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WEEKLY BRIEFING 10TH - 16TH MAY 2013

Content

Editorial
 
IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
CAR
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi
CAR 

Justice and Tribunals
DRC

 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Burundi

CAR
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC
CAR

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

The Africa Progress Panel’s Annual Report for 2013 was released on Friday, and this year addresses the potential contribution of Africa’s resource wealth, looking particularly at the Democratic Republic of Congo. The report laments the DRC’s loss of revenue occasioned by the sale of undervalued resource assets.
 
The deployment of the Security Council mandated intervention brigade gathered momentum this week with the arrival of Tanzanian troops in Goma shortly before an African Union delegation visit to the town to assess the security situation. Fighting in various parts of North Kivu have been reported, with clashes between FARDC and ADF/NALU and Mai-Mai rebels in Beni territory and fierce fighting between the FARDC and Mai-Mai during an attack on Beni town on Wednesday. Inter-militia conflict also occurred between the newly formed Forces for the Defence of Human Rights (FDDH) and Nyatura militia in Masisi territory, where reports indicate that at least 5 new armed groups have established themselves over the last year. In South Kivu attacks by Burundian FNL rebels have cased displacement, whilst in Katanga there are further reports of FDLR extortion of local civilians.
 
In the Central African Republic this week Human Rights Watch has denounced the continuing gross human rights violations being perpetrated against civilians as the UN envoy for the CAR has proposed the deployment of a neutral UN security force to assist in the restoration of stability in the State, as well as sanctions against Seleka rebels. In light of recent revelations of ties between the Seleka and funds from the CAR’s diamond trade the country is currently facing the threat of suspension under the Kimberly Process.
 

 

IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

DRC 

UN Intervention Brigade
 
Tanzanian troops arrive in eastern DR Congo as part of UN intervention brigade | 10 May 2013 | UN News Centre
La MONUSCO salue l'arrivée à Goma d'éléments militaires tanzaniens de la Brigade d'intervention | 10 May 2013 | UN News Centre
Brigade d’intervention de la Monusco: des militaires tanzaniens sont arrivés à Goma | 11 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
A contingent of Tanzanian soldiers arrived in the eastern city of Goma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) today as part of the intervention brigade authorized by the United Nations to help neutralize armed groups in this volatile part of the country.
 
SADC Welcomes Deployment of Troops in DRC | 13 May 2013 | Tanzania Daily News | allAfrica
The heads of state and governments of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) have welcomed deployment of the Intervention Brigade (IB) in the Eastern DRC under the auspices of MONUSCO.
 
Briefing: Towards internal solutions to the DRC crisis | 14 May 2013 | IRIN
A UN intervention brigade will soon be deployed to the troubled eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in a bid to neutralize militia groups operating there. The over-3,000-strong military force will work alongside the UN Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO) to carry out targeted offensives against militia groups, which have caused numerous civilian deaths and massive population displacements.
While some welcome the forthcoming military intervention, many analysts are advocating for Kinshasa-led initiatives - such as reforming key institutions - as necessary, if not alternative, solutions. In this briefing, IRIN highlights some of the key issues that the DRC government needs to address to secure its restive east.
 
African Union delegation visit to Goma
 
The African Union asserts its presence in DR Congo | 14 May 2013 | MONUSCO
L'Union Africaine affirme sa présence en République démocratique du Congo | 14 May 2013 | MONUSCO
A delegation of 15 ambassadors, members of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, arrived on official mission in Goma, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, on 13 May 2013. The delegation came to enquire about the security situation and the imminent deployment of the new Intervention Brigade in North Kivu province. Julien Paluku Kahongya briefed them on the security and humanitarian situation in eastern DRC, which is still facing frequent attacks by the numerous armed groups present in the region, especially in Masisi, Walikale and Rutshuru territories in the North Kivu province.
 
Implementation of Framework agreement
 
Tripartite Meeting Discusses DR Congo Situation | 13 May 2013 | AngolaPress | allAfrica
Tripartite Meeting Yields Positive Results | 15 May 2013 | AngolaPress | allAfrica
Foreign Affairs ministers of Angola, South Africa (host) and DRC discussed Monday the prevailing situation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
 
Joseph Kabila crée un mécanisme de suivi de l'accord-cadre du 14 février | 14 May 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Signature par le Chef de l’Etat d’une ordonnance instituant le suivi de l’Accord-cadre sur la RDC | 14 May 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
Le président Joseph Kabila vient de créer le mécanisme de suivi placé sous son autorité, pour mettre en œuvre les engagements pris par le gouvernement dans le cadre de l'accord-cadre de l'ONU sur l'Est de la RDC. Ce comité est créé pour une durée d'un an. Le mécanisme est composé de 3 comités : pilotage, exécutif et consultatif.
 
Ban Ki-moon attendu en RDC pour faire le point sur la brigade d’intervention des Nations unies | 15 May 2013 | RFI
Ban Ki-Moon, secrétaire général des Nations unies, et le président de la Banque mondiale, arrivent à Kinshasa mercredi 22 mai, avant de se rendre à Goma. Une visite qui intervient alors que la brigade d’intervention de l’ONU se met progressivement en place dans le Nord-Kivu. Elle doit y combattre les groupes armés qui sèment la terreur dans cette région.
 
M23

La réintégration des déserteurs du M23 dans l’armée divise l’opinion | 13 May 2013 | IPS
La réintégration "aveugle et non encadrée" des déserteurs du M23 au sein de l’armée congolaise, pourrait être préjudiciable pour le pays, affirme Thomas d’Aquin Mwiti, président de la société civile du Nord-Kivu, dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC).
 
Le Conseil du gouvernement fustige le renforcement des positions des terroristes du M23 à Kibati, Kaunga et Kanyaruchinya | 14 May 2013 | L’Avenir | Digitalcongo.net
Le Premier ministre a présidé lundi un conseil extraordinaire du gouvernement qui a dénoncé l’attitude des terroristes du M23 qui continuent à renforcer leurs positions au Nord-Kivu, notamment dans les localités de Kibati, Kaunga et Kanyaruchinya.
 
Province Orientale
 
Province Orientale: 84 OPJ pour lutter contre l’impunité des auteurs des violences sexuelles | 12 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
84 judiciary police officers trained in Bunia to fight sexual violence | 12 May 2013 | MONUSCO
Bunia: 84 OPJ formés pour lutter contre les violences sexuelles | 12 May 2013 | MONUSCO
Eighty-four police officers, including two women, underwent five weeks of training in the Ituri district, Province Orientale, on gender-based sexual violence. The participants who hailed from the four districts of the province, met in the main town of Bunia to attend this training, which was focused on a variety of themes ranging from police work ethics and professional practices in the framework of the fight that the Congolese Government has launched against sexual violence. The trainees were inducted on concepts such as community policing, procedures applicable to sexual violence, as well as HIV-AIDS and child protection.
 
North Kivu
 
Spate of Kidnappings Reported in Eastern DRC | 10 May 2013 | Voice of America
Nearly 30 people have been kidnapped in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo since the beginning of April, according to a North Kivu-based civil society group, which says it knows where some of the victims are being held.
 
Nord-Kivu : 60 incidents sécuritaires contre les humanitaires enregistrés en 5 mois, selon Ocha | 10 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nearly sixty security incidents against humanitarian workers have been recorded since January 2013, twenty-nine to Goma, according to a Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) report released on Wednesday, May 8 in Goma.
 
Nord-Kivu : la moitié des habitants de Pinga désertent cette cité après les combats entre deux milices | 10 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
MSF have reported that half of the inhabitants of Pinga have fled their homes after fighting between militias at the end of April in the town of Walikale territory. These fights had opposed the Alliance for a Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS) warlord Janvier Kalahiri, and the Nduma Defence of Congo (NDC) group of Sheka. In a statement released Thursday, May 9 in Goma, the international NGO says the situation remains tense and unpredictable in this locality.
 
Nord-Kivu : 2 miliciens de l’ADF/Nalu tués lors des combats avec l’armée près de Beni | 11 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ugandan rebel ADF / NALU fighters and the FARDC clashed in the village of Point Kilometre 7 (PK7) on the axis-Kamango Mbau (North Kivu) on Friday morning. According to FARDC, the clashed have occasioned two deaths on the side of the militia and wounded. The situation is said by FARDC to be under control. The clashes took place around 7:30 pm local time, about 30 km north-east of the town of Beni.
 
Nord-Kivu : 10 miliciens Mai-Mai arretes apres une fusillade à Beni | 11 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Mai-Mai militiamen made a brief foray to Tuha in Beni (North Kivu) on Friday, May 10. A shootout between soldiers and militiamen lasted ten minutes. Mayor Beni Nyonyi Bwanakawa confirmed the arrest of ten militiamen, who are in the hands of the security services. Local civil society has expressed its concern and calls for increased security measures in the city of Beni.
 
Nord-Kivu : l’explosion d’une mine antipersonnel tue un enfant à Kitshanga | 13 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
The explosion of a landmine killed one person and wounded another at Kitshanga in North Kivu. The mine, which was shaped like a cup according to witnesses, was seen by nine children in a bush. One of the children threw a stone on the device detonating it and killing another child and seriously injuring others.
 
Nord-Kivu : des présumés rebelles ADF/Nalu enlèvent 5 personnes à Bankota | 13 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Five people were abducted on Saturday, May 11, in the evening by suspected of ADF / NALU rebels in Bankota, a village located on the Kamango-Beni axis in North Kivu. According to the president of the local civil society, these abductions bring the total number of hostages to one hundred and forty since January, including forty-nine women and minors.
 
Nord-Kivu : la société civile accuse le M23 de 4 meurtres à Nyiragongo | 14 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society sources in North Kivu accuse the M23 rebels of shooting a young man of 24 years in Kibumba territory Nyragongo on Monday. It is said that the victim was accused of theft by the rebels and killed on the orders of Colonel Mboneza in charge of the sector command of Nyiragongo. According to civil society, this is the fourth murder committed by the M23 within three weeks in the territory of Nyiragongo.
 
Nord-Kivu : des combats entre deux milices entrainent un déplacement de population à Masisi | 14 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Fighting between a new armed group called Forces of Human Rights (WHRDs) and Nyatura militiamen has pushed the population to flee villages in Masisi since Sunday, May 12. The villages affected include Busumba, Kihunda, Kashanje and Kabare located nearly 20 km from Kitshanga (North Kivu). One civilian has been reported killed and at least six others wounded in the clashes.
 
Gunmen attack east Congo army base, at least 31 dead | 15 May 2013 | Reuters
At least 31 people were killed when gunmen attacked an army base in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo on Wednesday, the military said, underlining the challenge facing a new U.N. intervention force in the territory.
 
Nord-Kivu: La situation demeure tendue et imprévisible, selon la MONUSCO | 15 May 2013 | MONUSCO
The security situation remains tense and unpredictable in the province of North Kivu, according to the interim military spokesman of MONSUCO, Battalion Chief, Tourny Vincent. In this context, the North Kivu MONUSCO Brigade continues to conduct unilateral operations in order to counter any armed threat against the city of Goma, the provincial capital of North Kivu. These operations are also designed to maintain security and protect civilians.
 
Nord-Kivu : polémique au sujet des auteurs de l’attaque contre la ville de Beni | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
The acting commander of the first sector of the FARDC in Beni, Colonel Richard Bisamaza, has accused the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy in Congo (MDRC) of attacking the town of Beni this wednesday morning. The head of the militia, the self-proclaimed general Hilaire Kombi, rejects this accusation, attributing the attack to another armed group. The attack killed 36 people including four Congolese soldiers and 32 militiamen, according to Colonel Richard Bisamaza. Other sources speak of more than 17 soldiers being killed.
 
Nord Kivu : 5 groupes armés créés en une année à Kitshanga | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
At least five new national armed groups were created within a year around the city of Kitshanga in Masisi territory. These groups each control two or three villages. The main groups created over the past year are: Nyatura Noheri, Nyatura Ngwiti, Nyatura Kipema, the M26 and the forces of Congolese Patriots (FPC). Clashes between these groups has resulted in looting, many human rights violations and massive displacement to camps. The regular army was deployed on the main Sake-Kitshanga axis but has failed to secure the villages on the route.
 
Nord-Kivu: les affrontements entre FARDC et Maï-Maï à Beni ont fait 28 morts | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Clashes occurred on Wednesday morning at dawn in Beni between the FARDC and the Mai-Mai. Twenty-eight persons are reported dead, according to a report reviewed by the acting commander of the first sector of the FARDC in Beni. According to the same source, six attackers were captured. However, independent sources, state that seventeen soldiers were killed. Apparent calm reigns in Beni after the clashes but people are still holed up in their homes.
 
Nord-Kivu : des miliciens Maï-Maï ont tenté d’occuper Beni | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Twenty-two Mai Mai militia and four FARDC soldiers are said to have died in clashes between the two groups on Wednesday in Beni. An interim report given by the acting commander of the first sector of the FARDC says the attackers were trying to take control of Beni but encountered resistance.
 
South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu : la cité de Kinshaje se vide de ses habitants suite aux attaques des rebelles burundais | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
More than five hundred families in Kinshaje more than 50 Km south west of Sange have had to leave the city to take refuge in the town of Kasenya for three days. These people are fleeing attacks against civilians by Burundian rebels, the National Liberation Forces (FNL).
 
Katanga
 
Lubumbashi: 3 militaires comparaissent pour détournement des munitions | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three FARDC soldiers have appeared before a mobile court at the seat of the General Staff of the 6th military region in Lubumbashi (Katanga). Captain Mukonkole Ngoy and his co-defendants are charged with hijacking and attempted diversion of ammunition, possession of weapons of war, loss of weapons and violation of orders. The main accused Captain Mukonkole Ngoy, is head of the equipment and logistics department of the 6th military region.
 
Katanga : des présumés FDLR ont tendu une embuscade aux taximen moto à Kabulo | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Eight suspected Rwandan FDLR rebels, armed with guns ambushed motor bikers and cyclists on the Nyunzu axis, in the village of Kabulo, 53 kilometres north-west of Kalemie (Katanga). The rebels are reportedly searching and extorting money and goods from passers-by.


CAR

Abuses against civilians
 
Central African Republic: Rampant Abuses After Coup | 10 May 2013 | Human Rights Watch
République centrafricaine: De nombreuses exactions ont été commises après le coup d'État | 10 May 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Members of the Seleka rebel coalition, which ousted President François Bozizé of the Central African Republic on March 24, 2013, have committed grave violations against civilians, including pillage, summary executions, rape, and torture, Human Rights Watch has said.
 
Unicef Condemns the Re-Recruitment of Child Soldiers and Killing of a Child in Central African Republic | 10 May 2013 | UNICEF | allAfrica
CAR: UN agency ‘condemns in strongest possible terms’ killing of teen linked to rebels | 10 May 2013 | UN News Centre
L'UNICEF condamne le recrutement et le meurtre d'un enfant-soldat en République centrafricaine | 10 May 2013 | UN News Centre
UNICEF condemns in the strongest possible terms the re-recruitment and the killing of a 17-year-old boy. On 24 April, the 17-year-old and a 19-year-old* were ordered by a Seleka officer known as the Colonel to steal a vehicle in a Bangui neighborhood. A crowd gathered at the scene and they were stoned to death by a mob while the Colonel leading the attempt theft fled the scene.
 
RCA : nouveaux heurts meurtriers entre civils et Seleka à Bangui | 11 May 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique : de l’insécurité à la guérilla urbaine | 13 May 2013 | Afrik.com
Les violences entre éléments de la Seleka et civils n'ont pas encore pris fin à Bangui, plus de six semaines après la prise de pouvoir par la rébellion.
 
Seleka containment
 
Centrafrique : le cantonnement de la Séléka a débuté | 14 May 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Début du cantonnement de la Séléka, 200 soldats déjà déployés à Bria | 15 May 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Lundi 13 mai, près de 200 combattants de la Séléka ont quitté Bangui pour la base de Bria (centre-est), un des 16 sites où les ex-rebelles centrafricains doivent être cantonnés. 
 
Lord’s Resistance Army
 
CAR Instability Helps Lord's Resistance Army Regroup | 14 May 2013 | Voice of America
The rebel takeover in the Central African Republic has stalled international efforts to track down the outlaw Lord's Resistance Army (LAR) and its leader Joseph Kony, who is wanted by the International Criminal Court.
 
Calls for a UN neutral force to stabilise CAR
 
Centrafrique : Bangui la Roquette | 13 May 2013 | Jeune Afrique
CAR: UN envoy urges Security Council to bolster security, consider sanctions against rebels
La Représentante de l'ONU demande au Conseil de sécurité d'aider la République centrafricaine à sortir de l'anarchie | 15 May 2013 | UN News Centre
U.N. calls for sanctions on Central African Republic rights abusers | 15 May 2013 | Reuters
A neutral security force is urgently needed to help restore the stability and counter the absence of law and order in the Central African Republic (CAR), a United Nations envoy today told the Security Council, while also calling on the body to consider sanctions against rebel groups for gross violations of human rights.
 
CAR diplomacy
 
Ban Ki-moon a rencontré le Premier ministre de la République centrafricaine, Nicolas Tiangaye | 14 May 2013 | UN News Centre
Le patron de l'ONU a rencontré lundi à New York le Premier ministre centrafricain, Nicolas Tiangaye, et tenu à lui exprimer son soutien. Il a rappelé que les Accords de Libreville signés en janvier 2013 qui prévoient une transition inclusive dans le pays, ainsi que la Déclaration de N'Djamena du 18 avril, conféraient toute légitimité à son mandat de Premier ministre.
 
Tchad: la sécurité en Centrafrique au centre des discussions entre Michel Djotodia et Idriss Déby | 15 May 2013 | RFI
Michel Djotodia chez Idriss Déby Itno | 15 May 2013 | BBC Afrique
Centrafrique : les enjeux de la tournée régionale de Michel Djotodia | 15 May 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Michel Djotodia, le président de la transition en Centrafrique, était à N’Djamena hier, mardi 14 mai, pour une visite de travail. Une rencontre qui inaugure une tournée régionale et qui a permis de faire le point sur la stabilisation de la situation en Centrafrique deux mois après le renversement de François Bozizé par la coalition Seleka.
 

 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Humanitarian reports
 
IOM Strengthens Cooperation with UNHCR to Tackle Internal Displacement in DRC | 10 May 2013 | International Organization for Migration | Reliefweb
 
Province du Sud-Kivu/RD Congo : Bulletin humanitaire provincial - Avril 2013 | 15 May 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 20/13, 14 mai 2013 | 14 May 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 17/13, 14 mai 2013 | 14 May 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale N° 19/13, 14 mai 2013 | 14 May 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Refugees
 
Voices From Exile: Daily realities and future prospects of Congolese and Burundian refugees in the Great Lakes Region | 14 May 2013 | Danish Refugee Council | Reliefweb
Voix d’exil: Réalités du quotidien et perspectives d’avenir de réfugiés congolais et burundais de la Région des Grands Lacs | 14 May 2013 | Danish Refugee Council | Reliefweb
 
UNHCR Burundi inaugurates a new camp for Congolese refugees | 15 May 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Le HCR inaugure au Burundi un nouveau camp pour les réfugiés congolais | 15 May 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
IDPs
 
Nord-Kivu : les déplacés demandent à l’Australie de s’impliquer pour le retour de la paix | 11 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
IDPs living in the camp Mungote have requested that Australia become involved in returning peace in the region as a member of the Security Council. They submitted this request to the Australian Ambassador to the DRC, Matthew Neuhaus during his visit to the camp in Kitchanga (North Kivu), Saturday, May 11. The Australian ambassador in the DRC was concerned by the security situation of IDPs in North Kivu.

Burundi 

Refugees
 
Voices From Exile: Daily realities and future prospects of Congolese and Burundian refugees in the Great Lakes Region | 14 May 2013 | Danish Refugee Council | Reliefweb
Voix d’exil: Réalités du quotidien et perspectives d’avenir de réfugiés congolais et burundais de la Région des Grands Lacs | 14 May 2013 | Danish Refugee Council | Reliefweb
 
UNHCR Burundi inaugurates a new camp for Congolese refugees | 15 May 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Le HCR inaugure au Burundi un nouveau camp pour les réfugiés congolais | 15 May 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb


CAR

Humanitarian reports
 
Central African Republic: Situation Report No. 15 (as of 9 May 2013) | 10 May 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
République Centrafricaine Rapport de situation No. 15 (au 10 mai 2013) | 10 May 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 

 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

ICC Bemba trial
 
Bozizé Soldiers 'Committed Crimes in Bemba-Controlled Zone' | 10 May 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
Witness Regrets ICC Is Unaware of Crimes Bozizé Forces Committed | 13 May 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
 
A criminal court for the Great Lakes war crimes
 
Le Rwanda, le Burundi et la RDC souhaitent créer une cour de justice | 13 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Rwanda, Burundi and the DRC want to create a court to try the perpetrators of crimes in the Great Lakes region. They expressed this wish during a meeting of foreign ministers of the three countries held from 9 to May 10 in Bujumbura. "States have estimated that with the cross crime in the Great Lakes region, it is necessary that we implement a Court that will deal with crimes committed in the Great Lakes region. This is an innovation. And when you will begin to share common interests between the DRC and Rwanda, and Burundi, it is estimated that no State may still interfere in the affairs of one or the other because the interest will shared, " said the governor of North Kivu Julien Paluku who participated in the meeting of foreign ministers.

 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.
Africa Progress Panel – Report 2013
 
Africa Progress Panel 2013 Report: Equity in Extractives | May 2913 | Africa Progress Panel
Copies of report available in English, French, Portuguese and German. 
 
Stop the Plunder of Africa | 9 May 2013 | The New York Times
Op-Ed by Kofi Annan.
COLUMN-African minerals and the illusion of fair value: Kemp | 14 May 2013 | Reuters
With Africa’s economies riding the crest of the global commodities wave, there is an unprecedented opportunity to convert the region’s vast resource wealth into investments that could lift millions out of poverty, create jobs, and bring hope to future generations.
 
Global Witness welcomes Kofi Annan’s call for financial transparency in African resource deals | 9 May 2013 | Global Witness
Campaign group Global Witness has backed a call by prominent figures including Kofi Annan, Bob Geldof and Graca Machel for Africa’s natural resource wealth to be used for the benefit of its people.
 
Les ressources naturelles de l'Afrique pourraient améliorer de manière spectaculaire la vie de millions de personnes | 10 May 2013 | Africa Progress Panel | allAfrica
Toutefois, le rapport affirme que, bien que les ressources naturelles aient aidé à alimenter une décennie de croissance économique rapide, la plupart des Africains n’en ont encore retiré aucun bénéfice.
 
Kofi Annan: Africa plundered by secret mining deals | 10 May 2013 | BBC Africa
Tax avoidance, secret mining deals and financial transfers are depriving Africa of the benefits of its resources boom, ex-UN chief Kofi Annan has said.
 
Les compagnies minières privent l’Afrique de 38 milliards de dollars | 10 May 2013 | RFI
A l’occasion du World Economic Forum qui s’est tenu au Cap, le Groupe de travail sur l’Afrique en progrès dénonce les méfaits des compagnies minières internationales. Celles-ci spolient le continent africain en privant les gouvernements de 38 milliards de dollars par an.
 
EITI Chair welcomes African Progress Panel report on extractives | 13 May 2013 | EITI
The Africa Progress Panel’s report “Equity in Extractives” launched on Friday, highlights how the EITI has helped build a new culture of openness and has acted as a catalyst for reform in many countries.
 
Clamping down on corruption in Africa's extractive industries | 14 May 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
How to better utilise the wealth from Africa’s non-renewable resources – oil, gas and minerals – to eradicate poverty in Africa? This was one of the important questions asked at discussions on Africa’s economic growth prospects at the World Economic Forum (WEF) on Africa held in Cape Town from 8–10 May 2013. The soaring demand for commodities from developing nations in the last few years has created a unique opportunity for African countries to plough this windfall into socio-economic development. However, this has rarely been the case.

DRC 

Africa Progress Panel Report 2013 - the DRC
 
Africa Progress Panel 2013 Report: Equity in Extractives | May 2913 | Africa Progress Panel
Copies of report available in English, French, Portuguese and German. Principle focus: DRC.
 
Congo loses out on $1.4bn as mine assets sold cheap – Annan panel | 10 May 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Kofi Annan report criticises 'opaque' Congo deals by ENRC | 10 May 2013 | The Telegraph
The Democratic Republic of Congo lost at least $1.36-billion in potential revenues between 2010 and 2012 due to cut-price sales of mining assets to offshore companies, according to a panel led by former UN secretary general Kofi Annan.
 
Mines congolaises : Ces 1,36 milliard perdus par le pays | 10 May 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Dans son Rapport 2013 sur les progrès en Afrique, l'Africa Progress Panel examine cinq accords de cession dans les mines congolaises. Ces opérations, qui ont toutes transité par des sociétés offshore opaques, auraient fait perdre au pays deux fois le budget annuel pour la santé et l'éducation.
 
Annan Says Undervalued Mine Deals Cost Congo $1.4 Billion | 10 May 2013 | Bloomberg
The Democratic Republic of Congo lost out on about $1.4 billion in revenue by selling undervalued copper and cobalt deposits now controlled by Glencore Xstrata Plc and Eurasian Natural Resources Corp., says the African Progress Panel. The figure represents a “small share” of overall losses as state-owned companies underpriced assets they sold to companies owned by Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler between 2010 and 2012.
 
Report: DRC Mining Deals Highlight Resource Corruption | 14 May 2013 | Voice of America
The Africa Progress Panel, a research organization chaired by former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, says most Africans are not getting a fair deal out of their countries’ natural resources.  In its annual report, the panel highlights several mining deals in the Democratic Republic of Congo as examples of how, it said, natural resource wealth has been mismanaged. 
 
Child labour in Katanga gold mines
 
Des écoles désertées au profit des mines d’or | 14 May 2013 | IPS
L’exploitation artisanale de l’or attire les élèves et enseignants de Nyunzu, un territoire au nord du Katanga, la province riche en ressources minières dans le sud-est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC).
 
Forest conservation
 
RDC: la préservation de la forêt au défi du développement agricole | 15 May 2013 | RFI
Des pays se liguent contre la déforestation du Bassin du Congo | 14 May 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
Bassin du Congo - Les pays pourraient presque doubler leur superficie cultivée sans empiéter sur les forêts | 15 May 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Une conférence sur la forêt du bassin du Congo débute ce mercredi 15 mai à Kinshasa, à l’initiative de la Banque Mondiale qui vient de produire un rapport et des recommandations pour préserver la forêt congolaise. Ce rapport dit qu’il est possible de développer l’agriculture en préservant la forêt.
 
Illegal logging
 
L’Union européenne exige des preuves « d’exploitation légale » de bois en provenance de la RDC | 11 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
The European Union now requires proof of legal operations to import timber from the DRC. During a sensitization workshop in Kinshasa, technical assistant to support sustainable forest management project, Guy Roulette, asked Congolese loggers to ensure the legality of timber they want to export to Europe.
 
National Parks
 
Nord-Kivu: l’ICCN accusé de gestion calamiteuse du parc des Virunga | 10 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
MP Daniel Paluku has described the management of Virunga Park by the Congolese Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICCN) as disastrous. During the plenary on Thursday, May 9 at the National Assembly, he denounced stray animals and the installation of communication antennas within the confines of the park. According to Daniel Paluku ICCN rangers distinguish themselves by engaging in murder, torture, repeated rape and looting of the population in fields surrounding the park.
 
Kasaï-Oriental : le gouvernement provincial s’engage à combattre le braconnage dans le parc de la Salonga | 12 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Minister of the Interior, Hyppolyte Bwebwe Mutombo has said that the province of Kasai-Oriental is committed to end poaching in Salonga. According to him, a anti-poaching police brigade will be sent to the park in the coming days to track poachers.
 
Province Orientale: le gouverneur Jean Bamanisa pour la survie de la réserve de faune à okapi  | 15 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Okapi Wildlife Reserve is plagued by illegal exploitation of timber, gold and poaching. The Governor of the Eastern Province, Jean Bamanisa Saidi, committed, Friday, May 10, to ensure its protection and survival. " Neither violence nor disputes or rebellion against the laws of the Republic are authorized channels to resolve conflicts related to the management of natural resources such as the Okapi Wildlife Reserve ", the governor said during a roundtable he held in Mambasa-center.

CAR

Poaching
 
Suspected rebels kill 26 elephants in Central African Republic: WWF | 10 May 2013 | Reuters
Gunmen believed to be part of the rebel force that seized power in Central African Republic in March have killed at least 26 elephants in a raid on an internationally-protected wildlife park, campaigners said on Friday.
 
 


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Creation of special economic zones
 
Le Sénat de la RDC a voté la création de zones économiques spéciales à travers le pays | 14 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Senate voted Friday, May 10 for the creation of special economic zones throughout the DRC. According Auguy Bolanda, Senior Coordinator of the Project Support Unit "special economic zones" denote areas where companies can set up and be exempt from all taxes for the first ten years of their activities. This project aims to promote the development of industry in the country.
 
Miners
 
ENRC under fire over Congo mines | 13 May 2013 | OSISA
The multinational mining company, Eurasian Natural Resources Corp (ENRC), is back in the news – and the firing line – once again due to its controversial investments in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
 
RD Congo : voyage au coeur de l'empire du cuivre | 13 May 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Exploité depuis quatre ans, Tenke Fungurume est l'un des plus grands gisements au monde. Voyage au coeur d'un véritable empire.
 
Glencore Xstrata Copper Output Gains 18% on Mines in Africa | 13 May 2013 | Bloomberg
Expanding the Katanga and Mutanda copper mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo is on schedule for completion this year.
 
Ivanplats Announces Financial Results and Review of Operations for the First Quarter of 2013 | 15 May 2013 | Ivanplats | Marketwired
Major Increases in Resources at Two Key Projects in South Africa and the DRC in Q1 2013. Agreement Reached on Upgrading of a Third Hydroelectric Power Plant in the DRC to Support Expanded Mining Scenarios at Ivanplats' Kamoa Copper Discovery.
 
Anglo Ashanti
 
AngloGold Ashanti to cut $500m costs, sell Navachab, suspend Mongbwalu | 13 May 2013 | Mining Weekly
Gold major AngloGold Ashanti is to remove $500-million of operating costs, seek to dispose of Navachab mine before year-end and dress up another mine for a possible further asset sale this year.
 
AngloGold Profit Rises as Post-Strike Production Increases | 13 May 2013 | Bloomberg
AngloGold Ashanti Ltd. (ANG), the third-biggest producer of the metal, said first-quarter profit rose with output following the end of strikes as it focuses on cutting costs.The Kibali mine in the DRC should produce its first gold in 2013, according to the company. Elsewhere in the DRC, the Mongbwalu project has been suspended, AngloGold said.
 
Pit extension suspended at Mongbwalu | 14 May 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence 
Due to a shortage of cash following walkouts at three of its mines in South Africa, AngloGold Ashanti (AGA) suspended construction of its underground mine at Mongbwalu early this month. (Subscription required).
 
Electricity
 
Pour pallier le déficit en énergie électrique au Katanga - SNEL et ZESCO engagent 3 milliards USD pour produire 1400 MW | 14 May 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Une centrale hydroélectrique va être construite sur la rivière Luapula à la frontière entre la RDC et la Zambie. Résultat d'un accord conclu en début de semaine entre la SNEL (RDC) et la ZESCO (Zambie) pour pallier le déficit en énergie électrique dans la province du Katanga. Capacité de production : 1 400 mégawats, à raison de 700 MW pour chaque partie. Durée du projet : 3 ans. Coût : 3 milliards USD.

Uganda

‘Best international practices will guard region against oil curse’ | 11 May 2013 | The EastAfrican
As East Africa edges closer to oil production, concerns are increasing about the bloc’s ability to manage contracts, attract financing and handle dispute resolution to avoid the ‘oil curse’? Kennedy Senelwa spoke to the regional director, Geoffrey Njenga, at the Negotiation and Conflict Management Group International, a dispute resolution firm, on the outlook for the region’s gas and oil sector.


 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 


DRC

10 years of EITI
 
Charting the next steps for transparency in extractives | 10 May 2013 | EITI
When the over 1000 delegates from 95 countries meet in Sydney later this month, it will be at a defining moment for the emerging global coalition to ensure transparency of natural resources, known as the EITI. 
 
Civil society disseminates EITI report
 
La société civile lance la campagne de dissémination du rapport ITIE-Rdc 2010 | 13 May 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
La société civile a mis à la disposition des populations congolaises le rapport ITIE-Rdc 2010 qui porte sur ce que les industries extractives paient à l’Etat à travers les régies financières.
 
Rapport ITIE 2010 : 85 millions USD sont déjà retracés au niveau de la banque centrale, affirme la société civile | 15 May 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
Au regard du manque de traçabilité de 88 millions USD de redevance minière signalé dans le rapport ITIE-Rdc 2010, la société civile a affirmé qu’un montant de 85 millions USD a été déjà retracé par la DGRAD au niveau de la banque centrale du Congo.
 
Mining Code
 
Outcry over new mining legislation | 14 May 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Mining companies are engaged in an angry tug-of-war with Kinshasa as the government puts the final touches to revisions in a mining code that came into force just 10 years ago. The government deems that the industry doesn’t contribute enough to Congo-K’s budget and thus wants to impose higher taxes.

CAR 

Potential Kimberly suspension for CAR
 
Centrafrique: La sanction du Processus de Kimberley | 13 May 2013 | JournaldeBangui.com
Il recommande un embargo sur des exportations de diamants de la République centrafricaine après la prise de contrôle du pays par les rebelles.
La décision a été prise vendredi 10 mai à la suite de la réunion entre les représentants de Bangui et les membres du Processus de Kimbermey, chargés du contrôle et de la transparence dans la production des minerais de diamant.
 
 
Diamonds on a slippery slope | 14 May 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Bangui’s diamond industry is under the gun. The object of “increased vigilance” by the Kimberley Process for several weeks, its gems could be suspended by the certification organization in coming days. (Subscription required). 

 
 

IPIS Recent Publications


 Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
 
 
 
 
 
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