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WEEKLY BRIEFING 18TH - 24TH APRIL 2013

Content

Editorial
 

IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
CAR

 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

Rwanda
CAR
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Uganda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) met on Thursday to follow up on the regional block’s roadmap for transition in the Central African Republic (CAR). At the conference, attended by the CAR’s Prime Minister, ECCAS reportedly agreed to deploy a 2,000 strong force to assist the authorities to restore order in the currently unstable capital of Bangui. South Africa has apparently expressed its readiness to provide troops to this contingent.
 
Meanwhile, relations between Rwanda and the DRC remained strained over UNHCR plans for Rwandan refugees soon to be subject to a cessation clause under the 1951 Refugee Convention that which could see then either repatriated back to Rwanda or integrated into host communities. Rwanda has reportedly offered to issue these individuals with national passports to allow them to remain in their host communities, whilst the DRC is said to have blocked moves to issue these persons with the nationality of their host communities. Officials have urged for dialogue between the two States on this issue.
 
The M23 this week has rejected claims that it has reintegrated 450 rebel soldiers from a faction that split from the group and fled to Rwanda. In North Kivu 30 persons have been kidnapped, whilst in Rutshuru 6 deaths have been reported at the hands of the Nyatura militia who have also secured agreement from local leaders in South Kivu that locals will make regular food donations to the group in order to desist the persistent extortion of food and money from inhabitants. FARDC positions in the South Kivu town of Chishadu have been attacked by rebels, whilst in Katanga a spontaneous popular self defence force has reportedly driven back Bakata Kantanga rebels from their locale, killing 12 of their number.
 
The natural resource sector in the DRC also appears to have taken prominence this week with the DRC being temporarily suspended from the Extraction Industry Transparency Initiative for failing to produce validation reports in compliance with EITI standards particularly as regards full disclosure and reliability of figures. Stakeholders have been given 12 months to secure compliance with the initiatives standards in line with a list of the corrective actions required. Failure to do so may ultimately result in the DRC’s delisting from the initiative.
 
Meanwhile, miners and the Katangan regional authorities are reacting to a governmental regulation banning the export of copper and coltan from the DRC in a bid to add value to these chains by securing its processing in the DRC. It is claimed that Katanga currently lacks the capacity to process such minerals in country. An increase in opportunistic artisanal mining in Katanga appears to have precipitate a landslide, sparking fears of further such events, whilst FARDC troops have been accused of involvement in illicit gold mining in Province Orientale. Meanwhile the DRC and Angola and confirmed their plans to develop a shared oil block in the Zone of common interest between the two States.

 

 

IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.


Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 
M23
 
RDC: le M23 nie avoir réintégré des combattants de sa faction dissidente réfugiée au Rwanda | 19 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
In a statement released on Thursday the leadership of the M23 has denied reintegrating 450 fighters of a breakaway faction that fled to Rwanda after splitting from the rebellion in March. An AFP report published on Wednesday relayed that several media had reported this group's reinstatement as part of the militia citing M23 military spokesman, Vianney Kazarama.
 
Locals Refuse to Protest for Rebels | 24 April 2013 | IPS | allAfrica
The M23 have now twice had to cancel demonstrations in protest against the UN’s intervention brigade with residents in the areas they seek to mobilise refusing to take part or fleeing the vicinity. M23 has orchestrated forced protest marches, rallies, and a five-day blockade of 11 vehicles belonging to MONUSCO in Rutshuru, in protest against the force. Security analysts state that locals have been more concerned with hastening the reintegration of the APCLS into the FARDC, viewing the M23 as an occupation force from which they wait to be liberated.
 
UN Intervention force
 
Le pays attend une ONU moins 'timide' | 24 April 2013 | IPS | allAfrica
As the first South African troops should begin arriving in the DRC at the end of April as part of the UN mandated intervention force, governance experts welcome the new MONUSCO mandate.
 
Lord’s Resistance Army
 
'60 Minutes' Documents Successes and Challenges of Anti-LRA Operations | 23 April 2013 | Enough Project
Article discussing a fifteen-minute segment on the current affairs programme 60 Minutes, which covers the scope of atrocities that continue to be committed by Joseph Kony and the LRA, as well as the momentum gained during recent anti-LRA operations.
 
Kony a Good Man, Says LRA Captive | 24 April 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Article outlining the experiences of a former LRA captive recently repatriated to her community following her release by the LRA after 16 years in captivity.

DRC 

 Human Rights in the DRC
 
Human Rights Report: Democratic Republic of the Congo | 19 April 2013 | US Department of State | allAfrica
This year's US Department of State report on the human rights situation in the DRC reports that the three most important human rights issues for 2012 were: armed conflict in the East that exacerbated an already precarious human rights situation, particularly with regard to sexual- and gender-based violence; the lack of an independent and effective judiciary; and impunity throughout the country for many serious abuses, including unlawful killings, disappearances, torture, rape, and arbitrary arrests and detention.
 
EU Security sector reform support mission news
 
Newsletter EUSEC Congo No. 2, April 2013  | 23 April 2013 | European Union | Reliefweb
Newsletter from the Mission de conseil et d'assistance de l'UE en matière de réforme du secteur de la sécurité dans le domaine de la Défense en RDC.
 
Province Orientale
 
Province Orientale : l’auditorat militaire de l’Ituri a rouvert le dossier contre Cobra Matata | 19 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ituri garrison’s military prosecutor has reopened the case against Cobra Matata, militia leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI), on Thursday.  Cobra Matata is accused of crimes against humanity for rape, murder, looting and torture from November 2012 to March 2013 in twenty localities in Irumu. The military prosecutor justified reopening the case by reference to the militia leader's non-compliance with his commitments to disarm.
 
Environs 369 victimes des Mai Mai Simba auditionnées à Mambasa en Ituri  | 22 April 2013 | MONUSCO
From 24 to 29 March 2013, a team from MONUSCO and the Joint United Nations Office for Human Rights collaborated with the Military Prosecutor of Ituri, undertaking a fact-finding mission in the territory of Mambasa, some 219 km south of Bunia. The mission sought to investigate possible violations of human rights committed by the Mai Mai Simba militia headed by Paul Sadala alias "Morgan", as well as the extent of sexual violence by armed groups in the area.
 
North Kivu
 
La situation sécuritaire est préoccupante au Nord-Kivu, selon l’ambassadeur de l’ONU Nicolas Chapdelaine | 18 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Following a two-day mission to North Kivu, the Canadian diplomat and member of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping, Nicolas Chapdelaine, has described the humanitarian and security situation in the province as "concerning", saying it requires concerted action by the international community.
 
Nord-Kivu: des hommes armés enlèvent 30 personnes à Mamundioma | 20 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Unidentified gunmen kidnapped thirty people (men and women) in the locality of Mamundioma on Friday, about fifty miles north-east of the town of Beni (North Kivu). Local civil society argues that personnel from Mamundioma clinic are among those abducted and taken to an unknown destination.
 
Nord-Kivu: une personne tuée dans des manifestations après la mort d’un chef de quartier | 21 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The inhabitants of Kirumba city in Lubero took to the streets to protest against the death of the chief of the Kikimba district  who was shot and killed the previous evening by gunmen, who also injured another person. Several demonstrators were shot and wounded after the intervention of the police, and a student was killed. after a group of protesters tried to attack the home of a Congolese army staff member in the Kikimba neighbourhood.
 
Kitshanga: 2 meurtres font craindre la résurgence d’un conflit interethnique | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Violent protests took place in Masisi on Monday as Hutus protested against the killing of two members of their community, accusing members of the Hunde community of being the perpetrators of these murders. Some politicians and traditional leaders fear a resurgence of ethnic conflict in the area.
 
Nord-Kivu: 6 personnes tuées à Rutshuru par des hommes armés | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Gunmen identified as being Nyatura militiamen killed six people and wounded five others on Monday in an armed attack in Rutshuru center (North Kivu). Among the victims, two died at a roundabout, two in the market place and the last two died of their wounds in hospital.
 
South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu: deux milices attaquent des positions FARDC à Chishadu | 24 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Since Wednesday early morning two militias have been attacking the positions of 1002th regiment of the Congolese army in the town of Chishadu, South Kivu. Sources on site indicate that the militias are composed of men under deserter Colonel Albert Kahasha alias Foka Mike and some men under Maheshe. The people of Chishadu and those of the surrounding villages are hiding in their homes.
 
Sud-Kivu: les notables de Mufunyi Shanga organisent des collectes pour nourrir des miliciens | 24 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
A group of notables from Mufunyi Shanga in Kalehe territory (South Kivu) have decided to organize food drives among the population in aid of the Nyatura militia group and the Alliance for a free and sovereign Congo (APCLS). The decision was taken at a meeting with representatives of the militias and the inhabitants of seven villages in Mufunyi Shanga. The decision was reportedly taken to avoid conflicts with these militia and quell the significant extortion to which local inhabitants have been subjected from the armed groups.
 
Katanga
 
La crise oubliée du " Triangle de la mort " en RD Congo : Les défis de la protection des civils au Katanga | April 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
Produced by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the Protection en RDC group in the DRC, this report examines the challenges of protecting civilians in the mining province of Katanga, making a number of recommendations to the Congolese authorities, MONUSCO, donors and humanitarian actors.
 
The Quest for the Autonomy of Mining DRC Province | 19 April 2013 | IPS
Article outlining the background and cause behind the Mai-Mai Katanga uprising on 23 March and stating that militia interviews confirm that the rebels are motivated towards secession by large mining royalties that are not reflected in standards of living in the province. It outlines different civil society perspectives on solutions to the secession movement with some actors suggesting a need for further dialogue and others for the strengthening of the national security services to oust rebel forces.
 
Katanga : 12 miliciens Bakata Katanga tués par une force d’auto-défense populaire à Moba | 20 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The inhabitants of the surrounding villages of Mbuyu grouped into a popular self-defense force on Sunday and pushed back the Mai-Mai secessionist militia, Katanga Bakata. This militia had launched an attack against the village, located 120 km from Moba (Katanga). Toll of the clashes were twelve dead on the side of militiamen, including their Commanders. The strength of popular self-defense force pushed the secessionists to the boundary between the territories of Manono and Pweto. Witnesses say that many items looted by the militiamen were recovered after the clashes.
 
Affaire Bakata Katanga: 3 défenseurs des droits de l’homme exilés | 19 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Congo-Kinshasa: Au Katanga, trois acteurs de la société civile partent en exil | 21 April 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Three human rights activists from Lubumbashi have fled abroad to escape the death threats they report receiving since the publication of their report on the Bakata Katanga militia's entry into Lubumbashi on 23 March. The report, published on 26 March, quoted people who they believe are the sponsors of the Bakata Katanga. The document implicated the president of the provincial assembly, the governor of the Central Bank of Congo, and General John Numbi, the police chief suspended since the assassination in 2010 activist of human rights Chebeya.
 

Uganda

Uganda, Sudan Enter Arms Race | 19 April 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Article suggesting that the budget increase in Uganda's military expenditure even amidst global and regional defence cuts might be the latest indication of President Museveni's strategy to fasten his grip on power and his influence on the region. It states that in the national Budget Framework Paper, the defence budget is Shs1,045.9 billion representing a 10% increment from last year's Shs 946 billion, and that the UDF's spending outstrips that of any other national army in the region. The article suggests that rising antagonisms between Sudan and Uganda appear to be occasioning a regional arms race.

 

Central African Republic

Nicolas Tiangaye visit to Europe
 
Le Premier ministre demande une aide urgente à l'UE | 23 April 2013 |RFI | allAfrica
The CAR Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye has appealed to the EU in person to continue its development aid to the country but also for urgent funds to assist in restoring peace and the humanitarian situation in the CAR, where a quarter of the population of Bangui have reportedly fled to the bush due to insecurity in the city.
 
UN Political Affairs mission to the CAR
 
UN official, visiting Central African Republic, calls for end to abuses, disorder | 22 April 2013 | UN News
Visiting region, top political official assures Central African leader of UN engagement | 21 April 2013 | UN News
During a visit to the Central African Republic, Jeffrey Feltman, the UN's Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs appealed for urgent efforts to establish security and end abuses against civilians, while reiterating international calls for a full return to constitutional rule. Meeting with CAR’s Prime Minister in Douala, Cameroun, he assured the CAR of the UN’s continued support for transitional political agreements and humanitarian efforts.
 
Radio Ndeke Luka (RCA), 23.04.2013 : L’ONU, préoccupée par la crise en RCA, lance un appel de fonds international | 23 April 2013 | Fondation Hirondelle
On 22 April 2013, UN Political Analyst Jeffrey Feltman expressed concern about the continuing security and human rights situation in the CAR. He called on all actors, including Seleka to ensure the safety of humanitarian actors to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance, stating that the looting of NGO offices and interruption of humanitarian assistance have devastating effects on hundreds of thousands of people.  He also reiterated the call by the UN, the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)and other partners for a return to constitutional order, though requested the international community to continue to assist the country with the resources needed to secure humanitarian needs.
 
Analysis of coup
 
Central African Republic: the hidden hands behind ‘yet another good coup’ | 17 April 2013 | Pazumbuka
An analysis of the factors that produced the recent coup d’etat in the Central African Republic and outlining the interests of France, the US and neo-colonial African forces in the country.
 
 
ECCAS action on the CAR
 
Une réunion des pays d'Afrique centrale sur la Centrafrique sans Michel Djotodia | 18 April 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
A follow up meeting of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) was held on Thursday, 18 April in N'Djamena, Chad. The meeting was due to follow up on the regional block’s roadmap for transition in the Central African Republic. The new president Michel Djotodia was not invited, though the conference was attended by Nicolas Tiangaye, the Central African Prime Minister. The CAR has requested from the FOMA an additional 1,000 men to secure stability in Bangui, though was expected they might get half this number.
 
Central African Republic neighbours to send 2,000 troops | 19 April 2013 | BBC News
Radio Ndeke Luka (RCA), 19.04.2013 : La CEEAC légitime Djotodia et promet l’envoi de 2000 soldats de la FOMAC en RCA | 19 April 2013 | Fondation Hirondelle
The Central African Republic's neighbours have agreed to send an extra 2,000 troops to help restore security following last month's rebel takeover. The move was agreed at a regional summit of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) in Chad, whose president described CAR as a "wound in the heart of central Africa".
 
Zuma Ready to Redeploy Army to Central African Republic | 24 April 2013 | Bloomberg
South Africa is ready to send troops back to Central African Republic a month after suffering its worst military casualties since the end of apartheid in clashes with rebels. The government is reportedly waiting for a formal request from regional leaders and the rebel Seleka alliance that controls the Central African Republic to send soldiers as part of a multinational peacekeeping force, confirming that a verbal appeal to this effect had already been made.

 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

La situation des refugies centrafricains en Equateur préoccupe les Nations Unies |  22 April 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
MONUSCO, the congolese national police and UN agencies have assessed the humanitarian situation of CAR refugees in Zongo. They have confirmed a CAR military presence which the UNHCR has no mandate to protect. These persons were therefore relocated for support from congolese authorities though many of these soldiers were lost during the transfer to Worobe Mole and Wenze, with only 33 of 72 soldiers arriving.


DRC 

Humanitarian Bulletins and reports
 
Province du Sud-Kivu/RD Congo : Bulletin humanitaire provincial - Mars 2013 |  March 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 14/13, 23 avril 2013 | 23 April 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb

Humanitarian Maps
 
DRC - Maniema: The fall-out of insecurity (17 April 2013) [EN/FR]  | 17 April 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
DRC: Katanga (as of 22 Apr 2013) | 22 April 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb

 

Uganda

Uganda pilots mobile courts for refugees | 23 April 2013 | IRIN | Reliefweb
Uganda's government and the UNHCR have launched a pilot mobile court system to improve access to justice for victims of crimes in Nakivale, the country's oldest and largest refugee settlement. The magistrate's court, whose first session began on 15 April, will hear cases of robbery, land disputes, child rape, sexual and gender-based violence, attempted murder, and murder. The project aims to benefit some 68,000 refugees and 35,000 Ugandan nationals in the settlement.

 

Rwanda

Status of Rwandan Refugees
 
Ministerial meeting reviews timeline for solving Rwandan refugee situation | 19 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
African countries hosting large numbers of Rwandan refugees and Rwanda itself have reiterated their commitment to resolving the protracted Rwandan refugee situation in line with a Comprehensive Strategy that was announced by UNHCR in October 2009 for the reintegration and repatriation of Rwandan refugees. The above link provides a summary of what was said by the UNHCR at the Palais des Nations press briefing in Geneva this week.
 
Government to Issue Passports for All Rwandan Refugees | 19 April 2013 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
The Rwandan government has reportedly told a UNHCR conference reviewing the status of Rwandan refugees living in different countries that it will provide them with national documents so they cease to be called "refugees". The UNHCR and countries hosting Rwandan refugees agreed in December 2011 that the refugees would no longer be called so after June 31, 2013. Among the options provided was repatriation back to Rwanda and local integration in host countries.
 
La RDC refuse de signer un accord sur le statut des réfugiés rwandais | 22 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese government has refused to sign an agreement on the cessation of status of Rwandan refugees on its soil. The governor of North Kivu, Julien Paluku, who attended the UNHCR's meeting in Pretoria to address this topic on behalf of the DRC, has said that the DRC is concerned that Rwanda could one day say that these persons are no longer refugees in the DRC thus allowing them to automatically claim Congolese nationality.
 
Rwanda Clarifies DRC Position On Cessation Clause | 23 April 2013 | News of Rwanda | Reliefweb
Rwanda has dismissed media reports suggesting that the DRC does not approve of the implementation of the cessation clause, which removes refugee status for Rwandan refugees all over the world. The DRC's North Kivu Governor Julien Paluku reportedly told MONUSCO's Radio Okapi that the DRC had rejected resolutions in which Rwanda renewed its desire to have all refugees returning home or remaining in host countries as nationals not refugees as it would automatically turn the Rwandan refugees into Congolese.
 
Le HCR dit ne pas avoir le mandat d’octroyer la nationalité congolaise aux refugiés rwandais  | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Head of the UNHCR’s DRC delegation has stated that the UNHCR lacks the authority and the mandate to grant Rwandan refugees living in the DRC Congolese identity, following rumours among Congolese groups that it would do so. He urged the governments of the DRC and Rwanda to enter into dialogue to find a solution to the problem of Rwandan refugees living in the DRC. 
  

Central African Republic 

Humanitarian Bulletins and reports
 
Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre : Bulletin Humanitaire - avril 2013 | 22 April 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
République Centrafricaine Rapport de situation No. 12 (au 19 avril 2013) | 19 April 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

Witness Insists Bemba Did Not Command Troops | 23 April | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
Prosecutors have contested the testimony of a former insider in Jean-Pierre Bemba's group, who testified that the accused did not issue orders to his troops during operations in the CAR, claiming that Central African authorities commanded and controlled the troops.


 DRC

RDC: les 8 personnes poursuivies pour le meurtre de 9 casques bleus en Ituri réclament un procès | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Eight years after their arrest and detention in Makala Central Prison, the eight persons charged for the killing of nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers in Ituri in 2005 have called for the opening of their trial. Their lawyer has requested that the military court now inform his clients on their fate.

 

Uganda 

Ugandan Leader Lashes Out at ICC | 20 April 2013 |Institute for War and Peace Reporting
During a speech delivered to a packed stadium on the edge of Nairobi on 9 April, Museveni congratulated Kenya for “rejecting blackmail” by the International Criminal Court, ICC. He went on to accuse western leaders of using the Hague court to “install leaders of their choice in Africa and eliminate the ones they do not like”. The article states that analysts are divided on the significance of the Ugandan leader’s remarks. Are they a genuine reflection of growing African opposition to the court, or should they be seen simply as an attempt by Museveni to win political support across the East Africa region? 

 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

DRC 

Gold
 
Province Orientale : les agents de service des Mines accusés de détourner les recettes de taxes | 22 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The provincial Minister of Mines, Paulin Odyane has accused mining service agents and the authority in charge of revenues from Province Orientale of embezzling taxes paid by gold traders for three years. According Odyane Paulin, these agents use printed counterfeit value to recover their profits from these taxes, to the sum of $100 and $150 per merchant. The provincial Minister of Mines has suspended the collection of taxes from the mining sector until new printed value controlled by the new provincial government is available.
 
Province Orientale : les négociants d’or plaident pour l’ouverture de comptoirs d’achat en Ituri | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Cooperative of gold traders in Ituri (Coonori) have asked for the establishment of trading houses in this district of the Eastern Province. The last of the three remaining trade houses closed seven months ago after a burglary. The gold traders argue that this hinders the traceability of gold in this region. Gold traders have raised their concerns during a meeting with the provincial Minister of Mines in Bunia.
 
Province Orientale: des hommes en uniforme exploitent de l’or à Bondo  | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Uniformed men have been reported to be exploiting gold in the territory of Bondo. These men claim that  FARDC's 9th military region has been running the gold quarry called "Matundu" for nearly three weeks and that they are acting under the orders of the military authorities. The commander of the 9th Military Region, General Kifwa denies any connection with the men in uniform, asking the local authorities to track down these men. According to several eyewitness accounts, the men in uniform are heavily armed and have whipped uncooperative miners.
 
Kalemie: 3 creuseurs d’or meurent dans un éboulement de terre à Nyunzu | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three people were killed after a landslide on Monday at an artisanal gold mine at Musebe, 136 km northwest of Nyunzu (Katanga). The landslide reportedly occurred as the site has been attracting more and more miners, now estimated at tens of thousands of people, including military diggers. Civilian authorities in Nyunzu fear the resurgence of an epidemic of landslides in the mining site.
 
Katanga : des élèves abandonnent les cours pour exploiter de l’or à Nyunzu | 24 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
For nearly a month, schools in Nyunzu (200 km west of Kalemie) have been empty because students are flocking to undertake artisanal gold mining in a new Musebe quarry. On site, the civil authorities require parents to take responsibility, and even teachers are reported to have joined the students in mining for gold.
 
Oil
 
Sonangol, Cohydro of Congo Reach Agreement on Offshore Oil Block | 22 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Sonangol EP, Angola’s state oil company, and Cohydro of neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo will develop a shared oil block off the coast of the two countries, Congolese Oil Minister Crispin Atama said. The nations each control half of the block, which is in a so-called zone of common interest that overlaps with part of Angola’s block 14 in the Atlantic Ocean.
 
Congo, Angola Offshore Oil May Flow in 36 Months, Minister Says | 23 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Sonangol EP, Angola’s state oil company, and the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Cohydro may begin production from a shared offshore oil block in 36 months, Congo’s Oil Minister Crispin Atama said.
 
« Oil of DR Congo » réduit l'écart dans l'industrie pétrolière entre l'Ouganda et la RDC | 24 April 213 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The DRC is seeking to close the exploitation gap between itself and Uganda regarding the cross border oil under Lake Albert with the “Oil of the DRC” programme that seeks to start the second seismic acquisition phase in respect of the country’s revenues. 


Uganda

Corruption Charges Mar Oil Sector  | 23 April 213 | East African Business Week | All Africa
Article stating that much is being made of the oil sectors potential to develop Uganda but that the biggest challenge Uganda has to face is corruption, which risks undermining such development. The article highlights that there are countless cases concerning corruption in court and an overwhelming number of commissions of inquiry on the issue. The article goes on to outline the dissatisfaction with Uganda’s recently passed oil laws expressed by those seeking to prevent corruption in the oil sector.


Rwanda

Gov't, Mining Fraternity Move to Improve Sector | 23 April 213 | The New Times | All Africa
The Rwandan government and the mining fraternity have come up with a set of resolutions to counter the bottlenecks such as illegal mining and environmental degradation, which are still persistent in the sector. This article outlines some of the current challenges faced by the sector and some of the government actions being taken to remedy such issues. 

 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Diamonds
 
A sea change in diamond trade | 23 April 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The revival of the national gem producer Miniere de Bakwanga is stalled and the DRC's small-scale diamond gem business is now struggling as well. For want of an agreement with the Congolese government, which doesn’t want to sell even a minimum of 30% in MIBA to Mwana Africa, a firm headed by Kalaa Mpinga - who already controls 20% of the company - will not invest heavily in the state-owned concern.
 
Gold
 
Canada Stocks Climb as Mining Companies Rally With Gold | 18 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Ivanplats (IVP) Ltd. jumped 7.1 per cent to C$3.17 after the company said planned development of its Kamoa copper project in the Democratic Republic of Congo will not be affected by a ban on exports of cobalt and copper concentrates announced by the country last Wednesday.
 
Kibali Gold starts a year ahead of schedule | 23 April 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The Kibali Gold sprl joint venture which is 45% owned by Randgold Resources (the operator), 45% by AngloGold Ashanti and 10% by Societe Miniere de Kilo Moto (SOKIMO) is to begin mining gold by the end of 2013.
 
Province Orientale: la société chinoise Comid accusée d’exploitation illégale de l’or à Irumu | 23 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
An order of the provincial government suspending the activities of the mining cooperative, Cooperative Development (ComID), entered into force this weekend. It is alleged that the Chinese company "illegally exploited gold" in Irumu - Centre, Walu and the Talolo river, respectively 60, 55 and 45 km south of Bunia. The ComID does not have the legal documents authorizing the operation gold in the territory of Irumu, according to the provincial governor. This decree also mentioned the destruction of the environment by the company, including widening the bed of the Talolo river and pollution of its waters.
 
ENRC
 
ENRC Co-Founder Machkevich May Form Group to Bid for Miner | 19 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Glencore International Plc has in the past expressed interest in ENRC assets. Commentators believe that the commodities trader and mining company might also be interested in ENRC’s operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
Freeport-McMoRan Profit Beats Estimates as Copper Sales Rise | 18 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.'s first-quarter copper sales rose 15 per cent to 954 million pounds, higher than forecast, because of increased output and sales from the company’s Tenke Fungurume mine in the DRC.

 

Uganda

Total Sees Progress With Uganda on Lake Albert Oil Development | 25 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Total SA (FP), along with partners Tullow Oil Plc (TLW) and China National Offshore Oil Corp., have yet to reach an agreement with Uganda on a billion-dollar oilfield development in the Lake Albert Basin.  Nevertheless, Museveni’s office said on April 15 that Cnooc and Total had agreed to build a 30,000- barrel-per-day refinery, an increase from previous plans to start with a 20,000 barrel-per-day facility. Uganda favors upgrading the refinery to a daily capacity of 60,000 barrels because of growing demand, though oil companies are opposed to the expansion, according to the government. The refinery remains a sticking point between the parties.

 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 
Increased transparency surrounding smelters
 
HP, Sandisk Publish the Names of Their Smelters, a Significant Step for Cleaner Supply Chains | 22 April 2013 | Enough Project
This week, HP and SanDisk published their lists of smelters, following Philips’ publishing of its smelter list in November 2012. HP’s list includes 195 smelters, and SanDisk has 261 smelters. Publishing the names of the smelters is important because it puts pressure on them to get audited. Enough project states that previously such smelters were an opaque part of the supply chain, sourcing corrupt or conflict minerals from various sources and hiding this information.

DRC

 EITI suspension of the DRC
 
Democratic Republic of the Congo temporarily ‘suspended’ | 18 April 2013 | EITI
Congo Suspended From Mining-Transparency Initiative for 1 Year | 18 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Congo-Kinshasa: Le secteur minier pointé du doigt pour son manque de transparence | 19 April 2013 | RFI
Le secteur minier pointé du doigt pour son manque de transparence | 19 April 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
The DRC has been suspended from the Extractives Industry Transparency Initiative. Since it became an EITI Candidate in 2008, the DRC has completed two EITI Validations. The EITI Board concluded that the country has made significant progress towards improving transparency and accountability over the last five years but that it has nevertheless found that the quality of its EITI Reports did not yet meet all requirements in the EITI standard, particularly regarding full disclosure and assurance of the reliability of the figures. The Board has identified corrective actions to be implemented in the next twelve months necessary to reach EITI Compliant status and stated that the suspension can be lifted when the Board is content that the agreed corrective actions have been completed satisfactorily.  If the suspension is in effect for more than one year, beyond 17 April 2014, the Board will consider delisting the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which means that it would lose its status as EITI Candidate and would no longer be considered an EITI implementing country.
 
Mining laws
 
Congo’s Copper Producers Warn Against Sea Change in Mining Laws | 18 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Mining companies in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa’s biggest copper producer after Zambia, urged the government to reconsider proposed changes to the mining code and end a ban on exporting mineral concentrates. The amendments “call into question the basis on which mining operators and investors decided to come to Congo,” Marcel Malengo, managing director of African Minerals (Barbados) Ltd., the Ivanplats Ltd. (IVP) unit that runs the Kamoa copper project, said at a conference in Kinshasa. The government could boost its revenues if it adhered to the code in place, he said.
 
Copper export ban
 
Katanga : la Fec plaide pour un sursis de l’interdiction d’exporter des minerais concentrés | 19 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Federation of Enterprises of Congo (FEC), Katanga section, has argued that the order of the Minister of Mines, prohibiting the export of copper concentrates and cobalt is not currently being implemented. FEC Katanga has said that in the current context it is difficult for mining companies to process minerals locally because of the deficit in power and lack of infrastructure for local processing.
 
DRC copper export ban will have no real impact on operations – Tiger | 18 April 2013 | Mining Weekly
Toronto- and Sydney-listed Tiger Resources on Friday said there will be no material impact on its operations or the continued sale of copper concentrate from its Kipoi copper mine, in the Katanga province, in the DRC, after Kinshasa banned the export of copper and cobalt concentrates in a bid to encourage miners to process and refine copper concentrates in-country to secure the value-add economic benefits of beneficiation and refining for the nation.
 
Katanga province governor rejects copper/cobalt export ban | 18 April 2013 | Mineweb
Congo’s Katanga Governor Snubs Export Ban on Copper Concentrate | 18 April 2013 | Bloomberg
The governor of Congo's copper mining province, Katanga, said on Thursday he will not enforce a newly imposed ban on the export of copper and cobalt concentrates, putting him on a collision course with the central government. The mines and finance ministers signed a directive this month giving companies 90 days to clear their stocks of concentrate before the ban comes into effect, after which processing would have to be done in the DRC. Katanga province said it will not implement a government ban because it doesn’t have capacity to process all the ore itself.
 
Forestry regulation
 
TIE - N'sa Mputu annonce un « contrôle forestier renforcé aux frontières et aux portes de sortie »  | 24 April 213 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The Congolese Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism, Bavo N'sa Mputu Elima, (also 2nd Vice President of the Executive Committee of the EITI DRC), has announced that controls on forests, including entries and exits, have been strengthened in order to reduce fraud and better manage statistics on the volumes of exported forest products from the DRC.

  
 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
 Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 

 
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