 August 2013 | AlertNet | allAfrica
Since the start of conflict in December 2012, despite widespread violence and insecurity, International Medical Corps has maintained a presence in the northeastern regions of Vakaga and Haute-Kotto in the Central African Republic (CAR), providing lifesaving health care and nutrition services to conflict-affected populations.
 
Centrafrique: des ONG à l’Elysée pour alerter sur une situation humanitaire «catastrophique» | 24 August 2013 | RFI
Des représentants de six Organisations non gouvernementales intervenant en République centrafricaine ont été reçus à l’Elysée, ce vendredi 23 août, pour une réunion avec le président français portant sur la situation humanitaire dans le pays. 
 

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

ICC Bemba trial
 
Former Rebel Not Aware of Crimes By Bemba's Fighters | 22 August 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
 
Prosecutors Challenge Credibility of Bemba Witness | 23 August 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
 
Former Adversaries Deny Knowledge of Crimes By Bemba's Fighters | 23 August 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
 
Bemba's Former Bodyguard Testifies in His Defense At the ICC | 26 August 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
 
Bemba 'Did Not Give Speech to Fuel Atrocities' | 27 August 2013 | Bemba Trial website | allAfrica

 

Rwanda 

 
Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals
 
Residual Mechanism Could Finish Judicial Work Before Rwanda Tribunal | 22 August 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Une seule affaire actuellement inscrite au MTPI | 22 August 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
The Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT), set up to handle the residual tasks of the UN tribunals for Rwanda and ex-Yugoslavia, currently has only one case pending before it. That means that unless there are new arrests, it is likely to finish its judicial work before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).
 
ICTR
 
Rwanda Tribunal Digs Up Partial Truth | 27 August 2013 | IPS
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) based in Arusha, Tanzania, is due to conclude its business at the end of 2014 following several deferrals. A United Nations Security Council Resolution set up the tribunal in 1994.

 

Burundi

Complaint against Rwasa for Gatumba massacre
 
Burundi: plainte contre l'ex-rebelle Rwasa pour le massacre de Gatumba en 2004 | 22 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Burundi: Plainte pour génocide contre un ancien chef rebelle | 22 August 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Des Congolais réfugiés au Burundi ont déplosé plainte contre Agathon Rwasa, chef historique récemment sorti du maquis de l'ancienne principale rébellion burundaise, pour le massacre en août 2004 de quelque 160 réfugiés du camp de Gatumba, à l'ouest de Bujumbura, selon une copie reçue par l'AFP.




Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

Poaching
 
Afrique centrale : l'ONU appelle à une lutte vigoureuse contre le phénomène du braconnage | 23 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies, Ban Ki-moon a réitéré vendredi sa vive préoccupation concernant le braconnage des éléphants en Afrique centrale et lancé un appel pour des actions énergiques contre ce phénomène qui constitue une menace à la paix.
 
Illicit Financial flows from African continent
 
Thabo Mbeki à Kinshasa pour examiner les flux financiers illicites en provenance de la RDC | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Former South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Kinshasa on Monday at the head of a delegation composed of a high level group of personalities seeking to combat illicit financial flows (IFF) from Africa (HLPG). The delegation will discuss with the Congolese authorities the extent and complexity of illicit financial flows from the DRC.
 
Extractive Sector Is Critical to Africa's Illicit Money Outflows - Mbeki | 27 August 2013 | UN Economic Commission for Africa | allAfrica
Addis Ababa — The extractive industries sector is central to the illicit outflows of money from Africa, noted the Head of the High-level Panel on Illicit Outflows of Money from Africa, South Africa's former President - Thabo Mbeki midway through his team's fact-finding mission to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) today.

DRC 

Hydropower – Inga
 
Le plus grand projet hydroélectrique peut rencontrer des obstacles | 26 August 2013 | IPS
Il y a de grandes aspirations pour le projet hydroélectrique le plus important d'Afrique, Inga III, qui est prévu pour être construit en République démocratique du Congo (RDC). Mais des analystes sont sceptiques qu’un tel projet aussi ambitieux puisse être jamais réalisé.
 
Bas-Congo - La centrale hydroélectrique Inga I dotée d'un transformateur de 100 MVA | 27 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le gouvernement provincial du Bas-Congo (sud-ouest de la RD Congo) a acquis, sous l'impulsion du Comité de gestion de la Société nationale d'électricité (SNEL), un transformateur de 100 MVA (mégaVolt-Ampère) pour la centrale hydroélectrique Inga I.
 
Mining
 
Katanga : 2 000 enfants travaillent dans les mines de Kambove | 27 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
About two thousand children work in the informal artisanal mining in Kambove in Katanga, said the city’s Head of Mining. These children do not study and World Vision states that the age of more than half of them is between 9 and 17 years. According to a report released last weekend by the NGO, most of these children are sick.
 
Katanga : une femme accusée du vol de 10 tonnes de minerais | 27 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Mining police arrested a woman accused of stealing nearly 10 tons of ore on Sunday, 25 August, at Kolwezi in Katanga. Police sources indicate that these minerals were stolen from the concession company Tenke Fungurume Mining. They do not specify whether the accused acted in collusion with others.
 
Bisie conflict-free but still troubled | 27 August 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Closed down for security reasons in 2010, Bisie, the country’s leading cassiterite mine situated in North Kivu, is being put back into service. (Subscription required).
 

Uganda

Oil
 
Petroleum to the People. Africa's Coming Resource Curse-and How to Avoid It | 26 August 2013 | Foreign Affairs
Over the next decade, a massive wave of new oil and gas discoveries will transform Africa. If the resource curse plays out as it usually does, this oil boom will only serve to entrench authoritarian rule and inhibit democracy. Unless, that is, African governments embrace a radical approach: handing a large share of the new revenues directly to the people as taxable income.
 

 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

SOCO International Oil Company in Virunga Park
 
IPIS Insights: Why businesses should assess human rights impacts from the outset of projects. SOCO International Oil Company in Virunga National Park, DRC | 26 August 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS)
Soco failed to assess human rights risks before Virunga exploration, paper alleges | 29 August 2013 | WWF
SOCO International, a British oil company, is prospecting for oil in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Virunga National Park – a World Heritage Site. For the past year, their presence has been criticised for putting a fragile environment at risk. However, more recently, their impact on human rights has also been questioned.
 
Ivanplats-Ivanhoe
 
Ivanplats Changes Its Name to Ivanhoe Mines | 28 August 2013 | Ivanplats Limited | Marketwired
Ivanplats renamed Ivanhoe Mines | 28 August 2013 | Mining Weekly
New name reflects the company's commitment to development as a leading international multi-commodity mining company.
 
Mawson West
 
Mawson on track to up output in DRC | 29 August 2013 | Mining Weekly
SX-listed copper miner Mawson West has told delegates at the Africa Downunder conference that the company was on track to increase copper output to 22 000 t/y by the end of the year. MD Bruce McFadzean said on Thursday that the company was looking to increase output from its Dikulushi mine, in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

 


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Canadian extractives transparency legislation
 
Mines & pétrole : les investisseurs veulent plus de transparence | 28 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Le Canada prépare une loi obligeant les entreprises du secteur extractif à publier les sommes versées aux autorités publiques à travers le monde. Trente-deux sociétés internationales d'investissement ont apporté leur soutien à cette initiative.


DRC

Conflict minerals
 
Business groups to appeal against conflict minerals ruling | 23 August 2013 | CorporateRegister.com
Influential business organisations in the US are to appeal against a recent court ruling that upheld a new rule requiring large companies to disclose whether any conflict minerals are used in their products.

 

Uganda

Tullow Oil – CSR
 
Corporate Social Responsibility: Filling the gap in service delivery | 22 August 2013 | Oil in Uganda
“Thanks to the oil, we are getting better facilities. The government used to take us as if we were foreigners, we were not getting these services,” says Henry Irumba, LC 1 Chairman at Kaiso landing site, Hoima District. Mr. Irumba’s joy is from a satellite primary school that Tullow Oil is building to replace the wooden classroom blocks that currently make up Kaiso Primary school.
 
Transparency
 
Transparency makes business sense! | 25 August 2013 | Oil in Uganda
Globally, we are seeing huge public demand for corporate and government accountability. The government of Uganda and oil companies alike should take note of this demand and make transparency a priority in oil sector development because it makes good business sense on both ends.
 
Allegations of forced displacement against coffee firm
 
Claims of Illegal Eviction Haunt German Firm | 26 August 2013 | Deutsche Welle | allAfrica
In 2001, more than 4,000 people were evicted from land in Uganda after it had been acquired by a German coffee firm on a 99 year lease. The company insists the deal was above board, but an NGO is now raising doubts.

 
 

Other


 
Congolese National dialogue
 
RDC : fin des travaux préparatoires des concertations nationales | 22 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The preparatory committee of national consultations completed its work on Wednesday, August 21, two days after the deadline set by the Presidium of the forum. After discussion, the committee members have smoothed their differences on several issues including the implementation of recommendations that will be made during these consultations.
 
Concertations nationales: l’opposant Gaston Dindo plaide pour la représentation de la diaspora  | 25 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The coordinator of the extra-parliamentary opposition, Gaston Dindo, has argued that the Congolese diaspora is sufficiently represented in the national dialogue. "We know very well that there is a crisis of confidence between the diaspora and the authorities of our country but we would like it to be adequately represented," he said, proposing that that the seats reserved for these meetings be shared evenly between the majority, opposition and civil society.
 
RDC: les sociétés civiles des provinces craignent d’être exclues des concertations nationales | 26 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
A hundred delegates will represent Congolese civil society in national consultations, but the draft rules of procedure of the forum says nothing about the distribution of the quota between civil society delegates from Kinshasa and those from the provinces. As a result, some civil society representatives fear that Kinshasa will take up the entire quota and have threatened to boycott the forum. 
 
RDC: les concertations nationales débutent le 4 septembre | 27 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
National consultations will begin on Wednesday, September 4, Aubin Minaku announced on Tuesday, August 27. The announcement was made ​​to the press in Kinshasa in the presence of Leon Kengo wa Dondo , the other member of the Presidium of the forum. Both officials also signed the rules of this forum before members of the preparatory committee.
 

 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
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