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The last ten days have seen further controversy on the international plane. A Human Rights Watch report outlining atrocities committed by the M23 in North Kivu since March this year, including summary executions, forced recruitment and rape, outlined evidence of Rwandan support for the rebellion, last week. The report’s findings prompted calls by US State Department spokeswoman, Jen Psaki, for Rwanda to cut its ties with the rebel group and have been refuted by the Rwandan authorities. US diplomat John Kerry appealed for the cessation of external support for the M23 at a UN Security Council session, which ordered the full and prompt implementation of the Addis Ababa Agreement by the relevant parties.
A special summit of the International Conference for the Great Lakes Region on the situation in the DRC commenced this Wednesday to discuss the framework agreement. The summit commenced shortly after MONUSCO’s establishment of a 20-kilometre security zone intended to secure the safety of IDPs and civilians in the densely populated vicinity of Goma and Sake, and the road connecting the two. Tuesday, 30 July, saw the UN peacekeeping force issue an order that all armed persons within this zone report to MONUSCO for disarmament and demobilisation within 48 hours. The order comes as the intervention force reports its readiness for action and the Congolese justice system issued four international arrest warrants for M23 leaders, including former political head, Jean-Marie Runiga.
The M23 have been accused of abuses in Kiwanja (North Kivu), including looting, with the arrest of around 60 youths by M23 leaders sparking fears for further atrocities against civilians. FARDC’s bombardment of M23’s Romangabo camp has seen three civilian casualties and heavy fighting in Kibati has seen the rebellion dislodged from the town and Munzoga hill, north-west of Kibati. The group had previously been ousted from Kinyandoni and Nkaweda near Rutshuru on Friday, 19th July. Other armed groups in North Kivu have continued to stoke insecurity with the ADF-Nalu accused of atrocities in Kikawa, Morgan’s Mai-Mai Simba dislodged west of Butembo, the Raia Mutomboki occupying mine sites in Walikale and a Mai-Mai group releasing eight detainees after an attack on a police station in the south east of Butembo.
The Congolese authorities have commenced criminal proceedings against a soldier and a police officer following calls for prosecution by the UN after images of mistreatment of M23 detainees and the desecration of fallen rebel corpses began to circulate the Internet.
Rwanda too has seen security unrest this week as a grenade blast killed two and wounded 32 others in Kigali on Friday, 26th July. Reports of human rights abuse continue from the Central African Republic, were transitional head of state Djotodia has announced his intention to form a new national armed force by combining the Seleka with the regular state army.
Campaign groups have welcomed a US district court ruling this week that has upheld the US Security and Exchange Commission’s final rule on section 1502, finding that it does not place undue hardship on companies and suppliers to comply with its terms.



IPIS’ Latest Publications


NEW* Business, Human Rights, and Uganda's Oil. Part I: Uganda's oil sector and potential threats to human rights | 25 July 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS) – ActionAid International Uganda
The following report is the first of a series of four collaborations between IPIS Research and ActionAid International Uganda. The series sheds a light on the oil sector in Uganda, its possible impact on human rights, and how government, companies, and civil society can best enable a positive bond between oil and the welfare of the Ugandan people.

The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.

Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.

Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 
Reports of Rwandan support to M23
DR Congo: M23 Rebels Kill, Rape Civilians | 22 July 2013 | Human Rights Watch
RDC : HRW accuse le Rwanda de "continuer à soutenir" les rebelles du M23 | 23 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Human Rights Watch accuse le Rwanda de soutenir les rebelles congolais du M23 | 24 July 2013 | RFI
Thierry Vircoulon sur RFI: «Le rôle perturbateur du Rwanda dans la région des Grands Lacs a été mis en évidence l’année dernière» | 25 July 2013 | RFI
According to Human Rights Watch, M23 rebels have summarily executed at least 44 people and raped at least 61 women and girls since March 2013 in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Local residents and rebel deserters reported recent forced recruitment of men and boys by the M23 in both Rwanda and Congo. Residents and rebel deserters described recent support from within Rwanda to the abusive M23 forces.
Nord-Kivu: le Rwanda et l’Ouganda réarment le M23 à Beni et Nyiragongo, selon la société civile | 30 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le Rwanda et l'Ouganda réarment les rebelles du Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) ainsi que des groupes armés encore actifs dans les territoires de Nyiragongo et de Beni (Nord-Kivu), a dnoncé mardi 30 juillet le vice-président et porte-parole de la société civile de la province, Omar Kavota. ENG: Rwanda and Uganda are re-arming the rebels of the M23 as well as armed groups still active in the territories of Nyiragongo and Beni (North Kivu), according to civil society in the province.
Le M23 profite de la trêve observée sur la ligne de front pour « se réorganiser » autour de Goma | 30 July 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
« Les rebelles du M23 s'amassent le long de la frontière congolo-rwandaise dans la ville de Gisenyi, au Nord-Kivu, pour se réorganiser en vue de lancer des attaques contre les Forces armées de la RDC. Le même mouvement est également observé du côté du Rwanda, où des troupes rwandaises de la RDF (Rwandan Defense Forces) sont également déployées le long de la frontière », a affirmé lundi 29 juillet 2013 le vice-président et porte-parole de la société civile du Nord-Kivu, Me Omar Kavota cité par Xinhua.
DR Congo unrest: Rwanda 'recruiting for M23 rebels' | 31 July 2013 | BBC Africa
DRC: le Rwanda recrute pour M23 | 31 July 2013 | BBC Afrique
Four Rwandans have told the BBC that the army forcibly recruited them to fight for the M23 rebel group in neighbouring eastern DRC. The four said they were seeking asylum in Uganda after fleeing the fighting. The Rwandan army dismissed their claim, saying they must have made up their stories to get asylum.
Responses to reports of Rwandan support to M23
Kagame Slams U.S. Actress Mia Farrow Over M23 Rebels Report | 23 July 2013 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
The News of Rwanda reports: “American actress and DR Congo activist Mia Farrow was at the receiving end of attack from Rwanda's President Paul Kagame today after she tweeted to him an error-filled report published by Human Rights Watch.”
US Calls on Rwanda to End M23 Support | 23 July 2013 | Voice of America
RDC : les États-Unis demandent au Rwanda de cesser son soutien au M23 | 24 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
RDC : Washington appelle Kigali à cesser tout soutien au M23 | 24 July 2013 | RFI
Washington appelle Kigali à ne plus soutenir le M23 | 23 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Obama administration wants Rwanda to stop backing Congolese rebels who are undermining efforts to end decades of violence in East Africa's Great Lakes region. State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki on Tuesday said the country needs to cut off the Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 rebellion, whose fighting with government troops has driven a new wave of refugees into border towns.
Le Rwanda ne soutient pas le M23, selon son ambassadeur en RDC | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: L’ambassadeur du Rwanda à Kinshasa, Amandin Rugira, a démenti ce jeudi 25 juillet tout soutien de son pays aux rebelles du M23 en RDC. Il réagissait ainsi à la déclaration de la porte-parole du département d’État américain, qui, se fondant sur le récent rapport de l’ONG Human Rights Watch (HRW), demandait à Kigali de « retirer son personnel militaire de l’est de la RDC». ENG: The Ambassador of Rwanda to Kinshasa, Amandin Rugira, has denied his country's support of the M23 in the DRC responding to the statement by a spokesman for the U.S. State Department, which, based on the recent report by Human Rights Watch (HRW) called on Kigali to "withdraw its military personnel present in the DRC. "
Unholy Alliance | 29 July 2013 | Rwanda Focus (Kigali) | allAfrica
The Objectives of the Unholy Alliances Operating in DRC | 29 July 2013 | Rwanda Focus (Kigali) | allAfrica
The Rwanda Focus newspaper has alleged that “Monusco together with the Foreign Intervention Brigade (FIB) work with the FDLR and the Congolese army, FARDC.”
Rwanda dismisses U.S. charges it backs Congo rebels | 30 July 2013 | Reuters
Rwanda dismissed on Tuesday U.S. charges that it was supporting M23 rebels in neighbouring DRC and said levelling accusations would not help pacify the region.

High-level UN Security Council meeting on Great Lakes region
High-level Security Council debate focuses on peace efforts for Africa’s Great Lakes region | 25 July 2013 | UN News Centre
Région des Grands Lacs : le Conseil de sécurité entre espoir et inquiétude | 25 July 2013 | UN News Centre
The Security Council today restated its commitment to the United Nations-brokered peace accord for Africa’s strife-torn Great Lakes region and demanded an immediate end to hostilities in the DRC, where fresh clashes between armed rebels and Congolese troops have sent thousands of civilians fleeing for safety.
Urging 'Full and Prompt' Implementation of Blueprint for Peace in Great Lakes Region, Security Council Insists No Aid, No Tolerance for Armed Groups | 25 July 2013 | UN Security Council
Expressing support for the peace accord signed in February by 11 African nations to end years of fighting in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Security Council this afternoon called on that strife-torn nation and neighbouring countries for full and prompt implementation of their commitments.
Remarks at the United Nations Security Council Ministerial on the Great Lakes | 25 July 2013 | U.S. Department of State
Remarks to the UN Security Council by John Kerry, US Secretary of State
Remarks With United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon | 25 July 2013 | U.S. Department of State
Remarks between Ban Ki Moon and John Kerry, US Secretary of State, to the UN Security Council.
Kerry Seeks End to Military Support for Congo Rebels | 25 July 2013 | Voice of America
Le Rwanda indexé mais pas cité à l'Onu | 25 July 2013 | BBC Afrique
New York: John Kerry appelle à la cessation du soutien extérieur aux rebelles du M23 | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: John Kerry «très inquiet» de l’aide extérieure fournie aux groupes rebelles | 26 July 2013 | RFI
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry has called on all parties to end their support for armed rebel groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Secretary Kerry made the call at his United Nations debut as the top U.S. diplomat Thursday, chairing a high-level U.N. Security Council session on the Great Lakes region and the DRC.
He told the meeting that he is deeply concerned about recent reports of resumed external support to the M23 rebel group, and reports of collaboration with the Rwandan Hutu rebel group in the eastern DRC, known as the FDLR.
Rwanda 'committed to DRC Peace Deal' | 26 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda has reiterated its commitment to the UN-backed Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the region, and urged all signatories to the agreement, signed in February, to help translate it into action.
Raymond Tshibanda: «Nous ne sommes pas prêts à signer un accord qui consacre l’impunité» | 26 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: «Le gouvernement congolais n’est pas prêt à signer un accord complaisant avec les groupes armés, ni à céder le moindre centimètre de son territoire ou ses richesses à qui que se soit », a déclaré jeudi 25 juillet le ministre des Affaires étrangères, Raymond Tshibanda Tunga Mulongo, à la réunion du conseil de sécurité sur la région des Grands lacs, à New-York. ENG: "The Congolese government is not ready to sign an agreement with armed groups or to give any inch of its territory or wealth whatsoever," said Minister of Foreign Affairs, Raymond Tshibanda Mulongo Tunga at the Security Council meeting on the Great Lakes region in New York on Thursday.
Special Summit of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) in Nairobi
Accord d’Addis-Abeba : les chefs d’Etat de la CIRGL se réunissent en sommet extraordinaire | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Les chefs d’État de la Conférence internationale pour la région des Grands Lacs se réunissent mercredi 31 juillet à Naïrobi pour examiner l’accord-cadre de paix signé en février dernier à Addis-Abeba par onze pays africains. ENG: The Heads of State of the ICGLR will meet on Wednesday, July 31 in Nairobi to discuss the framework peace agreement signed last February in Addis Ababa.
Great Lakes Leaders Seek Solution to DRC Crisis | 31 July 2013 | Voice of America
Leaders from the Great Lakes region are calling for greater cooperation to bring peace to the Democratic Republic of Congo, as accusations of interference by neighboring countries continue to fly.
UN chief urges regional, global support for Africa’s Great Lakes peace accord | 31 July 2013 | UN News Centre
Seul un processus politique crédible permettra de mettre fin à la crise en RDC, rappelle Ban | 31 July 2013 | UN News Centre
Only a credible political process will end the crisis in the DRC and address the root causes of cyclical violence in the wider Great Lakes, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said today in a message to a high-level international summit on the situation in this strife-ridden region of Africa.
Angola Rules Out Sending Troops to DRC | 30 July 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
Angola has ruled out any military participation in the ongoing peace process in the DRC. This was said on Tuesday in Luanda by the Foreign minister, Georges Chikoti, during a press conference under the preparation of the Sixth International Conference of Heads of State and Government on the Great Lakes region, set for Wednesday in Nairobi, Kenya.
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
LRA Regional Update: Central African Republic, DR Congo and South Sudan (April - June 2013) | 25 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Map: LRA attacks, Jan 2010 - June 2013 | 31 July 2013 | Resolve | Reliefweb
Loosening Kony’s Grip: Effective Defection Strategies for Today’s LRA | 31 July 2013 | Resolve | Reliefweb
New report: How to dismantle the LRA from the bottom-up.


MONUSCO ultimatum for M23
DR Congo unrest: Fears over UN intervention | 25 July 2013 | BBC Africa
Crainte sur l'offensive de l'Onu en RDC | 25 July 2013 | BBC Afrique
Aid agencies have voiced fears that a possible military offensive by the United Nations in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo could make the humanitarian situation worse and lead to attacks on their workers.
MONUSCO Deploys to Support Security Zone in Goma - Sake Area | 30 July 2013 | MONUSCO
Déploiement de la MONUSCO pour soutenir la zone de sécurité dans la région de Goma-Sake | 30 July 2013 | MONUSCO
Press Release
In North Kivu, MONUSCO considers any individuals who are not members of the national security forces and who carries a firearm in Goma and its northern suburbs an imminent threat to civilians and will disarm them in order to enforce a security zone to protect the densely populated area of Goma and Sake.
Goma: la Monusco demande à tout détenteur d’armes de désarmer dans 48 heures | 30 July 2013 | MONUSCO
UN mission sets up security zone in eastern DR Congo, gives rebels 48 hour ultimatum | 30 July 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : la MONUSCO se déploie pour soutenir la zone de sécurité dans la région de Goma-Saké | 30 July 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC: la Monusco lance un ultimatum au M23 | 30 July 2013 | RFI
UN gives rebels 48 hours to disarm around DR Congo city | 31 July 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
FR: Dans un communiqué publié le mardi 30 juillet, la Monusco dit considérer toute personne ne faisant pas partie des forces de sécurité nationales et, possédant une arme à feu à Goma et, dans les localités situées au Nord de la ville, comme une menace imminente pour les civils. À compter de mardi 30 juillet à 16 heures (heure de Goma), indique la mission onusienne, les détenteurs d’armes à feu dans cette région disposent d’un délai de 48 heures pour rendre leurs armes dans une base de la Monusco et rejoindre le processus de désarmement et de démobilisation. ENG: In a statement released on Tuesday, July 30, MONUSCO has said that it willconsider anyone not part of the national security forces, and possessing a firearm in Goma and in localities north of the city, as an imminent threat to civilians. Holders of firearms in this region have been given a period of 48 hours to surrender their weapons to a MONUSCO base and join disarmament and demobilization.
Nord-Kivu: la zone de sécurité de la Monusco autour de l’axe Goma-Sake | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: La Monusco a imposé une zone de sécurité longue d’une vingtaine de kilomètres autour de l’axe Goma – Sake. Le préavis de 48 heures donné par la mission onusienne mardi 30 juillet à toute personne ne faisant pas partie des forces nationales de sécurité mais détenant une arme à se rendre dans l’une de ses bases concerne cette zone. Le commandant de la force de la Monusco,  le général Alberto Dos Santos Cruz a annoncé qu’à partir de jeudi, tout réfractaire à cette décision sera traqué. Cette opération sera menée conjointement par des éléments de la Brigade d’intervention de la Monusco et la Brigade du Nord-Kivu de la Mission. ENG: MONUSCO has imposed a security zone over twenty kilometers long from Goma to Sake.  48-hours notice was given to anyone not part of the national security forces, but in possession of a gun to go to a MONUSCO base in this area. MONUSCO Commander, General Alberto Dos Santos Cruz has announced that from Thursday, all infractions of this order will be dealt with jointly by members of the Intervention Brigade and MONUSCO’s North Kivu Brigade.
U.N. Warns It Will Disarm Congo Rebels | 31 July 2013 | New York Times
The United Nations has threatened to forcibly disarm rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, an early test of the robust new mandate for the multinational peacekeeping contingent that includes going on the offensive there.
Rwanda says U.N. ultimatum threatened Congo peace talks | 31 July 2013 | Reuters
Rwanda said on Wednesday the decision by a U.N. intervention brigade to forcibly disarm people in a strategic zone of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo had surprised African leaders and risked jeopardizing peace talks.
RDC: le M23 menace de riposter en cas d’attaque de la Monusco | 31 July 2013 | RFI
DR Congo rebels face disarmament deadline Thursday | 1 August 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : les rebelles du M23 "pas concernés" par l'ultimatum de la Mission de l'ONU | 31 July 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
FR: Face à l’ultimatum lancé par l’ONU, qui menace de mener l’assaut contre ces groupes, à l'aide de sa brigade d’intervention, Bertrand Bisimwa, président du M23, a affirmé ce mercredi 31 juillet sur RFI que ses troupes ne bougeront pas et que son mouvement se défendra. ENG: Rebels in the volatile east of the Democratic Republic of Congo face a deadline Thursday to lay down their arms, but they have dismissed the UN peacekeepers' ultimatum as irrelevant. "We consider that this measure does not concern us," said M23 chief Bertrand Bisimwa. His fighters were not in the flashpoint city of Goma or on the road heading south towards Sake where much fighting has taken place recently, he said.
Goma: le gouvernement soutient l’ultimatum de la Monusco lancé aux groupes armés pour désarmer | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le gouvernement congolais soutient l'ultimatum de 48 heures lancé par la Monusco à toute personne détenant une arme à feu pour désarmer dans la zone de sécurité qu'elle a délimitée autour de l'axe Goma-Sake (Nord-Kivu). ENG: The Congolese government supports the 48-hour ultimatum issued by MONUSCO to anyone holding a gun in the security zone.
Goma: Force Intervention Brigade Commander Brigadier General James MWAKILOBWA Speaks to Press | 31 July 2013 | MONUSCO
GOMA – Le Commandant de la Brigade d’Intervention de la Force s’adresse à la Presse | 31 July 2013 | MONUSCO
Speaking to Radio Okapi and international media journalists in Goma, eastern DR Congo on 25 July 2013, Brigadier General James Mwakilobwa, Commander of the MONUSCO Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) said the FIB was already at work though not yet fully operational.
Warrants for former M23 leaders in Rwanda
La RDC demande au Rwanda d’arrêter Jean-Marie Runiga et 3 officiers du M23 | 26 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: faut-il attendre une réponse du Rwanda à la demande d'extradition des cadres du M23? | 28 July 2013 | RFI
FR: Le gouvernement de la RDC dit avoir transmis jeudi 25 juillet  par des voies diplomatiques d’usage à la République du Rwanda trois mandats d’arrêt internationaux visant quatre de ses ressortissants réfugiés sur le territoire rwandais. Il s’agit de responsables rebelles du Mouvement du 23 mars (M23), dont  leur ancien leader Jean-Marie Runiga. ENG: The DRC government has said that it is pursuing diplomatic channels to secure cooperation from Rwanda to execute international arrest warrants against four of its nationals who are refugees in Rwanda. These M23 rebel leaders include former leader Jean-Marie Runiga.
La RDC émet 3 mandats d'arrêts contre des membres du M23 au Rwanda | 27 July 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
En RDC, la justice lance des mandats d'arrêt internationaux contre quatre membres du M23 | 27 July 2013 | RFI
La justice militaire congolaise a délivré des mandats d'arrêt internationaux contre quatre membres du M23 qui étaient fidèles à Bosco Ntaganda et qui se sont réfugiés au Rwanda lors de la scission du mouvement rebelle en mars dernier. Il s'agit de Jean-Marie Runiga ancien chef politique du M23, et de trois officiers: le colonel Ngaruye Baudoin, le colonel Innocent Zimurinda et le colonel Eric Badege.
DRC Hopeful of M23 Rebels’ Extradition | 28 July 2013 | Voice of America
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s information minister says Kigali has assured the DRC as well as the international community of cooperation after his government issued international warrants for four former leaders of the M23 rebel group believed to be in Rwanda.
Analysis & comment
RDC - M23 : les rêves de revanche de l'armée congolaise | 25 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
L'armée congolaise rêve de prendre sa revanche sur les rebelles du Mouvement du 23-Mars. Mais en a-t-elle les moyens ?
Four Steps for the U.S. and U.N. to Defuse Congo's Escalating Crisis: Preventing Wider Conflict | 25 July 2013 | Enough Project
The Enough Project has released this policy paper in advance of the July 25, 2013 Ministerial meeting of the U.N. Security Council. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry will preside over the meeting to push for implementation of a peace accord signed in February 2013 by 11 African nations and four international organizations.
Rights abuses on both sides in DRC conflict | 29 July 2013 | IRIN
Violations des droits de l’homme par les deux parties au conflit en RDC | 30 July 2013 | IRIN
As fighting continues in North Kivu Province between the Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) army and the rebel group M23, both sides have been accused of committing human rights abuses against each other and civilians, some of which amount to war crimes, according to rights groups.
Crise au Nord-Kivu : Kinshasa pousse son avantage | 31 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Dans le Nord-Kivu, en RDC, l´armée loyaliste prend sa revanche sur le M23. En parallèle, le gouvernement déploie une intense activité diplomatique pour gagner un maximum de pays à sa cause. Au détriment de Kigali.
Field Dispatch: The Need for a Single Peace Process in Africa's Great Lakes Region | 31 July 2013 | Enough Project
Report based on recent field research conducted by Enough Project field staff in Uganda, at the Kampala Peace Talks, and on the front lines of combat between the Congolese military and M23 rebels near the area of Mutaho, just north of Goma. The report addresses the escalating security situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and calls for a single, coordinated peace process to ensure peace in the region.
UN Human Rights Report November 2011 – May 2013
Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the situation of human rights and the activities of her Office in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (A/HRC/24/33) | 12 / 30 July 2013 | UN Human Rights Council | Reliefweb
In its resolution 19/27, the Human Rights Council invited the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to submit a report to the Council at its twenty-fourth session on the situation of human rights and the activities of her Office in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In the present report, which covers the period from November 2011 to May 2013, the High Commissioner assesses the progress made by the authorities in the implementation of recommendations made by the High Commissioner and United Nations human rights mechanisms in recent years.
Province Orientale
Ituri : les autorités évaluent la situation sécuritaire pour combattre les groupes armés | 28 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Une délégation du gouvernement de la Province Orientale et des responsables de la Monusco séjourne depuis vendredi 26 juillet à Bunia, dans le district de l’Ituri, pour une mission d’évaluation sécuritaire. Selon le ministre provincial de l`intérieur, Hubert Moliso, président de cette délégation, il s’agit d’identifier tous les groupes armés actifs en Ituri. ENG: A delegation from the Government of the Eastern Province and MONUSCO officials were in Bunia in Ituri conducting a security assessment mission on Friday. According to the provincial Minister of Interior, Hubert Moliso, chairman of the delegation, the mission seeks to identify armed groups in Ituri.
Ituri : l’ICCN se réjouit de l’amélioration des conditions sécuritaires sur le Mont Hoyo | 30 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le  directeur général  de l’Institut congolais pour la conservation de la nature (ICCN), Cosma Wilungula, se dit satisfait de l’amélioration des conditions sécuritaires dans la réserve protégée de Mont Hoyo en Ituri (Province Orientale). Il estime que cette amélioration des conditions de sécurité est le résultat des opérations menées par les FARDC dans cette réserve en proie à l’activisme des groupes armés depuis plusieurs années. ENG: The Director General of the Congolese Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICCN), Cosma Wilungula, has expressed satisfaction with the improvement of security conditions in the protected reserve of Mount Hoyo in Ituri (Eastern Province). He believes that the improvement in security conditions is the result of operations conducted by the FARDC in the reserve plagued by the activism of armed groups for several years.
North Kivu - M23
RDC: l’armée pilonne les positions du M23 à Rumangabo | 24 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le camp de Rumangabo, situé à 50 kms au nord de Goma dans le territoire de Rutshuru, a connu «un intense bombardement » en fin de la matinée de ce mercredi 24 juillet de la part des FARDC, ont indiqué des sources locales. Quelques personnes ont été blessées, selon les mêmes sources. La rébellion du M23 quant à elle parle d’au moins 15 civils tués. ENG: Rumangabo camp, located 50 kms north of Goma recieved "heavy bombardment" by FARDC at the end of Wednesday morning, July 24, said local sources. Some people were injured, the sources said. The M23 has refered to at least 15 civilians killed.
Nord-Kivu: des actes de pillage imputés au M23 à Kiwanja | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: La situation est restée tendue jeudi 25 juillet matin dans la cité de Kiwanja, environ 75 km au Nord de Goma, en territoire de Rutshuru. La veille, les rebelles du M23 ont investi cette cité vers 20 heures locales juste avant que des scènes de pillage n’éclatent. Des sources locales attribuent ce pillage au M23. Jeudi matin, les responsables de la rébellion ont arrêté une soixante de jeunes de la cité de Kiwanja. ENG: The situation remained tense on Thursday, July 25, in Kiwanja, about 75 kilometers north of Goma, Rutshuru territory. The day before, the M23 had installed itself in this city about 8pm local time just before looting broke out. Local sources attribute the looting to the M23. On Thursday morning, M23 leaders arrested sixty young people from Kiwanja, accusing them of having drunk banned alcoholic drinks and burned down eateries.
Nord-Kivu : le M23 aurait emporté un émetteur de la radio Sauti ya Rutshuru | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Les rebelles du M23 auraient emporté mardi 23 juillet un des trois émetteurs de la radio Sauti ya Rutshuru, émettant à Rutshuru-centre, à 75 km au nord de Goma, dans le Nord-Kivu. Selon des sources locales, la rébellion compte créer une station de radio dans son état major actuel à Kibumba, à 30 km de Goma. ENG: The M23 took one of three radio transmitters from Sauti ya Rutshuru, transmitting from Rutshuru, 75 km north of Goma. According to local sources, the rebels intend to create a radio station in Kibumba, 30 km from Goma.
Poursuite des combats près de Goma : FARDC et M23 se rejettent la responsabilité | 25 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Depuis le 14 juillet, les combats ont repris entre l'armée congolaise et le Mouvement du 23-Mars (M23) dans les villages proches de Goma, la capitale du Nord-Kivu (est de la RDC). Mercredi 24 juillet les deux camps se sont accusés mutuellement d'être responsables de la poursuite des affrontements.
RDC: la rébellion M23 arrête une cinquantaine de jeunes hommes accusés de haine ethnique | 25 July 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
La rébellion Mouvement du 23 mars (M23), active dans l'Est de la République démocratique du Congo, a affirmé jeudi avoir arrêté une cinquantaine de jeunes accusés d'avoir participé à une manifestation contre la communauté rwandophone dans la localité de Kiwandja.
Nord-Kivu: 3 civils tué après le bombardement de Rumangabo | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Au moins trois civils ont été tués et trois autres blessés mercredi 24 juillet après les bombardements des Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) sur le camp de Rumangabo qu’occupent les rebelles du M23, à 50km de Goma (Nord-Kivu). Les belligérants s’accusent mutuellement d’avoir tué ces civils. ENG: At least three civilians were killed and three others wounded on Wednesday, July 24, after FARDC bombing of the Rumangabo camp occupied by the M23, 50km from Goma. The belligerents accuse each other of killing the civilians.

Nord-Kivu: «Aucun groupe armé n’occupera la ville de Goma», assure le comandant de la brigade d’intervention  | 26 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le commandant de la brigade d’intervention de la Monusco, le général James-Aloys Mwakibolwa, a assuré jeudi 25 juillet qu’aucun groupe armé n’occupera la ville de Goma (Nord-Kivu). Il répondait ainsi aux habitants de Goma qui redoutent une attaque des rebelles du M23 sur la capitale provinciale du Nord-Kivu. ENG: MONUSCO Commander, General James Aloys Mwakibolwa, has assured that no armed group will occupy the city of Goma in response to fears of Goma residents of an attack by the M23 on the provincial capital.
Nord-Kivu: le M23 accusé de planifier un massacre à Kiwanja | 27 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: La société civile du Nord-Kivu accuse les rebelles du M23 de planifier un massacre dans la cité de Kiwanja, à 75 km au Nord de Goma (Nord-Kivu).ENG: Civil society in North Kivu has accused the M23 of planning a massacre in the city of Kiwanja, 75 km north of Goma (North Kivu).
DR Congo: peacekeeping mission denounces M23's alleged abuses against civilians | 27 July 2013 | UN News Centre
La Mission de l'ONU en RDC dénonce les abus sérieux perpétrés par le M23 | 27 July 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC: la Monusco dénonce les abus imputés au M23 au Nord-Kivu | 27 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo today said it is highly alarmed over allegations of killings, forced recruitment and illegal detention of civilians by the March 23 Movement (M23) and urged humanitarian access to areas controlled by the rebel group.
Nord-Kivu: la Monusco promet le renforcement de ses patrouilles à Kiwanja | 27 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le chef de Bureau de la Monusco au Nord-Kivu,  Ray Virgillio Torres, a promis à la population de Kiwandja que les casques bleus renforceront leurs patrouilles dans le secteur. Il l’a déclaré 24 heures après l’arrestation d’une soixantaine de jeunes par les responsables de la rébellion du M23 qui contrôlent cette cité de la province du Nord-Kivu. ENG: MONUSCO’s North Kivu Head of Office, Virgillio Ray Torres, has promised the people of Kiwandja that peacekeepers will strengthen their patrols in the area. He said this during 24 hours after the arrest of sixty youths by the M23.
Nord-Kivu: les activités reprennent timidement à Kiwanja | 29 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: La circulation et les activités socioéconomiques reprennent timidement à Kiwanja dans le territoire de Rutshuru, après trois jours de vive tension entre les rebelles du M23 et la population locale. ENG: Traffic and socio-economic activities resumed timidly in Kiwanja in Rutshuru territory, after three days of heightened tension between M23 and the local population.

Nord-Kivu: 60% des activités commerciales ont repris à Kiwanja, selon des notables | 30 July 2013 |  
Les activités socio-économiques ont repris lundi 29 juillet à Kiwanja et à Rutshuru-Centre, deux localités qui demeurent occupées par le M23 au Nord-Kivu. Elles étaient paralysées depuis la semaine dernière après les pillages et les arrestations de jeunes à Kiwanja par les rebelles du M23. ENG: Socio-economic activities resumed on Monday, July 29 at Kiwanja and Rutshuru Centre, two places that are still occupied by the M23 in North Kivu. They were paralyzed last week after looting and arrests of youths in Kiwanja by M23.
Des Témoins de Jéhovah persécutés par le M23 | 30 July 2013 |
Le M23 vient d’engager une vaste opération de persécution des Témoins de Jéhovah dans le territoire de Rutshuru. Les hommes fidèles à Makenga et à Bisimwa ont mis en exécution une mesure consistant à collecter des dons en nature auprès de la population.

North Kivu - other

Nord-Kivu : des Maï-Maï attaquent la police | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Des miliciens Maï-Maï ont attaqué jeudi 25 juillet un sous commissariat de la police nationale à Kipese, à environs 80 km au sud-est  de Butembo, dans le Nord-Kivu. Ils ont réussi à libérer huit détenus dont un des leurs, capturé la veille par des militaires à Bukununu, un village voisin. Un policier a été blessé pendant l’attaque. ENG: Mai-Mai militia attacked a police station in Kipese, about 80 km southeast of Butembo in North Kivu. They managed to release eight prisoners including one of their own, captured the day before in Bukununu. A policeman was injured during the attack.

RDC: 65 000 personnes retournées à Kamango après les combats entre FARDC et ADF Nalu  | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Réfugiés en Ouganda voisin lors des combats entre FARDC et rebelles ADF Nalu, les habitants de Kamango, au moins 65 000, ont regagné, depuis une semaine, leur localité. ENG: Refugees in neighboring Uganda due to fighting between FARDC and ADF Nalu, who are residents of Kamango numbering at least 65,000, have over the last week been returning to their locality.

Nord-Kivu : les miliciens fidèles à Morgan occupent le village Kambau | 29 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Les miliciens fidèles à Paul Sadala alias Morgan occupent depuis lundi 29 juillet matin la localité de Kambau (située à environ 100 km à l’ouest de Butembo) dans la province du Nord-Kivu. Ils y ont délogé les Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) après des violents combats. ENG: Militiamen loyal to Paul Sadala alias Morgan occupied the locality of Kambau (located about 100 km west of Butembo) since Monday. They were dislodged by FARDC after heavy fighting.
Nord-Kivu: les FARDC reprennent le contrôle de Kambau | 29 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Les militaires congolais ont repris le contrôle de Kambau dans la province du Nord-Kivu le lundi 29 juillet en début d’après-midi. Les miliciens Maï-Maï Simba de Paul Sadala alias Morgan occupait cette localité depuis la matinée. A en croire le porte-parole des Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) au Nord-Kivu, le colonel Olivier Hamuli, les combats ont coûté la vie à deux miliciens. Mais l’officier ne donne aucun bilan du côté des militaires congolais. ENG: The Congolese military took control of Kambau in North Kivu on Monday, July 29 in the beginning of the afternoon. The Mai-Mai Simba Sadala alias Paul Morgan had occupied the town since morning. Fighting is said to have killed two militiamen, though no toll on the FARDC side was provided.
Nord-Kivu : les Raïa Mutomboki contrôlent des sites miniers à Walikale, dénonce une ONG | 30 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Plusieurs sites miniers sont illégalement occupés par les Raïa Mutomboki dans le territoire de Walikale (Nord-Kivu). Dans un rapport publié récemment à Goma, l’ONG Carrefour pour la justice, le développement et les droits humains (CJDH), dénonce cette situation. ENG: Several mining sites are being illegally occupied by Raia Mutomboki in Walikale territory (North Kivu). In a report recently published in Goma, the NGO Crossroads for Justice, Development and Human Rights (DHC), denounced this situation.
UNHCR statistics show alarming rise in rape and violence against women in North Kivu | 30 July 2013 | UNHCR
New UN statistics show alarming rise in rapes in strife-torn eastern DR Congo | 30 July 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : le HCR constate une hausse de la violence sexuelle au Nord-Kivu | 30 July 2013 | UN News Centre
DRC Sexual Violence Sharply Rises | 30 July 2013 | Voice of America
RDC: le HCR déplore une « augmentation alarmante » des agressions sexuelles dans l’Est | 30 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Les agressions sexuelles ont augmenté de façon « alarmante » dans la province du Nord-Kivu, dans l’Est de la République démocratique du Congo, avec 705 cas recensés depuis janvier, a annoncé le mardi 30 juillet le Haut-commissariat aux réfugiés de l’ONU (HCR). ENG: Sexual assaults have increased at an "alarming" rate in the province of North Kivu, with 705 cases reported since January, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees said on Tuesday.
Beni: plus de 120 familles de Kikawa fuient les menaces des ADF-Nalu, selon la société civile  | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Les rebelles Ougandais ADF-Nalu commettent des exactions dans le village de Kikawa dans le secteur de Watalinga (environ 90 km de Beni). Ils ont récemment promis une attaque de grande envergure contre toutes les positions des Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) dans ce secteur de la province du Nord-Kivu. ENG: The Ugandan ADF-NALU rebels are committing atrocities in the village of Kikawa in the Watalinga area (about 90 km from Beni). They recently promised a large-scale attack against all FARDC positions in this area, causing over one hundred and twenty households to flee.
South Kivu
Sud-Kivu - De violents combats opposent les rebelles burundais aux FARDC à Nyange | 30 July 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Les Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC) sont engagées depuis lundi 29 juillet 2013 dans de violents combats avec des rebelles burundais des Forces nationales de libération (FNL), actifs dans la plaine de Ruzizi, à Nyange, dans la province du Sud-Kivu (Est).
Sud-Kivu: 50 miliciens Raia Mutomboki acceptent d’être démobilisés | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Une cinquantaine de miliciens Raia Mutomboki se sont regroupés depuis deux semaines au village de Buanahali dans la chefferie de Wakabango 1er, à 200 km de Shabunda au Sud-Kivu. Selon le fondateur de cette milice, Jean Musongo, ils attendent d’être réintégrés à la vie civile. ENG: Fifty Raia Mutomboki militiamen have come together over two weeks in the village of Buanahali in Wakabango chiefdom, 200 km from Shabunda in South Kivu. According to the founder of the militia, Jean Musongo, they are waiting to be reintegrated into civilian life.
Katanga: Gabriel Kyungu appelle les groupes armés à privilégier la voie du dialogue | 27 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le président de l’Assemblée provinciale du Katanga, Gabriel Kyungu wa Kumwanza, appelle les Bakata Katanga et autres Maï-Maï à privilégier la voie du dialogue pour une paix durable dans cette province. ENG: The President of the Provincial Assembly of Katanga, Gabriel Kyungu wa Kumwanza, called upon Bakata Katanga and other Mai Mai pursue the path of dialogue for lasting peace in the province.
Katanga : Pweto retrouve progressivement la paix, selon son administrateur | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: « Nous sommes entrain de retrouver progressivement la paix et nous irons jusqu’au bout », a déclaré à l’administrateur du territoire de Pweto, Célestin Ngombe à la mission mixte compose des membres du personnel de la Monusco et du gouvernement congolais. ENG: " We are in the process of gradually regaining peace and we will continue", said the administrator of Pweto, Celestin Ngombe, member of a joint mission composed of staff members from MONUSCO and the Congolese government. 



Museveni and the UDPF
How Museveni Uses the Army | 26 July 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Promotions in the Army Raise Valid Concerns | 30 July 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Recent promotions in the army have re-ignited the continuous debate of how President Yoweri Museveni uses the forces to stay in power. Hundreds of low rank officers, from 2nd Lieutenant to Major, were in May promoted in a swoop, one of the biggest in the army's history. The promotions happened amidst reports of mass desertions over allegations of low and intermittent payment.
Salim Saleh more powerful than ever | 29 July 2013 | Indian Ocean Newsletter | Africa Intelligence
Since the defection of General David Sejusa, the President’s brother and advisor, General Salim Saleh, has been constantly increasing his power.
Uganda Undergoing Slow, Silent Military Coup | 30 July 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
At the end of last year, with the nation still gripped by the tragic death of Butaleja Woman MP Cerinah Nebanda, the minister of Defence, Dr Crispus Kiyonga, warned Parliament that if some of its members did not 'behave', the UPDF would intervene.



Grenade attack in Kigali
Grenade blast in Rwanda capital kills two: police | 26 July 2013 | Reuters
Two Dead, Over 30 Injured in Nyabugogo Grenade Blast | 27 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda : deux morts dans une attaque à la grenade à Kigali | 27 July 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
A grenade blast in the Rwandan capital Kigali on Friday killed two people and wounded 32 others, police said, an attack that resembled one earlier this year and others since 2010.
Three Held Over Friday's Grenade Attack | 29 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Three people have been arrested in connection with last Friday's grenade attack in Nyabugogo, Police said at the weekend. Theos Badege, the Rwanda National Police spokesperson, said the trio will assist Police with investigations. 



Is Burundi's peacebuilding process under threat? | 24 July 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
At the beginning of June the Burundian Parliament promulgated a media law that threatens the freedom of the country’s press. The law is symptomatic of a larger concern; a shrinking of political space in the country and continued human rights violations that jeopardise the fragile peacebuilding process.



CAR: UN Mission concerned about reported human rights violations by rebel groups | 24 July 2013 | UN News Centre
L'ONU préoccupée par les violations des droits humains en République centrafricaine | 25 July 2013 | UN News Centre
The United Nations political mission in the Central African Republic (CAR) is concerned about purported human rights violations in the country.
500 soldats burundais en RCA | 27 July 2013 | BBC Afrique
Le Burundi se prépare à envoyer des troupes en Centrafrique | 28 July 2013 | RFI
Le Burundi est prêt à déployer 500 soldats dans le cadre d'une force de maintien de la paix en Centrafrique, où l'insécurité perdure depuis la prise du pouvoir par la rébellion de la Séléka en mars dernier.
Centrafrique: Michel Djotodia annonce la création de l'Armée républicaine de Centrafrique | 28 July 2013 | RFI
Fusion FACA-Séléka : une nouvelle armée en Centrafrique | 29 July 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Le président de la transition Michel Djotodia décide de mettre en place une armée digne de ce nom. Le chef d’Etat de transition compte, dans un proche future, fusionner les ex-combattants de Séléka et les forces régulières au sein d’une nouvelle armée dénommée l’Armée Républicaine de Centrafrique (ARC).
'New Somalia' risk as warlords rule in Central African Republic | 30 July 2013 | Reuters
The villagers ran away in panic when rebels brandishing machetes and AK47 assault rifles appeared from the bush, leaving the Red Cross medical workers standing alone in a dusty clearing in Central African Republic.


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region


Humanitarian Reports
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Note d’information à la presse, 24 juillet 2013 | 25 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu No 31/13, 30 juillet 2013 | 30 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Note d’information à la presse, 31 juillet 2013 | 31 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Press coverage
Uganda Hosts >1,800 Congolese Fleeing Govt, Rebels Fighting | 25 July 2013 | Bloomberg
Arrivals resulting from government/M23 rebel clashes in North Kivu, are adding to 67,000 refugees who entered Uganda earlier this month fleeing attacks by another rebel group, said the Uganda Foreign Affairs Ministry by e-mail from Kampala. “A new emergency situation” is building up in the southwestern district of Kisoro, according to the Ministry.
Déclaration du Coordonnateur de L’action Humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo, M. Moustapha Soumaré, sur la protection des civils au Nord-kivu | 26 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Sud-Kivu : les réfugiés veulent que leurs avis soient pris en compte, selon une ONG | 29 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Fresh displacement in Eastern DR Congo as Fighting Rages | 30 July 2013 | International Organization for Migration | Reliefweb



Congolese refugees
Govt Alarmed by Influx of Congolese Refugees | 25 July 2013 | Sudan Tribune | allAfrica
Uganda Hosts >1,800 Congolese Fleeing Govt, Rebels Fighting | 25 July 2013 | Bloomberg
Arrivals resulting from government/M23 rebel clashes in North Kivu, are adding to 67,000 refugees who entered Uganda earlier this month fleeing attacks by another rebel group, said the Uganda Foreign Affairs Ministry by e-mail from Kampala. “A new emergency situation” is building up in the southwestern district of Kisoro, according to the Ministry.
Assistance aux réfugiés congolais | 26 July 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
MSF providing emergency assistance to Congolese refugees in Uganda | 29 July 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
Rwandan refugees
1800 Rwandans Seek Asylum in Uganda | 28 July 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica



Les réfugiés rwandais à Brazzaville insensibles aux appels de retour | 26 July 2013 | IPS
1800 Rwandans Seek Asylum in Uganda | 28 July 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Rwanda Welcomes More Returnees From DRC | 29 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region


ICC situation request
RDC : Julien Paluku demande à la CPI de poursuivre les membres des groupes armés actifs au Nord-Kivu | 29 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The governor of North Kivu, Julien Paluku has called for the International Criminal Court (ICC) to take up the situation in his province. From the city of Butembo where he is on an official mission, he explained that the region is currently experiencing a "serious situation of human rights violations created by armed groups." He cites abuses, arrests and looting of civilians by M23 rebels in Kiwanja.


ICTR Transfers Last Detainee to Rwanda | 25 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Génocide : Bernard Munyagishari, second prisonnier du TPIR transféré au Rwanda | 25 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) yesterday transferred to Rwanda genocide suspect Bernard Munyagishari from its custody in Arusha, Tanzania.
Ingabire appeal case
Rwanda: l'opposante Victoire Ingabire plaide sa cause alors que s'achève son procès en appel | 31 July 2013 | RFI
A l’avant-dernier jour de son procès, l’opposante rwandaise Victoire Ingabire a affirmé ce mardi 30 juillet que les charges qui pèsent contre elle étaient sans fondement. Victoire Ingabire, présidente des Forces démocratiques unifiées (FDU), avait été condamnée, le 30 octobre, à huit ans de prison ferme pour « conspiration » et « minimisation » du génocide de 1994.


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.


Tin – tantalum – tungsten – gold supply chains for the DRC
Metals mined in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo | 26 July 2013 | Global Witness
The electronics industry is one of the main destinations for eastern Congo’s metals, which end up in mobile phones, laptops, and other consumer products.  Tin is used as a solder in circuit boards; tantalum goes into capacitors, small components used to store electricity; tungsten is used in the vibrating function of mobile phones; gold is also used by the electronics industry – as a coating for wires.
Illegal ivory trade
Soldiers Trade in Illegal Ivory | 25 July 2013 | Inter Press Service (IPS)
Although an almost blanket ban on trading in ivory has been in place since 1989, the black market trade in ivory from forest-dwelling Congo Basin elephants is alive and well in the DRC’s large urban centres. Major John Bonyoma, a judge in the Goma Military Court, told IPS that poachers were generally  “rogue FARDC (the French acronym for the Congolese army) soldiers and militia commanders.”
Parc de la Garamba: les écogardes encouragés à endiguer le braconnage | 30 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le ministre de l’Environnement, conservation de la nature et Tourisme, Bavon Samputu Elima a déploré samedi 27 juillet l’abattage des éléphants du parc national de la Garamba par les braconniers. Il a encouragé les écogardes à mettre fin à cette pratique pour attirer les touristes vers cette aire protégée située dans le dans le Haut Uélé (Province Orientale) à proximité de la frontière avec le Soudan du Sud. ENG: The Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism, Bavo Samputu Elima has lamented the slaughter of elephants in Garamba National Park by poachers. He encouraged ecoguards to end this practice to attract tourists to this protected area located in the Haut Uele (Province Orientale) near the border with South Sudan.
Kasaï-Oriental: 700 hectares de forêt déboisés en deux ans à Luilu | 25 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Plus de 700 hectares de forêt ont été déboisés  entre 2010 et 2012 en territoire de Luilu au Kasaï-Oriental. Le chef de service de l’environnement et conservation de la nature du territoire de Luilu, Jean Kabwe l’a déclaré mercredi 24 juillet au cours d’un point de presse. Il estime que la déforestation a entrainé une perturbation climatique dans ce territoire, entrainant la baisse de la production agricole. ENG: Over 700 hectares of forest were cleared between 2010 and 2012 in the territory of Luilu, Kasai Oriental. The manager of environment and nature conservation planning for Luilu, Jean Kabwe, has said that he believes that this deforestation has led to a climate perturbation in the territory, resulting in a decline in agricultural production.
Belgian conflict funding ruling
Diamonds: The Banque Centrale du Congo and Belgolaise cleared by magistrate's court | 23 July 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The Tribunal Correctionnel de Bruxelles recently acquitted the Banque Centrale du Congo (BCC) and the Belgian establishment Belgolaise which were indicted by examining magistrate Michel Claise in May, 2008, on charges of forgery and money-laundering in a series of money transfers for the purchase of weapons in Congo-K’s war between 1998-2003, the transaction being financed by Miniere de Bakwanga (MIBA).
Oil exploration in Virunga National Park
'Oil threat' to DR Congo's Virunga National Park | 31 July 2013 | BBC Africa
The conservation group WWF is calling on a UK-based company to abandon its plans to explore for oil in Africa's oldest national park. The charity says Soco International's proposals could put the Virunga National Park in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at risk.
Oil Exploration Threatens Africa's Billion Dollar World Heritage Site | 31 July 2013 | WWF-Canada | Marketwired
Congolese Park Worth $1.1 Billion Per Year Without Oil, WWF Says | 1 August 2013 | Bloomberg
Africa's oldest national park could be worth US$1.1 billion per year if developed sustainably, rather than being given over to potentially-damaging oil extraction, a report released by WWF today has found. Virunga National Park has the potential to generate 45,000 permanent jobs through investments in hydropower, the fishery industry and ecotourism, according to analysis conducted by Dalberg Global Development Advisors, an independent consulting firm. The reserve is home to an active volcano and animals including hippopotamuses, chimpanzees and endangered lowland gorillas.



Business, Human Rights, and Uganda's Oil. Part I: Uganda's oil sector and potential threats to human rights | 25 July 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS) – ActionAid International Uganda
The following report is the first of a series of four collaborations between IPIS Research and ActionAid International Uganda. The series sheds a light on the oil sector in Uganda, its possible impact on human rights, and how government, companies, and civil society can best enable a positive bond between oil and the welfare of the Ugandan people.
Refinery residents unhappy with compensation process | 27 July 2013 | Oil in Uganda
The first phase of the ongoing implementation of the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) in Hoima District is facing resistance from some angry  residents, with some of them threatening to take the government to court over unfair compensation of their property. They are also claiming that government agents are harassing them and coercing them into signing consent forms.
Museveni Stops Gold Mining in Buhweju | 31 July 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has directed that firms involved in gold mining in Buhweju district should stop immediately. The President said the firms only have prospecting licenses, which do not permit them to engage in mining.


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

East African Nations Seek Sino-Russian Funding for Joint Railway | 30 July 2013 | Bloomberg
Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda will seek funding from Russia and China for a planned $13 billion standard-gauge railway linking their capitals to boost trade. The three countries will jointly mobilize the funds, although each nation will shoulder costs of its portion of the line, whose construction will cost $5 million per kilometer, John Byabagambi, Uganda’s minister of state for works, told reporters today in Kampala.


Labour rights and Gecamines
Gecamines and the World Bank before the courts | 23 July 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The forthcoming inauguration of labour courts that employment and labour minister Modeste Bahati Lukwebo has announced could lead to an avalanche of suits by 10,655 former employees of Gecamines.
Randgold’s giant DRC project prepares to pour first gold | 24 July 2013 | Mining Weekly
Randgold Resources is preparing for the first gold pour at its Kibali project, in the DRC. Randgold said the project had advanced to the immediate preproduction development stage and more than a million tonnes of ore from the openpit mine had already been stockpiled to feed the metallurgical plant’s oxide circuit, which was scheduled to start commissioning in the third quarter this year.
Loncor Resources Updates Exploration Activities at its Ngayu Project in D.R. Congo | 31 July 2013 | Loncor Resources Inc. | Marketwired
Loncor Resources Inc. provides an update on its exploration activities at its Ngayu Gold Project in the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Mining – other
Glencore Xstrata completes DRC copper projects merger | 25 July 2013 | Mining
Diversified miner Glencore Xstrata and joint venture partner Fleurette Group have completed the merger of the Mutanda Mining and Kansuki operations, in the DRC. The merger has been implemented by way of the absorption of Kansuki into Mutanda with the consideration for such absorption being the issue of new Mutanda shares.
Bamanisa in fresh call on Belgians | 30 July 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The governor of Orientale province, Jean Bamanisa, is asking for Belgium’s assistance in new power and mining projects. 
Gertler, former enemy of Mwanke, became his "twin brother" | 25 July 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
In a book entitled "Ma Verite" (published by EPI NICE) that he began to re-write shortly before his sudden death in early 2002 and which appeared posthumously in Kinshasa last week, Augustin Katumba Mwanke, made a number of revelations concerning his role in Congo-K's mining sector.



Businesses Tipped On Oil Sector Contracts | 29 July 2013 | East African Business Week (Kampala) | allAfrica
There are considerable business opportunities in the budding oil sector, members of the Uganda Chamber of Mines and Petroleum (UCMP) have been told.
UPDATE 2-Kenya-Uganda could pipe 0.5 mln barrels of oil per day - Tullow | 31 July 2013 | Reuters
Tullow Oil said a new drilling success at the Etuko-1 well in Kenya confirms the commercial value of fields there and predicted a pipeline picking up Ugandan crude too could deliver 500,000 barrels a day of new output. Tullow has said in the past it hopes to see a 250,000-barrels-a-day pipeline from Uganda's Lake Albert region, where the company is also drilling, with a view to first deliveries by 2018. 


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 


US federal judge upholds SEC Conflict minerals Rule
Global Witness applauds D.C. Court’s decision to uphold conflict minerals provision | 24 July 2013 | Global Witness
Global Witness applauded the decision yesterday by the Washington, D.C. District Court to uphold the Securities and Exchange Commission’s (SEC) final rule for Dodd Frank Section 1502, a provision that aims to stop the minerals trade fuelling violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
U.S. Courts Uphold Conflict Minerals Disclosure | 24 July 2013 | Inter Press Service (IPS)
U.S. federal judge upholds SEC Conflict Minerals Rule | 25 July 2013 | Mineweb
Des tribunaux confirment la divulgation des "minéraux de conflits" | 27 July 2013 | IPS
A federal court judge found that SEC’s controversial Conflict Minerals Rule does not place an undue hardship on the nearly 6,000 companies and hundreds of thousands of their suppliers.
US ruling on resources may impact Indian businesses | 25 July 2013 | Live Mint
The US court ruling on disclosing use of conflict minerals will have implications beyond the US.
Copper and cobalt exports
Cobalt Prices Sink as DRC Delays Export Ban | 25 July 2013 | Cobalt Investing News
Making waves in the cobalt sector earlier this month was the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which revealed two weeks ago that it will be delaying a ban on the export of copper and cobalt concentrate until next year; the ban was originally intended to come into effect this month.
Congo Raises Tax on Copper, Cobalt Concentrates by Two-Thirds | 25 July 2013 | Bloomberg
The Democratic Republic of Congo’s Katanga province raised its tax on copper and cobalt concentrates to $100 per metric ton from $60 as the country prepares to ban their export at the end of this year. “We needed a way to discourage companies from continuing to export concentrates, so we raised the tax,” Valery Mukasa, chief of staff for Mines Minster Martin Kabwelulu, said yesterday in an interview in Kinshasa, the capital.
ICGLR/DRC Regional Certificate of Origin of Minerals for 3Ts and gold officially launched
Le ministre des Mines invite les experts à formuler des recommandations objectives | 24 July 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
La Rdc lance le certificat régional de l’origine des minerais | 25 July 2013 |
Les travaux de la 8ème réunion du Comité régional de lutte contre l'exploitation illégale des ressources naturelles dans la région des Grands Lacs se sont déroulés, hier mardi 23 juillet, au Grand Hôtel Kinshasa. Cette réunion s'inscrit dans le cadre du lancement officiel du Certificat régional d'origine des minerais en RDC.
Congo Starts Certification Program to End Conflict-Mineral Trade | 25 July 2013 | BloombergBusinessweek
Democratic Republic of Congo has started a new mineral certification program in an effort to stop armed groups in the east of the country benefiting from the trade in tin ore, tungsten, coltan and gold.
Congo Starts Certification Program to End Conflict-Mineral Trade | 25 July 2013 | Bloomberg
The Democratic Republic of Congo has started a new mineral certification program in an effort to stop armed groups in the east of the country benefiting from the trade in tin ore, tungsten, coltan and gold. The certificates, part of an initiative by the 12-country International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, will accompany minerals to export from approved mining sites not associated with illegal armed groups.
L'UE se félicite du travail des Etats membres de la CIRGL | 26 July 2013 | Le Potentiel
L’Union européenne se félicite du travail des Etats membres de la CIRGL et du secrétariat dans la mise en œuvre du « Protocole contre l’exploitation illégale des ressources naturelles », dans le cadre du « Pacte sur la sécurité, la stabilité et le développement ». 


Nigeria's Story Should Encourage Uganda to Join EITI | 26 July 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
A week ago, Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan ordered Nigerian revenue collection agencies to recover $9.6b in underpaid or unpaid taxes and royalties from oil companies operating in Nigeria, following an audit of the country's oil and gas sector stretching over the last 10 years.



Oil exploration laws
Oil Exploration Laws in the Pipeline | 31 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda could have a law governing its upstream petroleum business by mid-next year if everything goes according to plan, officials at the Rwanda Natural Resources Authority have revealed. 



DRC National dialogue
The Congolese national dialogue: will a critical opportunity be missed? | 29 July 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
Since the controversial 2011 elections, opposition parties in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have been calling for a national dialogue. However, shortly after the 2011 elections, international attention turned to the M23 rebellion in the eastern DRC, making it necessary and perhaps more convenient for President Joseph Kabila to invest his time in dealing with the rebellion rather than addressing the political situation in Kinshasa.
National consultations: an opposition party seeking the involvement of the Security Council  | 31 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
FR: Le président de l’Union des républicains (UR), Norbert Luyeye, a appelé, samedi 27 juillet, le conseil de sécurité des Nations unies à aider les Congolais à organiser un dialogue politique conformément à l’accord-cadre d’Addis-Abeba signé par onze Etats africains pour pacifier la région des Grands Lacs. ENG: The President of the Union of Republicans (UR), Norbert Luyeye, has called on the UN Security Council to help the Congolese to organize a political dialogue under the framework agreement in Addis Ababa.
DRC Constiutional reform
En RDC, le débat sur une éventuelle révision de la Constitution va bon train | 29 July 2013 | RFI
Depuis la publication par Evariste Boshaba, le secrétaire général du PPRD, le Parti du peuple pour la reconstruction et la démocratie du président Joseph Kabila, d'un ouvrage défendant la révision constitutionnelle, plusieurs secteurs congolais prêtent au président Kabila l'intention de briguer un troisième mandat.


IPIS Recent Publications

 The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report. 
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