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WEEKLY BRIEFING 27TH JUNE - 3RD JULY 2013

Content

Editorial
 
IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

CAR
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi
CAR
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

As Roger Meece’s MONUSCO mandate came to an end this week, details of the UN’s DRC Group of Experts report to the UN Sanctions committee have been reported in the press. The report is said to include indications that whilst the M23 is still receiving some assistance from Rwanda, support for the group is weakening. The report further appears to implicate FARDC soldiers in the smuggling of gold and tin from South Kivu.
 
In North Kivu the strengthening of M23 positions around Goma have caused displacement and stirred concern about a rumoured M23 assault on the city, triggering calls for calm by the local authorities and reassurances from MONUSCO. Attacks against civilians by Mai-Mai combatants under the command of Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka in Walikale have caused concern, whilst a Mai-Mai attack on Kangwayi Prison in Beni saw 4 deaths and the release of 244 prisoners. Ugandan ADF/NALU rebels have captured localities north east of Beni following intense fighting with the FARDC that has seen 16 dead. Civil society in the region has expressed fears that the group may attack Beni and Oicha, reporting the strengthening of positions around these two cities. In Province Orientale the FRPI has denied claims that Ugandan intelligence personnel are among their ranks, whilst in South Kivu a sizable militia contingent awaiting integration into the FARDC have been left without supplies, prompting them to request permission to tax locals.
 
In the Central African Republic six people have died and 25 have been wounded following clashes between civilians and Seleka rebels in Bangui. Human Rights Watch has reported the commission of atrocities against civilians in rural areas surrounding Bangui by the Seleka militia.
 
In the US, the Securities Exchange Commission has been struck a blow following a district court ruling on its disclosure rules under section 1504 of the Dodd-Frank Act. The SEC was ruled to have misinterpreted the section in drawing up regulations to implement the law. Accepting arguments concerning the public disclosure of payments and its impact on competition in the oil industry, the court concluded that reports should go privately to the SEC and not be made available to the public.

 

 


IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 
US anti-poaching plan
 
ThinkProgress: Obama Launches Anti-Poaching Task Force | 2 July 2013 | Enough Project
Obama Announces New U.S. Focus on Wildlife Trafficking | 2 July 2013 | Inter Press Service
President Barack Obama on Monday announced a series of new initiatives to combat spiking levels of international poaching and draft a new national plan on wildlife trafficking, an industry that has grown so significantly in recent years that the president now calls it an “international crisis”.
 
Obama wildlife trafficking plan may also boost security | 3 July 2013 | Reuters
A White House plan to curb illegal trafficking in rhino horn, elephant tusks and body parts from other endangered wildlife could have the side benefit of helping to stabilize parts of Africa plagued by insurgent groups, military and political analysts say.

DRC 

UN Group of Experts interim report
 
Exclusive: Fearing death, Congo's 'Terminator' fled with help of family | 28 June 2013 | Reuters
Facing defeat by a rival rebel and fearing death at the hands of Rwandan troops, Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda quietly slipped into Rwanda on a small path with a single escort to turn himself in at the U.S. Embassy in Kigali, according to a U.N. report.
 
Analysts: Rwandan Support for Congo’s Rebels Waning | 1 July 2013 | Voice of America
Le nouveau rapport des experts onusiens banalise le « soutien continu mais limité » du Rwanda au M23 | 3 July 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
United Nations experts say support for the M23 rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo is waning, but that the group is still getting some help from Rwanda.
 
RDC : le M23 et les FDLR seraient très affaiblis, selon les experts de l'ONU | 1 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Moins forts mais toujours dangereux ? | 2 July 2013 | Deutsche Welle | allAfrica
Selon un rapport provisoire du groupe d’experts de l’ONU sur la RDC, le Mouvement du 23-Mars et les Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR), deux rébellions rwandophones antagoniques qui opèrent dans l’Est du pays, ont été très affaiblies par de récentes tensions internes et des désertions.
 
DRC’s army smuggling minerals in east Congo, UN experts | 2 July 2013 | Bloomberg | Mineweb
Congo’s Army Smuggling Minerals in East Congo, UN Experts Say | 2 July 2913 | Bloomberg
An interim report to the UN Sanctions Committee is reported to have said that FARDC soldiers control a gold mine in South Kivu province and are impeding efforts to resume legal exports of tin ore from Congo’s largest mine in North Kivu province. Inner City Press, a New York-based investigative journalism organization, published a draft report due to to be released later this month on its website on June 29.
 
UN report on implementation of Framework Agreement
 
Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region (S/2013/387) | 28 June / 3 July 2013 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
A report submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2098 (2013), in which the Council requested the submission of a report on the implementation of the commitments under the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region.
 
UN meeting on Great Lakes region
 
Kerry to Chair UN Meeting on Central Africa | 2 July 2013 | Voice of America
Kerry présidera une réunion sur les Grands Lacs à l’ONU fin juillet | 2 July 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry will chair a meeting of the U.N. Security Council later this month aimed at strengthening efforts to achieve peace in Central Africa’s Great Lakes region.
 
Obama appeal to DRC neighbours
 
RDC: l’appel d’Obama | 1 July 2013 | BBC Afrique
RDC : Barack Obama appelle les pays voisins à cesser le soutien aux groupes armés | 2 July 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Le président américain Barack Obama, en voyage en Tanzanie, a appelé les pays frontaliers de la République démocratique du Congo à cesser de soutenir les groupes armés qui y opèrent.
 
Barack Obama appelle les voisins de la RDC à cesser d’aider les rebelles | 2 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Barack Obama has called on the countries bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo to stop supporting armed groups operating there during an address on Monday in Dar es Salaam. He also called on President Joseph Kabila to "do more and better" to reform the security forces in the country.
 
MONUSCO
 
Ban nomme Abdallah Wafy, du Niger, Chef adjoint de la mission de l'ONU en RDC, chargé de la composante « état de droit » | 27 June 2013 | UN News Centre
Ban Ki-moon a annoncé hier la nomination de Abdallah Wafy, du Niger, comme son Représentant spécial adjoint pour la République démocratique du Congo (RDC), où il sera à la tête de la composante « état de droit » de la Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en RDC (MONUSCO).
 
Roger Meece : « On a fait des progrès mais beaucoup reste à faire » | 27 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
The mandate of Roger Meece, Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in the DRC ended on Thursday, June 27. He was replaced in that position by the German Martin Kobler. The former head of MONUSCO has said that he leaves the mission with a mixed sense of failure and optimism.
 
Roger Meece a fait ses adieux en tant que Chef de la Mission de l'ONU en RDC | 28 June 2013 | UN News Centre
Le Chef de la Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO), Roger Meece, a fait ses adieux après la fin de son mandat en tant que Représentant spécial du Secrétaire général pour la RDC, a annoncé vendredi la Mission.
 
M23
 
La Monusco accuse le M23 de tueries, pillages et enrôlements forcés au Nord-Kivu | 27 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
MONUSCO has accused the M23 from committing abuses against civilians in several areas of Rutshuru. The military spokesman, Colonel Felix Basse said Wednesday, June 26 that the rebel movement is guilty of killings, looting and forced conscription of young people. He states that the M23 regularly conducts cordon-and-search operations in which arbitrary arrests, killings and harassment against the civilians suspected of collaborating with militias are committed.
 
RDC: la Monusco accuse le M23 de commettre des exactions dans l'est du pays | 28 June 2013 | RFI
La Monusco, la Mission des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, soupçonne les rebelles du M23 de commettre des exactions contre les populations civiles dans des localités du territoire de Rutshuru, dans l'est du pays. Une trentaine de paysans auraient été exécutés, soupçonnés d'avoir collaboré avec des groupes ennemis. La Monusco accuse aussi le M23 d'enrôler de force des jeunes pour remplacer ses hommes perdus dans de récents combats avec d'autres groupes armés.
 
RDC: la guerre de la désinformation bat son plein dans le Nord Kivu | 2 July 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
Les rebelles du M23 et Kinshasa se livrent à une bataille sans pareille en matière de désinformation, tandis que les troupes semblent se positionner des deux côtés dans l’est du pays.
 
Failed States Index
 
Why Herbst And Mills Are Wrong About Congo’s “Invisible State” | 27 June 2013 | African Arguments
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a failed state/The Democratic Republic of the Congo is falling apart/The Democratic Republic of the Congo does not exist.
By relying on tired clichés in yet another relentless description of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Herbst and Mills have created a climax for the usual headlines in contemporary analyses of the country.
 
Sexual violence
 
UNICEF and MONUSCO condemn rapes in South Kivu | 27 June 2013 | UNICEF, MONUSCO | Reliefweb
Senior UN officials condemn recent rapes of young girls in eastern DR Congo | 27 June 2013 | UN News Centre
The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General in DRC, Mr. Roger Meece and the Country Representative of UNICEF, Ms. Barbara Bentein are deeply concerned about recent cases of rape of young girls, in Kavumu–Lwiro axis, in South Kivu Province, east of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
Bas-Congo : 40 cas de violences sexuelles enregistrés en juin à Matadi | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The commissioner of the Congolese National Police responsible for the protection of children and women as well as sexual violence in Bas-Congo, has said that cases of sexual violence are increasingly common in the city of Matadi. In the month of June alone, forty cases were registered in the city.
 
Independence Day
 
RDC: le 53è anniversaire de l’indépendance fêté dans la méditation à cause de la guerre dans l’Est | 30 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese government has stated that no festivities will be held on National Independence Day in order to show solidarity with fellow Congolese citizens in the east who are still facing conflict.
 
Kasai-Occidental
 
Kasai-Occidental: 6 morts dans un conflit de gestion d’un lac à Dimbelenge | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Six people were killed and several others injured on Saturday, June 29, during a clash between Bakwa Lukusa and Bena Tshipidimba in the territory of Dimbelenge (Kasai Occidental). These two peoples have been fighting for years over the management of Lake Foi. Many people are said to have sought refuge in the bush to get away from the conflict.
 
Kasai-Oriental : les habitants de Bashandala et Nkwanga se disent victimes de tracasseries policières | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The inhabitants of the localities Bashandala and Nkwanga in Kasai-Oriental have complained that they have been made victims of police harassment.
 
Province Orientale
 
Province Orientale: la FRPI dément la présence d’officiers ougandais dans ses rangs à Getty | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI) has denied allegations by local authorities reporting the presence of Ugandan military intelligence officers in the ranks of the armed group. "No Ugandan officer is in the ranks of the FRPI" FRPIChief of Staff, Mbandu Adirodu colonel, told Radio Okapi.
 
Ituri : le bureau de la police saccagé après le meurtre d’une femme par un présumé policier | 3 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Protesters ransacked the police offices of Bahema Banywagi in Tchomia in Ituri in protest against the murder of a woman by a suspected policeman. According to witnesses, the victim was shot at her home the previous night. The police and army fired shots in the air to disperse the demonstrators, wounding one of them.
 
Ituri : un Chinois tué et un policier blessé dans une attaque contre leur embarcation | 28 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
A Chinese miner was shot and a Congolese policeman seriously wounded during an attack on their boat by armed men on the Ituri River, 60 km south of Bunia (Eastern Province).
 
North Kivu
 
MONUSCO strongly condemns serious violations by Mayi-Mayi Sheka in North Kivu | 27 June 2013 | MONUSCO
Fermeté de la MONUSCO face aux graves violations des Mayi-Mayi Sheka au Nord-Kivu | 27 June 2013 | MONUSCO
Continued attacks against civilians by Mai-Mai combatants, under the command of Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka, in Walikale territory, North Kivu, remain a major concern for MONUSCO.
 
Nord-Kivu : la résidence de l’opposant Mbusa Nyamwisi perquisitionnée à Butembo | 27 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
The private residence of Congolese opposition leader MbusaNyamwisi was raided in Butembo on Thursday, June 27. Security sources reportedly state that the search was in response to reports that leaders of armed groups were present in the house, though Mr Nyamwisi's political party, RCD / KML, has denounced the raid as a political strike against its national president.
 
Goma : les FARDC préparées pour protéger la ville | 27 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
MONUSCO military spokesman in Goma, Colonel Abdul Ndiaye, issued a statement on Wednesday intended to reassure the public over fears of clashes between the FARDC and the M23 akin to those of last November, stating that a defence plan is in place and being implemented and that corrections have been implemented in Goma's security plan since last November's events.
 
Nord-Kivu: des hommes armés sèment la terreur sur la route Luofu – Miriki | 28 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in Lubero has denounced growing insecurity on the road between Luofo and Miriki, an agricultural service road about 200 kilometers north-west of Goma. 57 cases of human rights violations committed by armed men are said to have been registered in the area.
 
Goma: un député national apaise la population sur une éventuelle attaque du M23 | 30 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
National deputy, Nzangi Muhindo Butondo, has called for calm after rumours of a possible M23 attack on Goma, stating that the FARDC will no longer leave Goma to fall into the hands of the rebels.
 
Nord-Kivu : des rebelles ougandais de l’ADF/Nalu contrôlent deux localités près de Beni | 30 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
The localities of Mamundioma and Totolito have been under the control of Ugandan ADF / NALU rebels since the morning of Sunday, June 30th. The two localities are situated more than 45 kilometres north-east of Beni. According to local sources, these villages fell under the control of the rebels after three days of intense fighting between the rebel movement and the FARDC, which occasioned sixteen deaths.
 
Nord-Kivu : 4 morts et près de 250 évadés après une attaque contre la prison de Beni | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Four people were killed and two hundred and forty to four inmates escaped on Monday 1 July, during an attack by a Mai Mai group, on Kangwayi central prison in Beni. After an hour's shootout between a hundred assailants and ten military and police officers responsible for the security of the prison, the militia were able to break down the doors and release prisoners. Among those killed, there were a soldier, a prisoner and two militiamen, according to military sources.
 
Nord-Kivu: les habitants de Kibati fuient un renforcement des positions du M23 | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The people of Kibati fled their locality three days ago. Local sources indicate that these shifts follow the strengthening of M23 positions in this area. Those in the localities of Buvira, Zanga and Buyengwe in the Munigi groupment are also been reported to have been displaced.
 
Beni: la société civile redoute une attaque des rebelles ougandais contre plusieurs cités | 2 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in Beni has accused the Ugandan ADF / NALU rebels of preparing an attack against several cities in the country.Civil society leader, Teddy Kataliko, has stated that for three days the rebels have reinforced their positions around Beni and Oicha.
 
Nord-Kivu : les jeunes plaident pour l’accélération du déploiement de la Brigade de la Monusco | 3 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
In a statement released on Tuesday, July 2 in Goma, the provincial youth council in North Kivu requested the accelerated deployment of MONUSCO's intervention brigade. The statement highlights that the security situation in this region is characterized by the activism of several armed groups operating in the five areas that make up North Kivu.
 
South Kivu
 
UNICEF and MONUSCO condemn rapes in South Kivu | 27 June 2013 | UNICEF, MONUSCO | Reliefweb
Senior UN officials condemn recent rapes of young girls in eastern DR Congo | 27 June 2013 | UN News Centre
The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General in DRC, Mr. Roger Meece and the Country Representative of UNICEF, Ms. Barbara Bentein are deeply concerned about recent cases of rape of young girls, in Kavumu–Lwiro axis, in South Kivu Province, east of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
Sud-Kivu: l’armée et la société civile vont en guerre contre les barrières illégales à Uvira | 28 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
The military has pledged to identify and remove illegal barriers in Uvira. The commander of the 104th FARDC branch, Colonel Patrick Opya made this pledge at a two-day workshop, organized by an NGO coalition that has identified 50 illegal roadblocks in the area.
 
Sud-Kivu : 1 500 miliciens en attente d’intégration demandent d’être ravitaillés en vivres | 3 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Self-proclaimed General William Amuri Amisi alias Yakutumba, and 1500 of his men have complained of not being resupplied with food for two weeks whilst gathering in Sebele in Fizi territory. A delegation from the armed group have asked the Fizi authorities for official permission to collect taxes to feed the militiamen awaiting integration into the army, though such authorization was refused.
 
Katanga
 
Katanga : au moins 50 meurtres enregistrés à Lubumbashi en 6 mois, selon la police | 27 June 2013 | Radio Okapi
At least fifty murders took place in Lubumbashi, Katanga, from January to June 2013, according to police sources. Of these murders, seventeen concern motorcycle taxi drivers, and in most cases the killers remain at large.
 
Katanga : la Fondation katangaise appelle les Bakata Katanga à renoncer à la lutte armée | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Katanga Foundation, a socio-cultural platform operating in Katanga, has called upon the Bakata Katanga militia to abandon their armed struggle and present their demands to the government.

 

Uganda

UDPF Reshuffle
 
Museveni reshuffles High Command | 28 June 2013 | Indian Ocean Newsletter | Africa Intelligence
President Yoweri Museveni convened a meeting of UPDF High Command in late May to deal out new cards among the Ugandan army.  Subscription required. 
 
LRA Operation Commanders Changed | 1 July 2013 | Shabelle Media Network | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has made changes within the UPDF field commanders serving under the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) as well as the AU Regional Intervention force against the LRA based in South Sudan.

 

CAR

Security

Central African Republic: Seleka Forces Kill Scores, Burn Villages | 27 June 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Rights group accuses Central African Republic rebels of abuses | 28 June 2013 | Reuters
RCA : HRW appelle à de sanctions contre les responsables d’exactions | 28 June 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
CAR Rebels Accused of 'Rampant Abuses' Against Civilians | 29 June 2013 | Voice of America
Members of the Seleka rebel coalition, which overthrew President François Bozizé of the Central African Republic on 24 March 2013, have targeted and killed at least 40 civilians, and intentionally destroyed 34 villages or towns since February. Human Rights Watch researchers in early June found extensive evidence of rampant abuses in largely rural areas outside the capital, Bangui.
 
Centrafrique: des combats dans la ville de Bangui | 28 June 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique: poussée de fièvre à Bangui | 29 June 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique : six morts dans de nouvelles violences à Bangui | 29 June 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
Centrafrique: situation humanitaire et sécuritaire toujours difficile | 29 June 2013 | RFI
RCA: le président du MLPC appelle les autorités de la transition à sécuriser le pays | 30 June 2013 | RFI
Six personnes ont été tuées et 25 autres blessées vendredi soir à Bangui dans des heurts entre civils et hommes de la coalition Séléka, au pouvoir depuis fin mars en Centrafrique, a-t-on appris de source policière.
 
RCA: limogeage du général Mohamed Dhaffane, ministre et haut responsable de la Seleka | 30 June 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique: le limogeage de Mohamed Dhaffane justifié par son comportement | 1 July 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique: Mohamed Dhaffane, un ex-ministre ambitieux | 2 July 2013 | RFI
En Centrafrique, Mohammed Dhaffane, le ministre des Eaux et forêts du gouvernement de transition, et personnage central de la Seleka, est depuis le samedi 29 juin 2013, en état d'arrestation à Bangui. Il lui est reproché d'avoir préparé des actions de déstabilisation contre le régime.
 
Démarrage des opérations de désarmement, un début de solution sécuritaire à Bangui | 3 July 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Centrafrique : le désarmement de la séléka soulage à Bangui | 3 July 2013 | Afrik.com
Les éléments de la FOMAC ont démarré les opérations de désarmement  dans presque toutes les artères de la capitale centrafricaine à la recherche des armes, munitions et effets de guerre encore entre les mains des éléments de la Séléka. Les activités sont menées par une équipe mixte composée des éléments de Séléka, de la Gendarmerie, de la Police et de la Fomac. 

 
 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Humanitarian Reports
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Maniema N° 18/13, 25 juin 2013 | 27 June 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Humanitarian Action in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Weekly Bulletin, 28 June 2013 | 1 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 23/13, 2 juillet 2013 | 3 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu No 27/13, 3 juillet 2013 | 3 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Katanga N° 25/13, 03 juillet 2013 | 3 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale N° 26/13, 3 juillet 2013 | 3 July 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Press coverage of humanitarian situation
 
Democratic Republic of the Congo: A mother’s worry | 1 July 2013 | IFRC | Reliefweb
 
Fleeing with What’s Most Important | 1 July 2013 | Inter Press Service
Fuir avec ce qui est plus important | 2 July 2013 | Inter Press Service
 
Combler le fossé entre les secours d’urgence et le développement en RDC | 1 July 2013 | IRIN
 
IDPs
 
Katanga : plus d’un million de personnes touchées par l’insécurité alimentaire aigüe | 1 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Reports indicate that more than one million two hundred thousand people in Katanga have been affected by acute food insecurity since the beginning of this year. These figures represent 10% of the rural population of the province, according to a survey conducted by FAO.

Uganda

Rwandan Refugees
 
Over 4000 Rwandans to Lose Refugee Status | 27 June 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Over 4000 Rwandans refugees will lose their refugee status in Uganda on Sunday as the cessation clause affecting Rwandans who fled tumultuous events that blighted their country between 1959 and December 1998 comes into effect.

 
 

Rwanda

Rwandan Refugees
 
Over 4000 Rwandans to Lose Refugee Status | 27 June 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Over 4000 Rwandans refugees will lose their refugee status in Uganda on Sunday as the cessation clause affecting Rwandans who fled tumultuous events that blighted their country between 1959 and December 1998 comes into effect.
 
Ending of refugee status for Rwandans approaching | 28 June 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
La cessation du statut de réfugié approche pour les Rwandais | 28 June 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
As end of refugee status approaches, UN working to ensure proper closure for Rwandans | 28 June 2013 | UN News Centre
UN Reaffirms Support to Returnees | 3 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The United Nations refugee agency said today it is working closely with concerned Governments to bring to a proper closure the situation of Rwandans who fled their country before 31 December 1998, as the recommended end date for their refugee status approaches on Sunday.
 
Rwanda and DRC sets roadmap for Cessation Clause implementation | 28 June 2013 | Government of Rwanda | Reliefweb
171 Rwandan refugees return from DRC | 28 June 2013 | Government of Rwanda | Reliefweb
 
Les Rwandais du Congo perdent leur statut de réfugiés | 30 June 2013 | RFI
Plus de 8 000 Rwandais exilés au Congo-Brazzaville depuis 1997 perdent à partir de ce dimanche 30 juin leur statut de réfugié.
 
Rwanda Ready to Receive All Returning Refugees As Cessation Clause Comes Into Effect | 2 July 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
Post-June Deadline - Why Refugees Should Still Return | 2 July 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Don't Wait for Host Country to Take Action, Refugees Are Told | 2 July 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
On Sunday, June 30, the cessation clause concerning Rwandan refugees came into effect. This means that Rwandans who fled the country between 1959 and 1998 have lost their refugee status across the world.

 

Burundi 

 UNHCR Burundi - Fact Sheet, mai 2013 | 28 June 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb 
 

CAR

Press coverage of the humanitarian situation
 
CAR Facing Food Crisis | 28 June 2013 | Voice of America
 
Centrafrique: situation humanitaire et sécuritaire toujours difficile | 29 June 2013 | RFI
 
Democratic Republic of the Congo: A mother’s worry | 1 July 2013 | IFRC | Reliefweb
 
Snapshot of child misery emerges from UNICEF missions in CAR | 2 July 2013 | UNICEF | Reliefweb
Central African Republic: UN assessment reveals worsening situation for children | 2 July 2013 | UN News Centre
L'UNICEF tire la sonnette d'alarme face à la détérioration de la situation humanitaire en République centrafricaine | 2 July 2013 | UN News Centre

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

ICC Bemba trial
 
Bemba to Testify in His Own Defense | 27 June 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica


 

Rwanda 

First genocide trial in France
 
Rwanda/France - Génocide des Tutsis : la justice française ouvrira son premier procès en février 2014 | 28 June 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency
Rwanda: un présumé génocidaire pour la première fois devant la justice en France | 29 June 2013 | RFI
Pascal Simbikangwa sera bien le premier Rwandais poursuivi en France pour son rôle présumé dans le génocide de 1994. Le procès de cet ancien officier rwandais doit s'ouvrir le 4 février prochain devant les assises de Paris. Il est poursuivi pour  « complicité de génocide » et « complicité de crimes contre l'humanité ».


 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.
US anti-poaching plan
 
ThinkProgress: Obama Launches Anti-Poaching Task Force | 2 July 2013 | Enough Project
Obama Announces New U.S. Focus on Wildlife Trafficking | 2 July 2013 | Inter Press Service
President Barack Obama on Monday announced a series of new initiatives to combat spiking levels of international poaching and draft a new national plan on wildlife trafficking, an industry that has grown so significantly in recent years that the president now calls it an “international crisis”.
 
Obama wildlife trafficking plan may also boost security | 3 July 2013 | Reuters
A White House plan to curb illegal trafficking in rhino horn, elephant tusks and body parts from other endangered wildlife could have the side benefit of helping to stabilize parts of Africa plagued by insurgent groups, military and political analysts say.

DRC 

Minerals
 
DRC to Export Stockpiled Minerals | 28 June 2013 | Voice of America
Minerals that were stockpiled in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo because of a ban on mining activities are now on their way to being exported, according to traders in the city of Goma.  The pressure group Global Witness says it is not clear that the stockpiled minerals have not funded conflict.
 
Land and minerals - resources for peace? | 27 June 2013 | International Alert | Reliefweb
International Alert, in partnership with the School of Global Studies at Sussex University and the Royal Commonwealth Society, held the fifth in its series of Peace Talks events, which was on the subject of "Congolese prospects.
 
Congo’s Army Smuggling Minerals in East Congo, UN Experts Say | 2 July 2913 | Bloomberg
An interim report to the UN Sanctions Committee is reported to have said that FARDC soldiers control a gold mine in South Kivu province and are impeding efforts to resume legal exports of tin ore from Congo’s largest mine in North Kivu province. Inner City Press, a New York-based investigative journalism organization, published a draft report due to to be released later this month on its website on June 29.
 
Deforestation
 
Province Orientale : la culture du tabac menace l’écosystème de la collectivité de Kakwa  | 2 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
Tobacco growing is reported to be responsible for the desertification currently threatening the community of Kakwa located in Aru territory. Many food crops and insect species will disappear, according to research conducted by Jean-Marie Nyolo Biotechnology engineer.
 
Timber trade
 
RDC: une cargaison illégale de bois wengé repérée en République Tchèque, selon Greenpeace | 4 July 2013 | Radio Okapi
A cargo of endangered timber species from the DRC has been found in a processing plant in the Czech Republic, according to a statement released by Greenpeace on 1 July. 

 

Uganda

Oil
 
Is Uganda’s Oil Region Another Northern Uganda In The Making? | 26 June 2013 | African Arguments
A recent workshop on “the politics of oil and gas in East Africa” run by Makerere (Uganda) and Leeds (UK) universities, following a research visit to Uganda’s Hoima District, has revealed much that makes one wonder if the oil discovery in the Albertine region is not a twisted fortune. 
 
Oil hunt in Ugandan national park tests Africa's eco defenses | 27 June 2013 | Reuters
Murchison - Oil and Wildlife Find Balance | 2 July 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Uganda's Murchison Falls National Park is bisected by the majestic Nile river and boasts some of Africa's wildlife treasures - elephants, lions and a rare giraffe sub-species.

Land-grabbing
 
Land Grabbing in Mubende-Neumann (article) | 1 July 2013 | Conflict of Laws.net

 

Rwanda

New mining taxes
 
Rwanda expects to double mining revenue on new tax | 28 June 2013 | Bloomberg | Mineweb
Rwanda’s government will almost double revenue from mining next fiscal year after the introduction of new taxes, said Evode Imena, the state minister in charge of the industry.

 
 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Mining
 
Tenke shipment disruption, DRC ban may add fuel to cobalt rally | 27 June 2013 | MetalBulletin
Cobalt prices, already at their highest level in 12 months, could soar in the second half of the year on reduced supplies from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) miner Tenke Fungurume (TFM) and the lingering threat of a DRC export ban, sources suggest.
 
Oil
 
Total menace d'annuler une prospection pétrolière en Ituri à cause de l'insécurité | 28 June 2013 | Radio Okapi | allAfrica
La société pétrolière Total menace de ne plus prospecter le bloc 3 du Graben Albertine à cause de l'insécurité qui règne dans la région de Getty en Ituri. Le responsable de ce projet, Bernard Leflaive l'a annoncé jeudi 27 juin au cours d'une rencontre avec les représentants des communautés locales de ce territoire de la Province Orientale.
 
Hydropower
 
Will Congo’s Poor Benefit from World’s Largest Dam Project? | 27 June 2013 | International Rivers
Africa’s poorest nation, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), plans to build the world’s largest (and most expensive) hydropower dam, Grand Inga on the Congo River’s Inga Falls.
 
François Misser sur RFI: «Grand Inga apporterait une solution à l'Afrique toute entière» | 30 June 2013 | RFI
François Misser est journaliste, spécialiste de l'Afrique Centrale. Correspondant à Bruxelles de BBC Afrique, il vient de publier La saga d'Inga, l'histoire des barrages du fleuve Congo aux éditions de L'Harmattan.
 
Construction du barrage de Katende, le ministre Bruno Kapanji a séjourné au Kasai-Occidental | 2 July 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
Du lundi 24 au jeudi 27 juin 2013, quatre jours durant, Bruno Kapanji, ministre des Ressources hydrauliques et électricité a séjourné dans la province du Kasaï Occidental.
 
Kinshasa’s other white elephants | 2 July 2913 | Africa Energy Intelligence
With the attention of donors fixed on the Inga 3 dam, Congo president Joseph Kabila is making a strong pitch for power plants in other parts of the country. Subscription required.
 
Tiger achieves new monthly production record at Kipoi | 3 July 2913 | Mining Weekly
ASX-listed Tiger Resources set a new monthly production record at its Kipoi copper project, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in June, when it produced 4 422 t of copper in concentrate from its heavy media separation (HMS) plant.
 

Uganda

Hydropower
 
Amama Mbabazi in China Over Oil, Karuma Dam | 2 July 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi, who arrived in Beijing on Sunday, was due to hold talks on Monday with Fan Jixiang, the chairman of the Sinohydro Group that won the tender to build the 600MW Karuma hydropower dam in Kiryandongo district.


 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Kimberley Process
 
Kimberley Process still relevant – Nhlapo | 27 June 2013 | Mining Weekly
The Kimberley Process (KP), aimed at stemming the trade of conflict diamonds, was definitely still alive and strong, KP chair, and South Africa's special representative to Africa's Great Lakes Countries Welile Nhlapo said on Thursday.
 
 
Dodd-Frank Act, Section 1504
 
UPDATE 2-U.S. judge tosses SEC's resource payment disclosure rule | 2 July 2013 | Reuters
United States District Court for the District of Columbia. American Petroleum Institute, et al., v. Securities and Exchange Commission and Oxfam America, Inc.
A U.S. judge tossed out on Tuesday a new rule requiring oil, natural gas and mining companies to disclose payments to foreign governments, in a blow to U.S. securities regulators and human rights groups.
 
Court Takes Backward Step on SEC Extractives Disclosure Rules | 3 July 2013 | Revenue Watch | allAfrica
Revenue Watch, a non-profit policy institute promoting the effective, transparent and accountable management of oil, gas and mineral resources for the public good, expressed its disappointment with the District Court’s ruling on Tuesday, July 2 in the American Petroleum Institute v. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) litigation.
The ruling vacates and remands to the SEC rules required by Section 1504 of the Dodd-Frank Act. Section 1504 calls for the SEC to issue rules requiring oil, gas and mining companies listed in the U.S. to disclose payments they make to governments. Section 1504 remains in place as law, but the remand means the SEC will need to determine the most effective way to implement the law following the Court’s ruling.

DRC

Tax enforcement
 
La DGDA affecte un agent à Kampala pour lutter contre la fraude fiscale | 2 July 2913 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese Directorate General of Customs and Excise (LDB) has assigned an officer to Kampala to allow for the better traceability of imported products this part of the country and reduce the incidence of tax evasion.


 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
 
 
 
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