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WEEKLY BRIEFING 8TH - 14TH AUGUST 2013

Content

Editorial
 

IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

Rwanda
Burundi
CAR
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

CAR
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
Burundi
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC


Other

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

As Martin Kobler took the reins as Ban Ki Moon’s Special Representative for MONUSCO this week, civil society representatives orchestrated a number of “dead city” strike actions throughout North Kivu in a bid to pressure the peacekeepers to launch offensive operations against armed groups throughout the province. There are reports of torture and poor detention conditions for those detained by the M23 and Monday saw the defection of high-ranking ex-CNDP commander, Colonel Richard Bisamaza, with 60 soldiers, said to be headed to join the rebel group’s ranks. In South Kivu six armed groups have reportedly expressed the will to reintegrate into the Congolese army, as heavy fighting took place between the FARDC and the Yakutuma Mai-Mai in Baraka, Fizi territory. On 26 July an artisanal mine in Museke, Katanga,  saw a landslide said to have killed around 80 miners, whilst in Pweto territory an as-yet-unnamed human rights investigator has been summarily executed at home by the Bakata Katanga. The DRC is now only days away from the start of the much anticipated national dialogue, due to commence next week.
 
The UN Secretary General has said that the Central African Republic is suffering a total breakdown in law and order. France has intimated its intent to advocate the deployment of a strong regional force in the country, expressing concerns about its potential somaliaisation.
 
Rwandans long settled in Tanzania have faced expulsion this week in the wake of the revocation of their refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention’s cessation clause.

IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

NEW* Business, Human Rights, and Uganda's Oil. Part I: Uganda's oil sector and potential threats to human rights | 25 July 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS) – ActionAid International Uganda
The following report is the first of a series of four collaborations between IPIS Research and ActionAid International Uganda. The series sheds a light on the oil sector in Uganda, its possible impact on human rights, and how government, companies, and civil society can best enable a positive bond between oil and the welfare of the Ugandan people.


The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Resource conflict in Africa
 
Natural resource geopolitics at centre of African conflicts | 9 August 2013 | Mining Weekly
Natural resource geopolitics were at the centre of understanding why Africa had become a battleground affected by conflicts that were marginalising Africans and preventing them from reaching their full potential, Southern African Liaison Office (Salo) board member Richard Smith said last month at the Building Regional and International Consensus workshop, hosted by Salo, in Pretoria.

DRC 

Civil society actions calling for MONUSCO offensive operations
 
La Monusco cherche l’appui des notables de Masisi et Rutshuru | 8 August 2013 | L’Avenir | Digitalcongo.net
La mission onusienne a invité Eugène Serufuli et Oswald Mukengi pour qu’ils sensibilisent leurs populations de ne pas s’en prendre à la Monusco.
 
RD Congo: la Société civile du Nord-Kivu veut faire pression sur les forces de l'ONU | 9 August 2013 | RFI
Des associations et organisations du Nord-Kivu, dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC), ont décrété trois jours de deuil à partir de ce vendredi 9 août. La fédération d'ONG Société civile du Nord-Kivu entreprend cette action en mémoire des personnes tuées par les groupes rebelles et pour pousser la brigade d’intervention de la Monusco (Mission de l’ONU pour la stabilisation de la RDC) à mener une action offensive pour protéger les civils, comme le prévoit son nouveau mandat.
 
Goma : la population exige à la société civile des actions de plus grande envergure | 10 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The population of Goma have asked civil society to take action on a larger scale with a view to restoring security in North Kivu. A segment of the population still threatens to manifest to pressure MONUSCO into launching offensive operations against the M23, and find an urgent solution to the security problems in Rutshuru and Nyiragongo.
 
Nord-Kivu: deuxième journée «ville-morte» ce dimanche à Oïcha | 11 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Goma : les activités tournent au ralenti à cause de la « journée ville morte » | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Several towns in Beni observed "dead city" days on Saturday and Sunday to denounce insecurity in their country and call upon MONUSCO and FARDC to launch offensive operations. According to reliable sources, socio-economic activities were virtually paralyzed during these two days, including in Oïcha, capital of Beni. Goma too saw a dead city day on Tuesday, 13 August.
 
Brigade d'intervention de la MONUSCO - Des interrogations persistent sur ses capacités réelles | 10 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Did MONUSCO prevent Congolese army from attacking? | 13 August 2013 | Congo Siasa
A slight correction––I mentioned in the previous blog post that the UN mission had never prevented the Congolese army from attacking the M23, contrary to popular perception in Goma. I was wrong.
 
RDC: un député du Nord-Kivu arrêté après des propos critiques contre les autorités et la Monusco | 13 August 2013 | RFI
RDC: lourde peine pour le député du Nord-Kivu qui a critiqué les autorités et la Monusco | 14 August 2013 | RFI
En RDC, le député national du Nord-Kivu de la majorité présidentielle, arrêté dimanche 11 août à Goma et transféré à Kinshasa, a été condamné à trois ans de prison ferme. Les propos de Mohindo Nzangi Musubao sur une radio de la place et sa mise en cause des autorités et de la Monusco n'ont apparemment pas été appréciés.
 
Addis Ababa Agreement
 
The UN conundrum in the Congo: Is it a carrot or a stick? | 12 August 2013 | Congo Siasa
For the first time in years, there is a credible peace process in the offing for the Congo, one that addresses issues that the transition (2003-2006) never did. As discussed on this blog before, the Framework Agreement signed on 24 February 2013 promises a means to address two key divers of conflict: the weakness of the Congolese state, and cross-border meddling between the Congo, Uganda, and Rwanda.
 
Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations in the DRC
 
Martin Kobler, le nouveau chef de la Monusco, a pris ses fonctions | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
"We have a responsibility to serve the Congolese people and help them get out of the shadow of a vicious conflict that has lasted too long," said Martin Kobler, the new Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations in the DRC (MONUSCO) on Tuesday, Aug. 13, upon taking up his functions.
 
Prise de fonctions ce matin du nouveau Représentant spécial du SG de l’ONU en RDC, Martin Kobler | 13 August 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
Martin Kobler, est arrivé ce matin au quartier général de la Mission de l’ONU pour la Stabilisation en République démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO) pour sa prise de fonctions en tant que Représentant spécial du Secrétaire général des Nations Unies dans le pays.
 
Didier Reynders visit to the DRC
 
Didier Reynders débute dimanche une visite de trois jours en RDC | 9 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC : Didier Reynders en visite d’évaluation de l’accord d’Addis-Abeba | 11 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Didier Reynders appelle les pays des Grands Lacs à soutenir les efforts de paix en RDC | 12 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Didier Reynders began a three-day visit to the DRC on Sunday. This will be his fourth visit to the DRC since his arrival in Foreign Affairs. He is expected to reaffirm the need to implement the framework agreement signed in February in Addis Ababa. Besides the Addis Ababa agreement, national and economic development consultations are among the items on his agenda. During his visit he praised the internal reforms undertaken by the Congolese government and the national consultations that should take place "in the coming days."
 
Special Envoy of the Secretary General of the UN for the Great Lakes region
 
Mary Robinson: «Je n’ai aucun autre agenda personnel que celui d’aider la RDC à retrouver la paix» | 8 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
UN envoy says her only agenda is helping restore peace to Africa’s Great Lakes region | 9 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Grands Lacs : « Je n'ai aucun autre agenda personnel que celui d'aider la RDC à retrouver la paix », affirme Mary Robinson | 9 August 2013 | UN News Centre
"I fully support resolution 2098 in its entirety. I have no other personal agenda than to help the DRC to find peace”, said the Special Envoy of the Secretary General of the UN for the Great Lakes region, Mary Robinson on Thursday. Some Congolese have considered Robinson’s position on the resolution of the crisis in eastern DRC ambiguous.
 
M23
 
RDC : la pornographie, nouvelle arme de Kinshasa contre le M23 ? | 11 August 2013 | Afrik.com
La rébellion du M23 a accusé le gouvernement de brouiller sa radio Dignité FM en utilisant des émissions pornographiques pour les discréditer aux yeux de la population.
 
Congo's National Army and M23 Rebel Group, Most Powerful Armed Actors in Eastern Congo | 13 August 2013 | Enough Project
The M23 rebel group and the Congolese national army – currently the two most powerful armed actors in eastern Congo - pursue their interests through a set of relationships with other armed groups, reveals a new Enough Project infographic and accompanying table.
 
The Recent Fighting in Eastern Congo and Its Implications for Peace | 13 August 2013 | Enough Project
On Sunday, July 14, 2013, fighting between the Congolese army and the M23 rebel group resumed on the outskirts of Goma in eastern Congo, with each side blaming the other for initiating the hostilities. This field dispatch explores the recent fighting and lays out the implications for peace in the region.
 
FARDC and human rights abuses
 
Can the DRC army stop abusing human rights? | 12 August 2013 | IRIN
Stamping out human rights abuses by the army in the Democratic Republic of Congo entails more than classroom training sessions, according to analysts, who recommend a wide range of ambitious reforms.
 
Province Orientale
 
Province Orientale: les militaires accusés de rançonner la population sur l’axe Bunia-Kisangani | 8 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Soldiers are accused of extorting money from and brutalizing truckers and traders along the Bunia-Kisangani highway. According to reliable sources, the men in uniform invaded villagers’ fields and seized firewood that was for sale.
 
Province Orientale : plus de 150 cas des violences sexuelles enregistrés à Faradje en une année | 12 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Over one hundred and fifty cases of sexual violence were recorded between July 2012 and July 2013 in the territory of Faradje, the president of local civil society, Jean-Pierre Mogo Lombi, said on Sunday. The majority of victims are young mothers whose ages vary between ten and fifteen years.
 
Ituri: les chefs coutumiers de Walendu Bindi appellent à la pacification de cette collectivité | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Customary authorities from Walendu Bindi have denounced armed activism in the community district of Ituri and advocated for its pacification. They told a MONUSCO delegation in Bunia that the presence of the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FRPI) has hindered the development of this part of the country.
 
Province Orientale: 20 détenus se sont évadés de la prison de Basoko en une semaine | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Sources indicate that twenty prisoners have escaped from Basoko prison in the last seven days. Other official sources speak of the escape of only ten inmates. Civil society deplores the decay of this prison facility, which it says can no longer accommodate prisoners.
 
North Kivu
 
Mots clés: cachot , Détention , M23 , Nyirangongo , prisonniers , Rutshuru | 8 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The people of Rutshuru and Nyirangongo have accused the M23 of holding prisoners in poor conditions in which detainees lack of food, and others suffer torture or violence of various kinds.
 
MSF suspends medical activities in Pinga, Democratic Republic of Congo after threats to staff | 9 August 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) has been forced to suspend medical activities in the town of Pinga and its immediate surroundings in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, after a targeted threat to the safety of its humanitarian staff.
 
Nord-Kivu - Des groupes armés s'affrontent pour les impôts à Bunagana | 12 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Dans la province du Nord-Kivu, le village de Bunagana, situé entre les frontières de la RDC et de l'Ouganda, est devenu ces derniers temps, le théâtre des affrontements entre les différents groupes armés encore actifs dans cette partie du pays.
 
Nord-Kivu : 300 personnes fuient les combattants FDLR au village de Ngerere | 12 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than 300 people left the village of Ngerere on Saturday, August 10 in a bid to flee the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) who settled there.
 
Nord-Kivu : le colonel Bisamaza des FARDC fait défection avec une soixantaine de soldats  | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: défection d’un commandant de l'armée nationale | 13 August 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
The acting commander of the first sector of the FARDC in Beni, Colonel Richard Bisamaza (ex-CNDP), and sixty soldiers as well as some officers, defected on Monday evening, August 12. The deserters took a large amount of ammunition before retiring in the bush Samboko, a village located about 90 Kilometers northwest of Beni.
 
South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu: 6 groupes armés d’Uvira souhaitent intégrer les FARDC | 9 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Six armed groups operating in the territory of Uvira in South Kivu have expressed their willingness to integrate into the FARDC "to defend the fatherland." These include the groups of Major Fudjo, of Bede Colonel Nyerere, of the MPDC of Kashologosi and two other vigilante groups active on the Lemera plateau and in the highlands of Masango.
 
Sud-Kivu : des combats opposent les FARDC aux miliciens Yakutumba à Fizi | 9 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Heavy fighting between the FARDC and the Hallelujah militia group loyal to self-proclaimed General William Amuli Amisi alias Yakutumba has been taking place  since the night of Thursday, August 8 in the territory of Fizi. Officials from the Army assure that the situation is now under control but those in Baraka indicate that fighting continues in the areas of Katanga, Malinde and Sebele. The same sources say four militiamen captured two Burundian rebels.
 
Sud-Kivu : les FARDC ont repris le contrôle des localités occupées par des miliciens à Fizi  | 10 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The 10th Military Region announced that the localities of Fizi territory once occupied by the Hallelujah militia are again under the control of FARDC. According to the army, rebels loyal to the Mai-Mai General William Amuli Amisi alias Yakutumba fled to Nyanza forest after violent clashes with the 1004th Regiment of the FARDC.
 
Sud-Kivu : affrontements entre FARDC et miliciens Maï-Maï à Baraka, 4 morts | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Heavy fighting with heavy weapons and machine guns commenced early Tuesday morning between the FARDC and the Mai-Mai Yakutumba in the town of Baraka in Fizi. Civilian and military sources say a preliminary assessment of casualties indicate four militiamen killed and five wounded civilians.
 
Katanga
 
Katanga: Fighting for DR Congo's cash cow to secede | 11 August 2013 | BBC Africa
After a well-known warlord escaped from prison in Katanga, the Democratic Republic of Congo's most stable province has been terrorised for the last year by a group demanding independence for the mineral-rich region.
 
L'ONU condamne le meurtre d'un défenseur des droits de l'homme dans la province du Katanga en RDC | 13 August 2013 | UN News Centre
La Mission des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO) a exprimé mardi sa préoccupation face à l'exécution arbitraire le 7 août 2013, dans le territoire de Pweto, province du Katanga, d'un militant des droits de l'homme, par des éléments présumés des Maï Maï Bakata Katanga.
 
Congo Rebels Execute Human-Rights Worker in Katanga Province | 14 August 2013 | Bloomberg
Rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s copper-rich Katanga province murdered a human-rights investigator who criticized their movement for committing abuses against civilians, the United Nations mission in Congo said. Armed men from the secessionist Kata Katanga group forced their way into the victim’s house on Aug. 7 in Pweto territory in eastern Katanga before killing him, said the director of the UN’s joint human-rights office in Congo. MONUSCO wouldn’t release the victim’s name or organization for security reasons.


Rwanda

Rwanda examining extradition ex-M23 leaders
 
Rwanda's Foreign Minister Discusses DRC Extraditions, Fdlr and Evicted Rwandans From Tanzania | 8 August 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
"Rwanda is abiding by international standards but the process takes time," said Rwanda's Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo at a press briefing held this morning. She was responding to a question about a request for extradition from the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for four former members of the M23 group who sought refuge in Rwanda earlier this year.
 
Rwanda Invites DR Congo Justice Minister Over Extradition Request | 8 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Justice Minister Johnston Busingye has invited his Congolese counterpart to Kigali to discuss Kinshasa's request for extradition of Congolese citizens formerly of the M23 rebel group.
 
Will Rwanda Extradite M23 Officials? | 12 August 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
The Minister of Justice and Attorney General Johnston Busingye says that the extradition of four M23 officials to Congo will be done legally and not politically after confirming that Rwanda had responded to the DRC government's request for extradition of the four officials. The four wanted officials are former M23 chairman Jean-Marie Runiga and military commanders Baudouin Ngaruye, Eric Badege and Innocent Zimurinda.

 

Burundi

Agathon Rwasa: «Je dois parachever la lutte que j’ai commencée depuis plusieurs décennies au Burundi» | 12 August 2013 | RFI
Agathon Rwasa vivait clandestinement depuis trois ans. L'ancien chef rebelle des Forces nationales de libération (FNL) a réapparu à Bujumbura au Burundi la semaine dernière.


CAR

Security
 
Crise en Centrafrique : Hollande s´inquiète, le Quai s'agite | 9 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Le 30 juillet, au Quai d'Orsay, une réunion était consacrée à la Centrafrique. Alertée par plusieurs sources sur la situation de crise dans le pays, la France espère convaincre le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies de muscler la force sous régionale.
 
Inquiétude des observateurs face à la situation humanitaire et sécuritaire en Centrafrique | 9 August 2013 | RFI
La faillite de la Centrafrique | 9 August 2013 | Afrik.com
En République centrafricaine (RCA), la situation humanitaire et sécuritaire est toujours aussi critique.
 
Central African Republic in chaos, says UN chief Ban Ki-moon | 10 August 2013 | BBC Africa
Centrafrique: Ban Ki-moon épingle la Seleka et demande des sanctions | 11 August 2013 | RFI
Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in the Central African Republic (S/2013/470) | 12 August 2013 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
UN chief Ban Ki-moon says the Central African Republic (CAR) has suffered a "total breakdown of law and order" since rebels seized power in March.
 
Central African Republic's children 'abused and recruited' | 13 August 2013 | BBC Africa
More than 100,000 children in the Central African Republic are facing sexual abuse and recruitment into armed groups, Save the Children has warned.
 
Bozize
 
François Bozizé sur RFI: «Si l'occasion se présente, je souhaite reprendre le pouvoir» | 10 August 2013 | RFI
Deposed Central African Republic president eyes return to power | 10 August 2013 | Reuters
François Bozizé prêt à revenir | 10 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
Deposed former Central African Republic (CAR) President Francois Bozize still nurtures ambitions of returning to power, he told French media, ending months of silence since he was ousted by rebel forces in March.
 
Le Tchad dément toute implication dans la chute de l’ex-président centrafricain Bozizé | 11 August 2013 | RFI
Bozizé «n'a de leçons à donner à personne», estime le porte-parole de la présidence | 13 August 2013 | RFI
C.Africa leader vows to fight spread of weapons, rebuild nation | 13 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Pour ses 53 ans, la RCA brûle des armes... | 13 August 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
Central African Republic's interim leader Michel Djotodia promised Tuesday to fight against the spread of weapons in the country, still suffering the aftermath of a coup earlier this year. In an address to the nation on the 53rd anniversary of independence from France, Djotodia said the government had "taken measures to restore security".

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Humanitarian reports
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire, Province du Maniema No. 23/13, 30 juillet 2013 | 12 August 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
IDPs
 
RDC: des milliers de déplacés dans l’est ont « urgemment » besoin d’assistance, selon Ocha | 8 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) has announced that thousands of people displaced in mid-July due to attacks by the Ugandan ADF-Nalu rebels in Kamango are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance.
 
Refugees
 
Nord-Kivu: 33 familles congolaises ayant fui au Rwanda rentrent dans deux jours, selon le CNR | 8 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Thirty-three Congolese refugee families in Rwanda will return to the DRC in two days, said the Permanent Secretary of the National Commission for Refugees (CNR), Berthe Zinga Ilunga, following a mission to Mkamira, Rwanda. These families, who had left the territory of Nyiragongo during the latest clashes between the army and the M23 had refused to adopt "refugee" status in Rwanda.

 

Uganda

1,500 Rwandese Flee to Uganda | 13 August 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Tension is reigning high along the Uganda -Tanzania border, after hundreds of Rwandan refugees, some armed, crossed into Rakai district. 

 

Rwanda

Rwandan Refugees in Uganda
 
Over 40 Refugees Repatriate From Uganda, Congo | 8 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Forty-two Rwandan refugees early this week repatriated from Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo, according to the Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugee Affairs (Midmar).
 
1,500 Rwandese Flee to Uganda | 13 August 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
 
Rwandan Refugees in Tanzania
 
Govt Reassures Tanzanians As Kikwete Kicks Out Rwandans | 8 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwandans Expelled From Tanzania Being Resettled in Kirehe District | 8 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Tanzanians who live or travel to Rwanda should do so freely and comfortably with no fear of persecution, Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo has emphasised amidst the ongoing expulsion of Rwandans from Western Tanzania.
 
More Returnees Received As Tanzania Clamps Down On Rwandans | 10 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Tanzanie: expulsions d'immigrés illégaux rwandais | 11 August 2013 | RFI
It's Fate of the Banished for Rwandans Expelled By Tanzania | 12 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
More than 500 Rwandans who had lived in Tanzania for years yesterday arrived at the Rusomo border post in Rwanda, leaving behind their families and properties in mainly Karagwe region.

 

CAR

Humanitarian situation
 
Insecurity Increasing Hunger in Central African Republic | 8 August 2013 | WFP | allAfrica
The UN World Food Programme (WFP) is scaling-up operations in the Central African Republic (CAR), amid increasing concerns that ongoing insecurity is fuelling hunger among people who have fled their homes and farms.
 
Forced displacement from CAR continuing amid widespread lawlessness | 13 August 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Central African Republic: UN agencies provide aid amid widespread lawlessness | 13 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Le déplacement forcé de populations depuis la République centrafricaine se poursuit, selon le HCR | 13 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Thousands Flee Lawless Central African Republic | 13 August 2013 | Voice of America
United Nations humanitarian agencies today voiced deep concern over the situation in the Central African Republic (CAR), where hundreds of thousands of people continue to be affected by lawlessness and insecurity, and widespread fear is reported among residents.

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

Appeal for the creation of an International Criminal Tribunal for the DRC
 
RDC: 52 femmes pour la création d'un TPI contre les viols comme arme de guerre | 11 August 2013 | RFI
RDC: pétition pour un tribunal | 12 August 2013 | BBC Afrique
RDC : appel international à la création d'un tribunal pénal international | 12 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Laisser la RDC sans TPI «serait une discrimination à l'égard de la femme congolaise» | 12 August 2013 | RFI
52 personnalités féminines ont appelé à la création d'un Tribunal pénal international pour juger les crimes commis en RDC, notamment les viols.


Rwanda 

French genocide prosecution
 
Génocide: la justice française doit statuer sur la demande d'extradition d'un ex-colonel rwandais | 12 August 2013 | RFI
Rwanda : le tribunal de Douai se penche sur l'extradition de l'ancien colonel Serubuga | 13 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Génocide: la justice française renvoie en septembre son avis sur l’extradition de l'ex-colonel rwandais | 13 August 2013 | RFI
La justice française a renvoyé au 12 septembre prochain la décision d'extrader ou non l'ancien colonel rwandais Laurent Serubuga. Recherché par les juridictions du Rwanda pour son rôle présumé dans le génocide de 1994, le militaire avait été arrêté en juillet dernier en France.
 
Rwanda examining extradition ex-M23 leaders
 
Rwanda's Foreign Minister Discusses DRC Extraditions, Fdlr and Evicted Rwandans From Tanzania | 8 August 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
"Rwanda is abiding by international standards but the process takes time," said Rwanda's Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo at a press briefing held this morning. She was responding to a question about a request for extradition from the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for four former members of the M23 group who sought refuge in Rwanda earlier this year.

 
Rwanda Invites DR Congo Justice Minister Over Extradition Request | 8 August 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Justice Minister Johnston Busingye has invited his Congolese counterpart to Kigali to discuss Kinshasa's request for extradition of Congolese citizens formerly of the M23 rebel group.
 
Will Rwanda Extradite M23 Officials? | 12 August 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
The Minister of Justice and Attorney General Johnston Busingye says that the extradition of four M23 officials to Congo will be done legally and not politically after confirming that Rwanda had responded to the DRC government's request for extradition of the four officials. The four wanted officials are former M23 chairman Jean-Marie Runiga and military commanders Baudouin Ngaruye, Eric Badege and Innocent Zimurinda.


Burundi

Burundian États-généraux celebrated
 
Etats généraux de la justice au Burundi: pour la population, il y a urgence à agir | 9 August 2013 | RFI
Burundi: fin des états-généraux de la justice, l'heure du bilan | 10 August 2013 | RFI
Depuis lundi, quelque trois cents personnalités burundaises étaient réunis au centre du Burundi, dans la ville de Gitega, au chevet d’« un grand malade » : la justice de ce pays pour les premiers états-généraux consacrés à la justice. 
 
 


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

Resource conflicts
 
Natural resource geopolitics at centre of African conflicts | 9 August 2013 | Mining Weekly
Natural resource geopolitics were at the centre of understanding why Africa had become a battleground affected by conflicts that were marginalising Africans and preventing them from reaching their full potential, Southern African Liaison Office (Salo) board member Richard Smith said last month at the Building Regional and International Consensus workshop, hosted by Salo, in Pretoria.

DRC 

Artisanal mining
 
Province Orientale: les orpailleurs de Banyali kilo accusés de détruire l’écosystème | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
Customary authorities in the communities of Banyali kilo and Walendu Tatsi in Ituri have denounced the method of artisanal gold mining commonly called "under current", saying it destroys the environment. The miners have been said to be draining rivers and demolishing entire hills. At a meeting with Ashanti Gold Kilo (AGK) on Saturday authorities demanded the abolition of this method.
 

« Plus ou moins 80 personnes mortes lors d’un éboulement survenu dans la carrière artisanale de MUSEBE » | 8 August 2013 | Le Centre pour la Justice et la Réconciliation(CJR), Humanisme et Droits Humains(HDH), Nouvelle Dynamique Syndicale(NDS) et Justicia ASBL
On 26 July 2013 at 7pm, a landslide occurred at the artisanal gold mine site of Musebe located in Nyunzu on the border with the province of Maniema, roughly 300 km from Kalemie in Katanga province. The mine has been accessed by tens of thousands of people from different backgrounds who come to exploit gold and cassiterite. Around 80 people are believed to have died in the event. Communique de Presse Conjoint N° 002/2013 available on request.
 
Bisiye tin mine
 
Walikale - Le site minier de Bisiye déclaré libre des conflits | 10 August 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
La lutte contre le recrutement des jeunes dans les groupes armés à Walikale (Nord-Kivu) passe aussi par la réouverture des activités minières dans ce territoire. Cet avis émane du député national Juvénal Munubo, impliqué dans le processus de qualification du site minier de Bisiye.

 

Uganda

Oil
 
Justice Ogoola Advises On Robust Oil Laws | 8 August 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Justice James Ogoola, the chairperson of the Judicial Service Commission (JSC), has advised that Uganda must tread carefully in the remaining stages of oil development to avoid a resource curse.
 
New Risks to Uganda's Oil | 9 August 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Since 2006 when its commercial oil discoveries were announced, Uganda has been preparing to join the ranks of the newest oil producing countries in the world. Seven years down the road (and more to come), no commercial oil has been produced yet.
 
Oil Land - MPs Demand for Fair Compensation | 13 August 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
MPs on the infrastructure committee have asked the Government to ensure fair compensation for the people living in the gazetted area for Uganda’s oil refinery.
 
Hydropower
 
Museveni to Preside Over Karuma Ground Breaking | 12 August 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni is expected to lay a foundation stone at the proposed 600 megawatts (MW) Karuma hydro power project on Monday.
 
Karuma Dam Project to Come Online By 2018 | 13 August 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
"The issue of electricity and energy is critical for Uganda and everyone should support this project as it will increase power supply for investments and agriculture production” said Eng. Irene Muloni. Construction is expected to commence next month and the dam will come online by 2018.
 
Forests
 
Museveni Orders Forest Evictions | 11 August 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has directed the immediate eviction of encroachers currently occupying the Kyenjojo forest reserve, saying they must leave the forest before the Government uses the relevant organs to effect the eviction.


Rwanda

Are Commercial Banks Blind to Mining Sector Potential? | 12 August 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Inadequate funding is limiting the potential of the mining industry to become Rwanda's major export earner and source of much-needed foreign currency.



Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Extractive companies
 
Randgold still one of best gold performers despite big profit fall | 8 August 2013 | Mineweb
No writedowns, no exploration cuts and a rising production profile keeps Randgold Resources among the more successful gold miners, despite large fall in Q2 profits.
 
ENRC founders could sell some international assets | 8 August 2013 | Reuters | Mineweb
The founders of Kazakh miner ENRC, bidding to buy out minority investors and take the group private, said on Wednesday they could sell some international assets, reversing a costly expansion drive that took the group to Africa and Brazil.
ENRC's jewel outside Kazakhstan is its copper operation in Democratic Republic of Congo - these mines, some acquired in a controversial 2010 deal after they were confiscated from a rival miner, have been the focus of overseas spending and are not expected to be up for sale.
 
Banro Announces Q2 2013 Financial Results | 13 August 2013 | Banro Corporation | Marketwired
Banro Corporation today announced its financial and operating results for the second quarter of 2013.
 
Ivanplats Announces Financial Results and Review of Operations for the Second Quarter of 2013 | 12 August 2013 | Ivanplats Limited | Marketwired
Ivanplats Limited today announced its financial results for the second quarter ended June 30, 2013.

 

Uganda

Oil
 
Sun Africa Injects U.S.$50 Million in Albertine Graben Development | 8 August 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The high demand for multi services needed in the Oil exploration areas has prompted a Democratic Republic of Congo company, Sun Africa to stake up to $50m (shs129b) in infrastructural development in the Albertine Graben.
 
Hydropower
 
One Year On - Bujagali Doubles Power Supply | 8 August 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Bujagali Energy Limited (BEL) has increased Uganda's power generation capacity by 44 per cent, almost doubling the country's electricity supply over a year since it was officially switched on, BEL's General Manager John Berry has said.

 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

DRC

EITI
 
Guest post: Mining transparency in the Congo--Cautious optimism despite strong headwinds | 8 August 2013 | Congo Siasa
A few months ago, the DRC got suspended from the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.


China & EU transparency laws
 
China Dialogue on the impact and benefits of EU transparency laws on listed Chinese companies | 8 August 2013 | China Dialogue | Global Witness
PetroChina, Sinopec and other Chinese companies will be required to reveal payments made to overseas governments as a condition of their listing on European and US stock exchanges. Making public the payments made by extractive companies could be a major step in tackling corruption in resource-rich countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, ranked at the bottom of the UN Human Development Index, says the campaign group Global Witness.

 
 

Other


Congolese National dialogue
 
Democratic Republic of Congo to open national dialogue next week | 9 August 2013 | Reuters
RDC: une concertation nationale encore difficile à mettre en place | 11 August 2013 | RFI
Thomas Luhaka : "Dans les conditions actuelles, l'opposition ne participera pas aux concertations" | 12 August 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Democratic Republic of Congo will start talks next week aimed at easing a political standoff in the capital and ending remote rebellions, with the leader of neighbouring Congo Republic taking some form of mediating role.
 
Concertations nationales: nomination des membres du secrétariat technique | 13 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Presidents of the Congolese Senate, Leon Kengo wa Dondo, and the National Assembly, Aubin Minaku, jointly published a list of eighteen members of the technical secretariat for the Presidium of national consultation on Thursday.
 
RDC: un nouveau gouvernement attendu après les concertations nationales, selon Léon Kengo | 10 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
National consultations will begin next week in Kinshasa, announced Leon Kengo Senate President, during a meeting with the political opposition in Kinshasa. The Presidium of the forum is said to have met all the requirements raised by the opposition, including that of making resolutions that come out from these consultations in the form of a new government program.
 
Concertations nationales: la majorité et l’opposition boudent la démarche de Kengo | 11 August 2013 | Radio Okapi
On Saturday, August 10, President of the Senate, Leon Kengo wa Dondo, announced the establishment of a new government that will come from the national consultations. This announcement created a stir in the Presidential majority, with government member, Emmanuel Ramazani Shadari expressing surprise.
 
Ugandan Public order bill
 
UN rights experts call on Uganda to repeal new bill restricting public assembly | 9 August 2013 | UN News Centre
Three independent United Nations experts today called on the Government of Uganda to repeal a new bill that places restrictions on the freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, and to prepare a new version that complies with the country's international human rights obligations.

Rwandan Green Party unable to run in parliamentary elections
 
Green Party Registered, Plans to Contest for Parliamentary Elections | 9 August 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
The Rwanda Governance Board (RGB) yesterday issued a certificate of registration to the Democratic Green Party, making it the 11th political party in the country.
 
Rwandan opposition party registers days before September vote deadline | 10 August 2013 | Reuters
Rwanda: le Parti démocratique vert officiellement reconnu | 10 August 2013 | RFI
Rwanda's Democratic Green Party has been officially recognized as a political party after years of what it calls government obstruction and faces a race against time to field candidates for next month's election.
 
Rwanda opposition party to sit out vote after late registration | 12 August 2013 | Reuters
Rwanda's Democratic Green Party said on Monday it will sit out September's parliamentary election after the electoral commission took three years to register it, finally doing so just days before the deadline.
 
Dispatches: Rwanda's Green Party registered at last - but what does it really mean? | 12 August 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Latest development: The Green Party has announced that it will not be able to participate in the 2013 parliamentary elections because of the tight deadline but that it will prepare for future elections.


IPIS Recent Publications


 
The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report. 
 
 
 
 
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