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WEEKLY BRIEFING 25TH APRIL - 1ST MAY 2013

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Editorial
 
IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

Rwanda
CAR
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

Burundi
CAR
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC

Rwanda
 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC


IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

As the UN’s Special Envoy for the Great Lakes, Mary Robinson, toured the region this week, the M23 appeared to be under increasing pressure. With Kampala talks effectively at a stalemate, the M23 has withdrawn its delegates and is reported to be mobilising around Rutshuru and Beni. Unconfirmed rumours state that the group has made a pact with other militias in the area, fuelling concerns that the arrival of the intervention brigade may spark a serious re-escalation of conflict.  Nevertheless, the M23 has reportedly seen 87 defections to the MONUSCO demobilisation team since the start of the month, including over 12 officers. The losses appear to have led the M23 to set up positions outside the MONSUCO camp in Kiwanja to ward off would-be defectors, reportedly disaffected by difficult living conditions. Indeed, extortion by the M23 in North Kiuvu continues to be reported, including the abduction of a hydro plant manager for a 3,000 US dollar ransom. Meanwhile, former M23 elements in Rwanda have reportedly begun the process of renouncing combatant status in favour of refugee status.
 
Stability in Eastern DRC remains elusive with FARDC offensives continuing against armed groups in Aru Territory (Province Orientale) and the MDRC reportedly menacing Beni and Oicha in North Kivu.
 
In the Central African Republic the deteriorating humanitarian and security situation has prompted a statement of strong concern by the Security Council. Bangui remains plagued by insecurity and there are reports of widespread Seleka abuses against civilians, particularly affecting children. The country’s instability is said to have precipitated a devastating spike in elephant poaching. Meanwhile, Tiangaye continues his diplomatic endeavours – this week seeking to repair the CAR’s relations with South Africa with a visit to Pretoria.
 
Global Witness has just released a report on the abuse of logging permits in Africa, which has been found to seriously undermine efforts to prevent deforestation and illegal logging. The report comes within a week of the group filing criminal charges against one of timber manufacturer Danzer Group’s senior managers for aiding and abetting human rights violations against a forest community.
 
The UN has this week officially characterised international wildlife and timber trafficking as serious organised crime.
 

 

IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Sudanese support for Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
 
Hidden in Plain Sight: Sudan's Harboring of the LRA in the Kafia Kingi Enclave, 2009-2013 | 26 April 2013 | Enough Project
Le chef de la LRA se cache au Soudan, selon une organisation américaine | 26 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
'Kony Could Return to Sudan Any Time' | 28 April 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
ENG: A report co-produced by The Resolve, Invisible Children,  and the Enough
Project uses satellite imagery and testimony from Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) defectors to document the renewal of Sudan’s support to the LRA from 2009 until at least early 2013, and to pinpoint the likely location of rebel leader Joseph Kony’s recent camp in Sudanese-controlled territory. FR: Un groupe de pression américain a affirmé vendredi que le chef de la guérilla de l'Armée de résistance du Seigneur (LRA), Joseph Kony, recherché par la Cour pénale internationale et dont la tête est mise à prix 5 millions de dollars par Washington, se cache au Soudan avec la complicité d'éléments de l'armée soudanaise
 
Army Denies Harboring Uganda's LRA Fugitive Leader | 27 April 2013 | Sudan Tribune | allAfrica
The Sudanese army has strongly denied allegations that it is providing shelter to the fugitive Ugandan leader of the Lord Resistance Army (LRA), Joseph Kony.
 
UN Special Envoy for Great Lakes Region

New UN envoy Robinson heads to Great Lakes region | 26 April 2013 | UN News Centre
The newly appointed United Nations Envoy for the Great Lakes Region of Africa is headed to the region this weekend for her first visit to bolster support for a recently agreed UN-mediated accord she has described as "a framework for hope" aimed at ending decades of conflict and instability in Democratic Republic of the Congo and the wider region.
 
UN Great Lakes envoy kicks off regional visit with meetings in DR Congo | 29 April 2013 | UN News Centre
L'Envoyée spéciale pour la région des Grands Lacs entame sa première mission par un déplacement à Kinshasa | 29 April 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC: Mary Robinson à Kinshasa pour soutenir «l’accord de l’espoir» au nom des Nations unies | 29 April 2013 | RFI
DR Congo: Visiting UN special envoy stresses need for peace, security, development | 30 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Mary Robinson plaide pour la mise en œuvre de l'Accord-cadre de paix pour la RDC et la région des Grands Lacs | 30 April 2013 | UN News Centre
ENG: Mary Robinson, the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region of Africa, began her week-long visit to the region today by meeting with the senior leadership of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and of the United Nations mission there. FR: Mary Robinson, l’envoyée spéciale du secrétaire général des Nations unies pour les Grands Lacs, entame une première tournée sur le terrain. Elle a commencé sa visite par une journée très chargée à Kinshasa, lundi, avant de prendre la route pour Goma, où elle est attendue ce mardi 30 avril.
 
Le Malien Modibo Toure nommé Conseiller spécial de l'Envoyée spéciale pour la région des Grands Lacs | 29 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Le Secrétaire général Ban Ki-moon a annoncé lundi la nomination du Malien Modibo Touré, au poste de Conseiller spécial de son Envoyée spéciale pour la région des Grands Lacs, Mary Robinson.
 
Military push not sole way to end Congo conflict: U.N. envoy | 30 April 2013 | Reuters
A military solution is not the only way to end decades of conflict in eastern Congo, the newly appointed United Nations special envoy to the region said on Tuesday as the world body prepared to bolster its peacekeeping mission there.
 
In Rwanda, UN envoy stresses need to rebuild trust among countries in Great Lakes region | 1 May 2013 | UN News Centre
L'Envoyée spéciale Robinson poursuit au Rwanda sa toute première tournée dans la région des Grands Lacs | 1 May 2013 | UN News Centre
Mary Robinson has highlighted the importance of restoring trust among countries in the Great Lakes region to ensure long-term peace in the DRC and beyond: “If we can bring about peace, which we must, and stop the armed groups of all kinds from operating in the eastern DRC, this will help Rwanda, it will help the region.”
 
Kampala peace talks stalled
 
RDC: les pourparlers de Kampala au point mort | 25 April 2013 | RFI
RDC: guerre d'usure à Kampala | 26 April 2013 | RFI
DRC: Rebels Downsize Peace Talks Delegation | 26 April 2013 | Voice of America
FR: Les principaux membres de la déléguation du M23 à Kampala rentrent au pays. Ils maintiennent toutefois sur place deux de leurs représentants, laissant ainsi la porte ouverte à une reprise éventuelle des négociations. ENG: The M23 has reduced its delegation at peace talks in Uganda, reportedly to just two people.  The movement says it has not abandoned the talks with the government but the two sides have not been talking.
 
Policy Alert: Reintegrating Warlords into Congo's Army? | 26 April 2013 | Enough Project
Enough Project reports that after months of deliberations in Kampala, Uganda, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the M23 rebel group are moving closer toward a deal that would provide amnesty and reintegration for all rebels, no matter the abuses they committed. Under the command of Sultani Makenga, the M23 is implicated by the United Nations in committing serious human-rights violations, including killing, maiming, sexual violence, abduction, and forced displacement.
 
DRC Rebels Blame Government for Talks ‘Breakdown’ | 28 April 2013 | Voice of America
The leader of the M23 says that the DRC’s government is to blame for the breakdown of peace talks being held in neighbouring Uganda.
 
DRC Official Blames Rebels for Stalled Peace Talks | 29 April 2013 | Voice of America
The Democratic Republic of Congo’s government is denying it has pulled out of the Kampala peace talks with the M23 rebels, and says that it is the rebels who have left the talks. Congo’s government spokesman said talks are not going well because the rebels have been making impossible demands. DRC government spokesman Lambert Mende was reacting to comments made Sunday by Bertrand Bisimwa, the M23's leader. Bisimwa said the government was not committed to the Kampala talks and the officials in its delegation had gone back to Kinshasa.
 
Congo: Rebel Group Suspends Peace Talks | 1 May 2013 | Associated Press | The New York Times
The rebel group M23 has suspended peace talks with the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, a rebel spokesman said Wednesday, increasing fears of renewed violence in the country’s troubled east. The rebels say it is meaningless to negotiate peace when the United Nations is about to deploy a brigade authorized to attack them in eastern Congo, according to Rene Abandi, leader of the M23 delegation that was meeting with the Congolese government in neighbouring Uganda.
 
M23 response to the UN Intervention Brigade
 
Nord-Kivu: 87 rebelles du M23 se sont rendus à la Monusco depuis début avril | 25 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Thirteen M23 fighters reported to MONUSCO on Tuesday, April 23 in Rutshuru territory, ready for referal to the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement section of the UN mission in Goma.  MONUSCO sources state that this surrender brings the number of rebels who have defected since the beginning of April to 87, including 23 Rwandans and 64 Congolese, of whom 12 are officers
 
Real Clear World Op-ed: Congo's Most Powerful Rebel Speaks | 26 April 2013 | Enough Project
Report of journalistic encounter with "Brigadier General" Sultani Makenga, the military leader of M23, to capture his take on the DR Congo's state of affairs and learn first-hand about the latest developments inside the rebellion.
 
DR Congo rebels training to face UN force | 29 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
The M23 rebel group in eastern DR Congo said Monday that hundreds of its commanders were undergoing special training to face an offensive by a newly-formed UN combat force: "462 unit commanders have been on a refresher course since Friday in Rumangabo," a large military base in the North Kivu province, the group's military spokesman Vianney Kazarama told AFP.
 
Congo Security Update: M23, the United Nations, and the U.S. Government in the Kivus | 29 April 2013 | Enough Project
Unconfirmed rumors circulated last week that the M23 rebel group reportedly signed an agreement with eleven other armed groups on April 21, 2013. The groups are said to include FAP-Nyatura, FDC, FPC-AP, FPD, Mai-Mai Cheka, MPA, M26, PARECO Lafontaine, PRM, URDC, and Vutura. They allegedly agreed on mutual defense – an armed attack against any one of them would be considered an attack against them all – in response to an attack by the forthcoming United Nations Foreign Intervention Brigade.
 
Nord-Kivu : le M23 a installé une position à 30 mètres d’une base des casques bleus à Kiwanja | 30 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The leaders of the M23 have established their position in Kiwanja over the last few weeks, next to an IDP camp and thirty meters from the main entrance of MONUSCO. According to several sources, the aim of this positioning is to prevent elements of the M23 from deserting by going to MONUSCO. Since the beginning of April, 87 M23 rebels have already returned to MONUSCO in Rutshuru territory , for assimilation by the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement section of the UN mission in Goma.
 
Nord-Kivu : 2 officiers du M23 se sont rendus aux FARDC | 30 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Colonel Nzala Ngomo and Major Isaac Ngandu, two M23 officers have gone to the FARDC reportedly "because the living conditions have become increasingly difficult within the M23."
 
RD Congo: la rébellion du M23 veut empêcher ses hommes de déserter (armée) | 1 May 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
L'armée congolaise a affirmé mercredi que la rébellion du Mouvement du 23 mars (M23), qu'elle combat depuis près d'un an dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo, a renforcé son dispositif pour empêcher ses hommes de déserter, alors qu'une brigade de l'ONU doit bientôt être déployée.
 
Concerns about security upon deployment of UN Intervention brigade
 
Taking the Fight to the DRC Rebels: The Potential Pitfalls of a UN Intervention Brigade | 25 April 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
The creation of a special UN unit in the DRC to conduct "targeted offensive operations" against rebel groups could prove helpful, but there are also dangers.
 
The politics of the intervention brigade, from Pretoria to Kigali | 27 April 2013 | Congo Siasa
Most of the talk surrounding the UN intervention brigade has focused on the military efficacy of the brigade, which will consist of 3,069 troops from southern African countries and will be led by a Tanzanian general. This focus is not surprising, given the robust mandate the Security Council provided in Resolution 2098 to "carry out targeted offensive operations...to neutralize [armed] groups."
 
The United Nations in the DR Congo - Promoting Peace or Provoking War? | 29 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Is the United Nations setting a new precedent by changing its role from peacekeeping into peace enforcement activities? This question, must be in many people's minds, especially those who are seriously concerned by the recent development at the Security Council and by the decision to authorise the so called 'intervention brigade' in the Eastern DR Congo.
 
Julien Paluku : «La présence du commandant de la Brigade d’intervention suffit pour que le reste arrive» | 30 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Julien Paluku has expressed a sense of reassurance at the presence of the commander of the MONUSCO intervention brigade, General James Mwakibolwa, in North Kivu stating that the General is currently preparing for the arrival of the intervention force mandated by the UN to neutralize armed groups in eastern DRC.
 
Interview - South Africa Force Will Lead to Anarchy - M23 | 30 April 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
The protracted talks between the M23 and the DR Congo in Kampala were recently thrown into a crisis when the UN Security Council unanimously authorized a new "intervention brigade" for the volatile eastern part of the country. The M23 also splintered into several groups. The head of the M23 delegation at the talks, Rene Abandi, told Emma Mutaizibwa that the intervention force could throw the region into anarchy.
 
DRC: High Hopes for New Intervention Brigade | 1 May 2013 | Voice of America
Troops from Tanzania, South Africa and Malawi are starting to arrive in the Democratic Republic of Congo to reinforce the U.N. stabilization mission MONUSCO.  Many observers are wondering if the new force can tip the balance against the rebels.


DRC 

Police reform
 
Reforme de la police : 3 textes d’application de la loi sur la police transmis au gouvernement  | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
As part of the reform of the Congolese National Police (PNC), three texts implementing the Organic Law on the police have been sent to the government. These texts reportedly set out the tasks of the different structures of the national police.
 
Belgium to train 3rd FARDC battalion
 
FARDC : 90 instructeurs belges vont former un 3e bataillon commando | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
La Belgique donne son feu vert à l’envoi d’instructeurs pour former un 3ème bataillon : soutien aux Forces armées de la Rdc | 27 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | Digitalcongo.net
Des instructeurs belges en Rdc pour la formation d’un 3ème bataillon commando des Fardc | 30 April 2013 | ACP | Digitalcongo.net
Selon le ministère de la Défense, un groupe d’une petite vingtaine de militaires belges est déployé en quasi-permanence au camp de Lokandu, à 55 kms de Kindu, pour une mission de « coaching » de l’arrière-garde des 321ème et 322ème bataillons.
 
MONUSCO training
 
Katanga : des casques bleus béninois formés au maintien de l’ordre public | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Beninese MONUSCO peacekeepers have been receiving training from MONUSCO police on how to maintain public order in order to form a unit capable of helping the Congolese national police in maintaining public order.
 
Demobilisation of child soldiers
 
Kasaï Occidental : 109 familles et assistants sociaux formés sur l’adoption des enfants ex-combattants | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Unicef has provided training to foster families in Kananga  for children demobilizing from armed groups. This training was designed to prepare families and social workers who will receive these children before their final reintegration into their biological families.
 
Province Orientale
 
Ituri: des hommes armés blessent un militaire dans une attaque à Rendo | 25 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Gunmen were wounded on Tuesday, April 23, during an attack on FARDC positions near Rendo in Aru territory. The next day, the Congolese soldiers repelled the attackers who managed to occupy the area. Locals have crossed the border to seek refuge from the fighting in Uganda and neighbouring communities.
 
Ituri: le nouveau commandant de la police galvanise ses hommes | 29 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The new commander of the National Police in Ituri, Lieutenant-Colonel Mukinzi Kapita, called upon his men to ensure the security of people and their property in Bunia. He made the call during his first parade held in the Staff of the National Police, four days after taking office at the head of the police in Ituri.
 
RDC: l’armée lance une offensive contre des milices à la frontière avec l’Ouganda et le Soudan du Sud | 30 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three militiamen and a soldier were killed on Monday, April 29 at Loliga in clashes between the Congolese army and militias. The FARDC launched an offensive against armed groups operating in the territory of Aru on the border with Uganda and South Sudan.
 
North Kivu
 
Rutshuru: le M23 accusé d’avoir organisé l’enlèvement du directeur d’une centrale électrique | 25 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The technical director of the Hydropower Plant that supplies Rutshuru was kidnapped by an armed group on Tuesday morning, April 23 and released the same day in the evening. Several local sources accuse the M23 of organizing the abduction claiming that a ransom of U.S. $ 3,000 was paid for the release of the hostage.
 
Nord-Kivu : le M23 se redéploie à Rutshuru et Beni, selon la société civile | 25 April 2013 | Radio Okap
Civil society in North Kivu has said that the M23 has redeployed in the past few days to several villages, cities and towns in Rutshuru and Beni in preparation for the arrival of the UN intervention brigade.
 
Nord-Kivu : un groupe armé menace de prendre Beni, selon la société civile | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu: le maire de Beni appelle la population au calme | 28 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society reports that the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy in Congo (MDRC), led by the self-proclaimed general Hilaire Kombi, is threatening the town of Beni and the city Oicha in Beni territory. The armed group is reported to have surrounded the two localities. The administrator of the territory of Beni warns that FARDC is ready for any eventuality.
 
Nord-Kivu : deux motards assassinés par des présumés miliciens du M23 à Kanyaruchinya | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Men alleged to be members of the M23 killed two motorcyclists on Friday night, April 27 in Kanyaruchinya. According to testimonies, the motorcyclists were killed in a house about 20 am local time. The gunmen had demanded money that they did not have. Local inhabitants have denounced the persistent racketeering of people living in the area by the M23.
 
Beni : arrestation d’un officier des FARDC accusé de collaborer avec des rebelles ougandais | 28 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
A senior FARDC officer, Lieutenant Colonel Njibu Kalala, was arrested in Beni, accused of collaborating with the Ugandan rebels of the ADF / NALU, who are responsible for many atrocities against the civilians in this part of North Kivu. The officer denies any connection with the Ugandan rebels.
 
Nord-Kivu: le gouvernement appelé à mettre fin à l’activisme des groupes armés à Masisi  | 29 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The people of Kibirizi, Mutanda, Bwalanda, Nyanzale and Mweso in Masisi territory have appealed to the government put an end to the activism of groups in this part of North Kivu. Local sources accuse the Mai Mai, FDLR, the Congolese People's Forces (CPF) and the M26 of a commander Kasongo of creating insecurity in the country.
 
Nord-Kivu - 3 missiles sol-air « livrés » au M23 « localisés » à Rutshuru | 30 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Trois missiles sol-air « livrés » à la rébellion du M23 ont été « localisés dans le territoire de Rutshuru » (Nord-Kivu), a appris mardi 30 avril à Kinshasa lepotentielonline.com de source autorisée, sans en donner les caractéristiques techniques. « Ces trois missiles ont été livrés aux rebelles du M23 par la DRF, l'armée rwandaise. Leur localisation a été confirmée par les FARDC (Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo) dans le territoire de Rutshuru », a-t-elle précisé.
 
Nord-Kivu : le M23 a installé une position à 30 mètres d’une base des casques bleus à Kiwanja | 30 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The leaders of the M23 have established their position in Kiwanja over the last few weeks, next to an IDP camp and thirty meters from the main entrance of MONUSCO. According to several sources, the aim of this positioning is to prevent elements of the M23 from deserting by going to MONUSCO. Since the beginning of April, 87 M23 rebels have already returned to MONUSCO in Rutshuru territory , for assimilation by the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement section of the UN mission in Goma.
 
Nord-Kivu : 2 officiers du M23 se sont rendus aux FARDC | 30 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Colonel Nzala Ngomo and Major Isaac Ngandu, two M23 officers have gone to the FARDC reportedly "because the living conditions have become increasingly difficult within the M23."
 
Nord-Kivu: le M23 nomme de nouveaux administrateurs à Nyiragongo et Rutshuru | 1 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
The M23 has appointed new directors to head the territories of Nyiragongo and Rutchuru. Nyiragongo territory will be administered by Gaspard Karemera with the assistance of Daniel Manganzini and Janvier Rwagati, respectively in charge of finance and politics. In Rutshuru, Pascal Azamukunda Rubumba is appointed administrator, replacing Benjamin Mbonimpa at the head of this territory, which is where the M23's Executive Secretariat is situated.
 
South Kivu
 
Uvira : le député Bitakwira demande au gouvernement de prendre charge l’ex-déserteur Fudjo Zabuloni | 26 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
National MP Justin Bitakwira has asked the Congolese government to accelerate the process of integrating the men of Colonel Fudjo Zabuloni into the FARDC in the territory of Uvira . Justin Bitakwira said he has received complaints about the difficult  conditions in which those waiting for reintegration are living.
 
Katanga
 
Katanga : Ouverture du procès des présumés assassins de 14 miliciens Mai-Mai à Mitwaba | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The prosecution of the second commander of the 43rd FARDC battalion based in Mitwaba in Katanga, Captain Guisha Matone and four of his bodyguards began on Thursday before a military court at Kipushi Garrison. The defendants are charged with war crimes for summarily executing fourteen alleged Mai-Mai in July of last year.
 

Rwanda

Ex-M23 fighters seek refugee status in Rwanda
 
Former M23 Fighters and Politicians Support Peaceful DRC Solution | 30 April 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Ex-M23 Combatants Seek Refugee Status in Rwanda | 30 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Former M23 fighters and politicians who arrived in Rwanda on March 15 and were transported to Eastern province (Ngoma district), have started to sign oaths of renouncement of combatant status to refugee status, and to support peaceful (political) ways to solve the DRC crisis.
 
Les autorités rwandaises veulent jouer la transparence sur le sort des rebelles du M23 | 1 May 2013 | RFI
Jouer la transparence sur le sort des rebelles du Mouvement du 23-Mars (M23) qui ont fui au Rwanda mi-mars à la suite des combats contre une faction rivale, et surtout faire taire les rumeurs sur le renvoi d’une partie de ces derniers en République démocratique du Congo. Tel était le but des autorités rwandaises qui ont invité mercredi 1er mai la presse locale et internationale -ainsi que de nombreux représentants du corps diplomatique- dans le camp d’internement de l’est du Rwanda, où sont confinés les mutins. 

 

CAR

Security in Bangui
 
Centrafrique : deux jours sans taxis, ni bus à Bangui | 25 April 2013 | Afrik.com
La ville de Bangui a été privée de taxis et bus, mercredi 24 avril et ce, jusqu’à ce jeudi. Les chauffeurs de taxis ont observé une grève générale en signe de protestation contre les actes de violence perpétrés par les éléments du Séléka dans la capitale centrafricaine. Car, à la veille de ce mouvement social, un homme se réclamant de la coalition Séléka a brisé les lunettes arrières de six taxis au niveau du marché Kilomètre cinq.
 
La Séléka pour des actes positifs mais parsemés d’embûches de la part de ses éléments incontrôlés | 28 April 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Le président de la République centrafricaine, Michel Djotodia, a présenté le 27 avril dernier, 75 armes de guerre tous calibres confondus, à la presse. Il s’agit des armes saisies la semaine dernière dans la capitale Centrafricaine lors des patrouilles des éléments de sécurité. Pour Christophe Gazam-betty, ministre d’Etat chargé de la Communication, cette saisie témoigne de l’existence des milices dans la ville de Bangui.
 
Seleka abuses
 
UN official voices concern at reported child rights abuses in Central African Republic | 25 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Children bear brunt of CAR crisis | 25 April 2013 | IRIN
Les enfants sont les premiers touchés par la crise en RCA | 28 April 2013 | IRIN
A senior United Nations official today voiced deep concern about reports of widespread violations committed by the Séléka rebel coalition against children in the Central African Republic (CAR), including killing, sexual violence and recruitment into armed groups.
 
Media Release: Field Reports Indicate Slaughter of Elephants, Conservation Staff Evacuated | 25 April 2013 | Marketwired
Elephants Under Threat in Lawless CAR | 26 April 2013 | Voice of America
Elephant poaching on rise in chaos-hit Central African Republic | 26 April 2013 | Reuters
Elephant poaching 'rising' in Central African Republic | 26 April 2013 | BBC Africa
Centrafrique : massacre d’éléphants à Bayanga | 26 April 2013 | Afrik.com
ENG: WWF and WCS have received alarming reports from their field operations that elephants are being slaughtered in the violence-ridden Central African Republic (CAR), where new powers in place struggle to gain control over the situation. The conservation organizations are issuing today a joint call for immediate action.
Due to the violence and chaos in the area, the exact number of elephants slaughtered is not known, however initial reports indicate it may be extensive. WWF has confirmed information that forest elephants are being poached near the Dzanga-Sangha protected areas, a World Heritage Site. Elephant meat is reportedly being openly sold in local markets and available in nearby villages. The security situation is preventing park staff from searching the dense forest for elephant carcasses. FR: Les éléments de la séléka qui ont fait irruption dans la ville de Bayanga, localité située à 500 kilomètres à l’ouest de Bangui, ce mercredi ont saccagé la plus importante réserve faunique de la République centrafricaine. Le maire de la ville a estimé à plus de 40 le nombre d’éléphants tués.
 
Centrafrique : un lundi sans médias | 29 April 2013 | Afrik.com
Une journée sans medias en RCA pour dire non aux intimidations de la Séléka | 30 April 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
L’UJCA (Union des journalistes de Centrafrique) a déclaré la journée du lundi 29 avril 2013, journée sans médias. Ceci, à cause des exactions des éléments de la séléka contre les professionnels des médias en République centrafricaine.
 
RCA : l'insécurité persiste | 30 April 2013 | RFI
Plus d'un mois après la prise du pouvoir par la coalition rebelle Seleka, l'on note quelques améliorations sur le plan sécuritaire, mais le retour à la normale se fait encore attendre. Des exactions sont toujours recensées à Bangui et à l'intérieur du pays.
 
South African and CAR diplomacy
 
Centrafrique: l’Afrique du Sud n’a pas de plan de redéploiement, pour l’instant | 26 April 2013 | RFI
Le gouvernement sud-africain veut clarifier sa position sur l’éventualité d’un envoi de troupes en République centrafricaine, affirmant qu’il n’y a pas de contradiction entre le président Jacob Zuma et son vice-président, Kgalema Motlanthe.
 
RCA: l'étape inattendue de Nicolas Tiangaye en Afrique du Sud | 27 April 2013 | RFI
Alors que la situation dans le pays reste toujours très chaotique, le Premier ministre centrafricain Nicolas Tiangaye poursuit ses voyages de par le monde. Après Bruxelles et Paris, il se rend, ce samedi 27 avril, en Afrique du Sud. Un voyage pour le moins inattendu, destiné avant tout à « lever les équivoques » autour de la question de la transition à Bangui.
 
Meeting Between President Zuma and Prime Minister of the Central African Republic | 28 April 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
On Sunday 28 April 2013, President Jacob Zuma received the Prime Minister of the Central African Republic, Mr Nicholas Tiangaye, in Pretoria. The two leaders discussed the situation in CAR and the need to bring about stability in that country and the African continent.
 
"Relations transparentes entre Bangui et Prétoria" | 29 April 2013 | BBC Afrique
Les nouvelles autorités centrafricaines tentent de normaliser leurs relations avec l’Afrique du sud, qu’elles avaient accusé d’avoir soutenu le président déchu François Bozizé.
 
La Centrafrique et l'Afrique du Sud normalisent leurs relations | 28 April 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
La Centrafrique et l'Afrique du Sud auront désormais des relations formelles d'Etat à Etat, et non des relations fondées sur des liens personnels, a indiqué dimanche à Pretoria le Premier ministre centrafricain Nicolas Tiangaye.
 
Centrafrique: bilan mitigé pour la tournée internationale du Premier ministre | 28 April 2013 | RFI
Nicolas Tiangaye a achevé samedi une tournée qui l'a mené à Paris, Bruxelles et Pretoria. Le Premier ministre centrafricain avait deux objectifs : briser l'isolement dans lequel se trouve son pays depuis le coup d'Etat du 24 mars et mobiliser des fonds alors que les caisses de l'Etat sont vides. Il est de retour à Bangui avec un bilan mitigé.
 
Security Council statement on the CAR
 
Security Council Press Statement on Central African Republic | 29 April 2013 | U.N. Security Council
Le Conseil de sécurité préoccupé par l'aggravation de la situation en République centrafricaine | 29 April 2013 | UN News Centre
The following press statement was issued today by Security Council President Eugène-Richard Gasana ( Rwanda): “The members of the Security Council heard a briefing by Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, on the situation in the Central African Republic. The members of the Security Council expressed strong concern at the worsening humanitarian and security situation, and the weakening of the Central African Republic institutions.  They called on competent authorities to restore peace and security in Bangui and outside of Bangui by deploying adequate forces.  They called on all parties to allow safe and unhindered humanitarian access in the country.  They called on “Seleka” leaders to ensure that all “Seleka” armed groups abstain from all violent action and be regrouped without delay into cantonment sites, according to the Libreville agreement.”

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

2012 Sees Record Number of Internally Displaced | 29 April 2013 | Voice of America
The number of people displaced within their own countries by armed conflict, violence and human rights violations totaled nearly 30-million in 2012. Many of the newly displaced were in Syria and the eastern Congo. Clare Spurrell of the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center said there were record numbers of internally displaced people last year.
 
Réfugiés rwandais: la RDC exige une tripartite avec le Rwanda et le HCR | 26 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Rwandan nationals who  entered Congolese territory before 30 December 1998 will lose their refugee status on June 30, 2013. On 18 April the DRC refused to sign a termination clause for the status of Rwandan refugees in the DRC. Before signing such a clause, the DRC demands a tripartite consultation between itself, Rwanda and the UNHCR to assess the previous agreements signed on the repatriation of Rwandan refugees, the Congolese Minister of the Interior has said.

DRC 

Humanitarian reports
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale N° 16/13, 23 avril 2013 | 25 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'information humanitaire - Province du Katanga N° 15/13 - 23 avril 2013 | 25 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province de Maniema N° 09/13, 23 avril 2013 | 25 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province de l’Equateur N° 11/13, 24 avril 2013 | 25 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 18/13, 30 avril 2013 | 30 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 

Burundi 

UNHCR Burundi - Fact Sheet, March 2013 | 26 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 

CAR

Central African Republic Situation Report No. 13 (as of 26 April 2013) | 26 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
République Centrafricaine Rapport de situation No. 13 (au 26 avril 2013) | 26 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Le HCR recommande aux États de suspendre les retours vers la RCA | 26 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Le HCR demande aux États de suspendre les retours de ressortissants centrafricains vers leur pays d'origine | 26 April 2013 | UN News Centre
UNHCR warns against forcible returns to CAR amid violence, abuses | 30 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Central African Republic: amid worsening violence, UN refugee agency warns against forcible returns | 30 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Le HCR demande aux pays d'accueil de suspendre la reconduction à la frontière des réfugiés centrafricains | 30 April 2013 | UN News Centre
UNHCR Opposes Forcible Return of CAR Refugees | 30 April 2013 | Voice of America

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

Chebeya appeal case
 
Affaire Chebeya : nouvel interrogatoire du principal suspect | 1 May 2013 | RFI
Une procédure très longue et qui n’en finit plus : au procès en appel des policiers accusés du meurtre du défenseur des droits de l’homme Floribert Chebeya et son chauffeur Fidèle Bazana, on est enfin entré dans le vif du sujet lors de l’audience du 29 avril. Mais hier à la prison de Makala à Kinshasa, les juges ont entamé un nouvel interrogatoire du principal suspect, le colonel Mukalayi. De leur côté, les parties civiles espèrent toujours faire comparaître l’ancien patron de la police le général Numbi.
 
Trial over summary execution of alleged rebels
 
Katanga : Ouverture du procès des présumés assassins de 14 miliciens Mai-Mai à Mitwaba | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The prosecution of the second commander of the 43rd FARDC battalion based in Mitwaba in Katanga, Captain Guisha Matone and four of his bodyguards began on Thursday before a military court at Kipushi Garrison. The defendants are charged with war crimes for summarily executing fourteen alleged Mai-Mai in July of last year.
 

Rwanda 

Ingabire appeal case
 
Lady In Pink: Victoire Ingabire Faces Her Judges In Appeal – By Kris Berwouts | 1 May 2013 | African Arguments
The last time I communicated directly with Victoire Ingabire, on October 13th 2010, she sounded tense and tired.

 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.
Poaching
 
Braconnage : les chefs d’Etats africains appelés à s’impliquer dans la protection des éléphants | 27 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Eight non-governmental organizations involved in the fight for the preservation of nature, have called upon  the Heads of State of Central Africa to become personally involved in the fight against poaching of elephants during a press conference on Friday, April 27, in Brazzaville.
 
Illegal logging – new Global Witness report
 
Africa’s logging permit crisis puts EU at risk of laundering illegal timber imports | 30 April 2013 | Global Witness
La crise des permis forestiers africains risque de conduire l’UE à blanchir des importations de bois illégaux | 30 April 2013 | Global Witness
Report: Shadow Permits Plague African Forests | 1 May 2013 | Voice of America
Illegal logging robbing people in Africa of livelihoods – Global Witness | 1 May 2013 | The Guardian
RDC: Global Witness dénonce l’octroi des permis forestiers artisanaux à des compagnies industrielles | 1 May 2013 | Radio Okapi
Systematic abuse of small, poorly regulated logging permits in Africa by companies, forest officials and politicians is undermining efforts to fight deforestation and keep illegal timber out of the EU, says a new report by Global Witness. The new report, Logging in the shadows, identifies a largely hidden pattern of abuse across Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ghana and Liberia, in which permits designed to promote small businesses and meet local needs are being allocated in their hundreds to industrial logging companies. These “shadow permits” open the door to highly lucrative, large-scale logging operations which bypass oversight by the authorities.
 
UN recognises wildlife and timber trafficking as serious organized crime
 
U.N. Recognises Wildlife Trafficking as “Serious Crime” | 29 April 2013 | Inter Press Service
Environment groups are applauding a new United Nations decision to officially characterise international wildlife and timber trafficking as a serious organised crime, in a move that advocates say will finally give international law enforcement officials the tools necessary to counter spiking rates of poaching.
 
Africa too dependent on natural resources
 
Africa is still way too dependent on resources | 26 April 2013 | Reuters
Africa's brisk economic growth over the past decade has been consumer driven, a much-hyped trend that masks the uncomfortable fact that the region remains far too reliant on commodities.
 
Land grabbing
 
African MPs Warn Govts On Land Deals | 26 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
African legislators meeting in Kigali have called for a cautious approach before dishing out land to international investors.


DRC 

Mining pollution
 
Katanga : des ONGs dénoncent la pollution de Likasi par les entreprises minières | 26 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Pollution of the city of Likasi (Katanga) by mining activities is alarming says the coordinator of the NGO Umoja, Augustin Lumbala. The statement came at the end of a workshop on identifying strategies against pollution of the environment. He revealed the results of a report outlining fourteen mining companies that do not respect environmental management plans nor the mining codes or laws in force to protect the environment.
 
Oil exploration
 
Oil wins a round on Virunga | 30 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The European Commission is to issue a call for bids for an environmental assessment of oil exploration in the Albertin Rift. Subscription required.
 
Wheeler dealing on the boundary | 30 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
Angola is trying to concentrate Kinshasa’s mind on a joint development zone in order to bury talks on maritime borders.  Subscription required.

 

Uganda

Oil
 
We Expect 3 Percent of the Oil Revenue, Says UWA Boss | 30 April 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
It is five months since Dr Andrew Seguya was confirmed as the substantive Executive Director of Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) after serving in the acting capacity for nearly two years.
 
'Don't Bank Too Much On Oil' | 30 April 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Uganda has been advised to develop other sectors to widen revenue mobilisation, instead of looking at oil as the main source of revenue. Speaking to journalists recently, Razia Khan, the Africa regional head of research at Standard Chartered bank, said the government should avoid falling into the trap where one sector is developed at the expense of the others.
 
Govt Assessing Production Plans for Oil Companies | 1 May 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The Government is in the final stages of appraising the Field Production Plans submitted by various oil producing firms.
 
Refinery displacement
 
Oil Refinery - Residents Want Resettlement Plan | 1 May 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Oil - No Justice On Silver Platter | 1 May 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Residents of Kabaale parish in Hoima district, where an oil refinery is due to be built, are planning to petition Parliament to review the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP). The residents, who spoke recently during a meeting organized by Africa Institute for Energy Governance (Afiego), at Nyahaira, one of the affected villages, say they are living in fear of possible eviction to pave way for the refinery.

 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

UK fraud investigation into miner ENRC
 
Global Witness welcomes SFO announcement of formal investigation into ENRC | 26 April 2013 | Global Witness
The UK’s Serious Fraud Office (SFO) have announced that they are now opening a criminal investigation into FTSE 100 mining company Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC). The SFO said that: “The focus of the investigation will be allegations of fraud, bribery and corruption relating to the activities of the company or its subsidiaries in Kazakhstan and Africa.”
 
Criminal complaint against Danzer Group for human rights violations
 
Criminal complaint accuses senior manager of Danzer Group of responsibility over human rights abuses against Congolese community | 25 April 2013 | Global Witness
A criminal complaint filed by the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) and Global Witness accuses a senior manager of Swiss and German timber manufacturer the Danzer Group of aiding and abetting, through omission, grave human rights violations against members of a forest community in the Democratic Republic in Congo (DRC).
 
Danzer Denies Human-Rights Abuses in Congolese Forest Village | 27 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Danzer Group, a Switzerland-based wood processor, denied accusations by activist groups that one of its senior managers was responsible for human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2011.
 
Energy
 
Le ministre des Ressources hydrauliques et Electricité mène un plaidoyer sur la construction d'Inga III | 30 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le ministre des Ressources hydrauliques et Electricité, Bruno Kapandji Kalala, a regagné Kinshasa venant de Washington, aux Etats-Unis, où il a séjourné dans le cadre de la réunion organisée par la Banque mondiale à l'attention des ministres en charge de l'Electricité et l'Agriculture.

Slowdown for ContourGlobal | 30 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The American company ContourGlobal probably won’t be able to put its plant running on Lake Kivu’s gas into production until the end of 2013 or even early 2014. Subscription required.
 
A warning for Caprikat | 30 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The boss of the consulting firm Medea Development, Giuseppe Cicarelli, the technical partner of Caprikat and Foxwhelp on blocks 1 and 2 on Lake Albert, is finding it hard to fulfil his contracts on time. Subscription required.
 
Diamonds
 
Anhui to act as state’s banker| 30 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The Chinese seem enamoured of diamonds in Kasai Oriental and have promised Kinshasa to help find investors for power projects. Subscription required.


Rwanda

Dane vs Kigali in court battle | 30 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The Scottish firm, Dane, has hauled Rwanda before an arbitration tribunal in Paris to demand compensation for Kigali’s cancellation of its contract.  Subscription required.

 


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Summary of the new EU Accounting and Transparency Directives | 29 April 2013 | Global Witness
On 9 April 2013, the European Union Member States, Parliament and Commission agreed to adopt the Accounting and Transparency Directives. The Directives require oil, gas, mining and logging companies to annually disclose the payments they make to governments for access to natural resources, in all countries they operate in.
 
The Diamond Industry’s Sad Lack of Leadership | 19 April 2013 | JCK
Article critical of the lack of leadership and complacency shown by diamond industry leaders regarding the challenges of ensuring responsible diamond sourcing.

DRC

EITI suspension
 
RDC - La position des OSC sur la décision de l’ITIE de suspendre la R.D.Congo de l’ITIE | 29 April 2013 | SARW
La position des organisations de la Société civile engagées dans le processus ITIE sur la décision du Conseil d’administration de l’ITIE de suspendre la R.D.Congo de l’Initiative pour la Transparence des Industries Extractives.
 
La DGRAD doit encore justifier 27 millions USD sur les 88 millions USD des redevances minières du Katanga | 29 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
La Direction générale des recettes administratives, domaniales, judiciaires et de participations (DGRAD), accusée de n'avoir pas présenté les preuves de versement de 88 millions USD de redevances minières déclarées en 2010 par les industries extractives installées au Katanga, doit encore justifier 27 millions USD après avoir dévoilé celles de 51 millions USD.

 
 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
 
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