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Central African Republic
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This week the M23 rebel movement continued to oppose and threaten the UN Intervention Brigade, which was approved by the Security Council on 28 March and whose aim is to actively fight the armed groups in eastern DRC. According to a UN top military official, the Brigade’s deployment is “imminent”. It will number 3069 men, from Tanzania, South Africa and Malawi.
While no progress was made at the recently resumed talks in Kampala between Kinshasa and M23, the latter reintegrated 450 men of the defeated pro-Bosco Ntaganda faction.
The Mai-Mai Raia Mutomboki were active in Mwenga and Shabunda, South Kivu; a report on this large armed group was published this week by the Rift Valley Institute’s Usalama Project.
Another Mai-Mai group clashed with the FDLR in a gold-rich locality in Lubero, northern North Kivu.
The deputy commander of the FDLR, General Stanislas Nzeyimana, was reportedly arrested in Tanzania.
In connection with the mass rape incident in November 2012 in and around Minova, South Kivu, the DRC last week suspended 12 senior military officers. The UN had demanded that the Congolese government take appropriate action in this case, saying it would suspend all cooperation with the Congolese army units suspected of being involved in the over 100 rapes. One of the battalions involved was reportedly trained by the US.
In the Central African Republic (CAR) coup leader Michel Djotodia was elected president by the newly formed National Transition Council, composed of 105 members from all political components of the country and civil society. Meanwhile, the UN denounced the deterioration of the humanitarian situation and the continued grave human violations across the country. In the capital Bangui the past week was particularly violent with looting and fighting between Seleka elements and the population, in which about 20 people died.
The DR Congo banned the export of unprocessed copper and cobalt, to force mining companies to add value to minerals before shipping them.
IT company HP published a list of the 195 smelters it has identified within its supply chain, as a first step in an effort to achieve a conflict-free supply chain for tantalum, tin, tungsten and gold from the DR Congo.


IPIS' News

The IPIS Annual Report 2012 was presented to the General Assembly and is now available online. It reports on the activities, publications and finance of IPIS in 2012.


IPIS’ Latest Publications

The formalisation of artisanal mining in the DRC and Rwanda | December 2012 [April 2013] | IPIS
This report describes and evaluates initiatives to formalise the artisanal mining sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, in order to locate lessons learned. We hope that these perspectives will support the formation of well-informed policy and regulatory options – both by the EU and by harvesting countries – concerning the formalisation of timber production in tropical countries.
The report was commissioned by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which is dedicated to advancing human well-being, environmental conservation and equity through providing information that leads to better informed and equitable decision making about the use and management of forests in tropical countries.

Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.

Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region 


MONUSCO weekly press conference
Conférence de presse des Nations Unies du mercredi 17 avril 2013 | 17 April 2013 | MONUSCO
UN Intervention Brigade – M23 threatens
Brigade d'intervention en RDC : l'ONU face aux menaces du M23 | 11 April 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Approuvée le 28 mars par le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies, la "Brigade d’intervention" de l'ONU devrait être déployée en RDC au plus tard le 30 avril, selon une source proche de la présidence congolaise. Le Mouvement du 23-Mars (M23) tente par tous les moyens de s’y opposer.
South Africa Deployment to DR Congo Opposed | 12 April 2013 | Inter Press Service
Johannesburg - Kholekile Dlamini has been devastated by the death of her son Xolani Dlamini, a South African National Defence Force soldier who died in the Central African Republic. Like many South Africans, she had not even been aware of the SANDF deployment to the resource-rich nation.
DR Congo rebels warn will retaliate if attacked by UN troops | 12 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC: les rebelles du M23 riposteront si la brigade de l'ONU les attaque (M23) | 12 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : le M23 promet de riposter en cas d’attaque de la brigade d’intervention de la Monusco | 12 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
La résolution de l’ONU conforte le gouvernement mais déplaît au M23 | 13 April 2013 | IPS
RDC : le Rwanda va-t-il combattre la force de l’ONU ?-Agoravox | 15 April 2013 | Agoravox | Radio Okapi
Les rebelles du Nord Kivu tentent de dissuader la future brigade africaine | 15 April 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Le M23 n'a d'autre recours que la stratégie belliciste | 16 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The M23 rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo on Friday warned that they would retaliate if attacked by a peacekeeping brigade that the United Nations has recently approved to deploy to the country's restive northeast to disarm insurgents.
Le M23 dissuade la Tanzanie et l’Afrique du Sud d’envoyer des troupes en RDC | 13 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) ne veut pas de soldats tanzaniens au sein de la brigade d’intervention de la Monusco, décidé par le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies pour neutraliser les groupes armés actifs dans l’Est de la RDC. Après l’Afrique du Sud, le M23 vient de saisir, dans ce sens, les parlementaires tanzaniens.
RDC : 3 069 hommes pour la brigade d'intervention de l'ONU dans l'Est | 13 April 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
La brigade d'intervention de l'ONU qui doit être déployée pour combattre les groupes armés actifs dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) comptera 3 069 hommes, a-t-on appris, samedi 13 avril, auprès de Mission de la l'ONU pour la stabilisation de la RDC (Monusco).
Louise Mushikiwabo : « Nous ne pensons pas qu’une action militaire soit la solution aux problèmes dans l’est de la RDC » | 16 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
La brigade d’intervention que l’ONU va déployer dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) pourra avoir un rôle de “dissuasion”, mais le plus important est le processus politique, a déclaré lundi 15 avril la ministre rwandaise des Affaires étrangères, Louise Mushikiwabo.
Général Babacar Gaye : «Le déploiement de la brigade d’intervention est imminent» | 17 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
«Le déploiement de la brigade d’intervention de la Monusco est imminent », a déclaré mardi 16 avril à Kinshasa le général Babacar Gaye, conseiller militaire du secrétaire général des Nations unies à l’issue d’une mission dans la sous-région des Grands Lacs, sans préciser de date. Cette force chargée de neutraliser les groupes armés sera dotée des « moyens d’action et une capacité de mobilité conséquents», a-t-il souligné.
RDC: la Brigade d’intervention signera la fin de la guerre, estime le M23 | 17 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le déploiement de la Brigade d’intervention de la Monusco dans l’Est de la république démocratique du Congo (RDC) signera « la fin de la guerre » contre le régime du président Joseph Kabila, a déclaré mardi 16 avril à l’AFP le porte-parole militaire du Mouvement du 23 mars (M23), le lieutenant-colonel Vianney Kazarama. « Avec cette brigade, c’est la fin de la guerre: ou Kabila gagne, ou le M23 gagne », a-t-il souligné.
Félix Basse : «Les menaces du M23 ne perturbent pas la dynamique de déploiement de la Brigade de la Monusco» | 17 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
« Les menaces proférées [par le Mouvement du 23 mars (M23)], je ne dis pas que nous n’en sommes pas sensibles, mais ne perturbent pas notre dynamique de déploiement de la force de la Brigade d’intervention en RDC», a déclaré mercredi 17 avril le porte-parole militaire de la Mission des Nations unies au Congo, le lieutenant-colonel Prosper Félix Basse. Au cours de la conférence hebdomadaire des Nations Unies, il a estimé que les rebelles continuent de sensibiliser sans succès les populations civiles des territoires qu’ils occupent.
S.Africa announces troops for troubled DR Congo | 17 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
President Jacob Zuma on Wednesday extended the deployment of 1,345 troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo where South Africa will form part of a first-ever offensive United Nations peacekeeping brigade.
Malgré la menace du M23 - La Tanzanie annonce l'envoi de ses troupes à la brigade d'intervention | 17 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
En dépit de la menace du M23 à l'endroit de la brigade d'intervention des Nations unies, la Tanzanie annonce l'envoi « d'au moins 800 militaires tanzaniens en RDC ».
Kampala peace talks
Abbé Malu Malu - « Le M23 a passé son temps à faire des discours » | 11 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
L'Abbé Apollinaire Malu malu, chef des experts du gouvernement de la RD Congo aux pourparlers de Kampala (Ouganda), accuse la délégation de la rébellion du M23 de passer « son temps à faire des discours ».
RDC: Kinshasa et M23 incapables de trouver un terrain d’entente à Kampala | 17 April 2013 | RFI
RDC : M23 vs Kinshasa, l’accord fait pschitt | 17 April 2013 |
À Kampala, on attendait ce mardi 16 avril les propositions de la médiation ougandaise pour un éventuel accord de paix entre le M23 et le gouvernement de Kinshasa. Cet accord est toujours recherché par les deux délégations depuis début décembre 2012. Mais encore une fois, rien ne s’est produit.
M23 on the ground
RDC: le M23 bloque 11 camions contenant du matériel de la Monusco au Nord-Kivu | 11 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Une dizaine de véhicules transportant du matériel de construction de la Mission des Nations unies pour la stabilisation en RDC (Monusco) sont bloqués par les rebelles du Mouvement du 23 mars depuis quatre jours à Kiwanja et à Kibumba. Ces deux cités sont respectivement situées à environ 70 km et 30 km au Nord de Goma dans la province du Nord-Kivu. Les rebelles estiment que le contenu de ces containers de la Monusco est suspect.
RDC: le M23 libère les 11 véhicules transportant du matériel de la Monusco | 11 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) a annoncé, ce jeudi 11 avril, avoir libéré les onze véhicules transportant du matériel de construction de la Mission des Nations unies pour la stabilisation en RDC (Monusco) qu’il bloquait depuis quatre jours.
RDC: le M23 annonce la réintégration de 450 combattants fidèles à Bosco Ntaganda | 17 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
La faction du Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) dirigée par Sultani Makenga a annoncé ce mercredi 17 avril la réintégration d’environ 450 combattants appartenant à la faction proche de Bosco Ntaganda qu’elle a défaite en mars dernier et qui s’est réfugiée au Rwanda.
Fighting between “Red Eagle” Mai-Mai and FDLR in Lubero, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : affrontements entre FDLR et miliciens «Aigle rouge » à Lubero, 7 morts | 12 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les Maï-Maï du groupe «Aigle rouge» et les rebelles rwandais des FDLR se sont affrontés, dans la nuit de mercredi à jeudi 11 avril, dans la localité de Fungula Macho dans le territoire de Lubero au Nord-Kivu.
Raia Mutomboki
Who are the Raia Mutomboki? | 15 April 2013 | Congo Siasa
The Raia Mutomboki are perhaps the largest armed group in the eastern Congo, in terms of territory they control. Over the past two years they have managed to flush the Rwandan FDLR rebels out of vast areas, even forcing them to abandon their headquarters of many years in southern Masisi. And yet, the Raia Mutomboki are also one of the most ramshackle, fragmented, and ill-disciplined armed groups.

Sud-Kivu : deux notables pris en otages par les Raïa Mutomboki à Ngando | 11 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les miliciens du groupe de Raïa Mutomboki ont pris en otage, lundi 8 avril, deux notables du village Ngando, dans le territoire de Mwenga au Sud-Kivu.
Sud-Kivu : des miliciens Raïa Mutomboki ont tué un officier des FARDC à Shabunda-centre | 17 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Des miliciens Maï-Maï fidèles à Raïa Mutomboki ont tué dimanche 14 avril un lieutenant des Forces armées de la RDC dans la localité de Katchungu, au Nord de Shabunda-centre au Sud-Kivu, ont indiqué des sources locales.
Mai-Mai Yakutumba preparing to integrate army
Sud-Kivu: début du regroupement des Maï-Maï Yakutumba pour leur réintégration dans les FARDC | 17 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le départ des combattants de la milice Yakutumba vers le centre de regroupement du territoire de Kabare (Sud-Kivu) a débuté, mardi 16 avril. Cinquante éléments de ce groupe venus de Misisi, à l’extrême sud du territoire de Fizi sont passés par la cité d’Uvira, mardi matin, vers le centre de regroupement de Nyamunyunyi, vers Bukavu. Selon des sources militaires sur place, il s’agit d’un premier convoi sur près de cinq cents éléments déjà prêts à intégrer l’armée régulière.
Mai-Mai attack village in Katanga
Katanga: retour au calme après les attaques des miliciens Maï-Maï au village de Kalera | 13 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le calme est revenu samedi 13 avril au village de Kalera, dans le territoire de Mitwaba (Katanga), trois jours après l’incursion des miliciens Maï-Maï. Ceux-ci auraient détruit le poste de police pendant les deux jours durant lesquelles ils ont occupé le village, selon des sources indépendantes.
FDLR deputy commander arrested
Tanzania reportedly arrests deputy FDLR commander | 17 April 2013 | Congo Siasa
Numerous sources are now reporting on the arrest of General Stanislas Nzeyimana (aka Izabayo Bigaruka), the deputy commander of the FDLR––the German Tageszeitung wrote about it last Friday, and sources close to the Tanzanian security services are now confirming.
Sexual violence
Congo suspends 12 senior army officers in probe of mass rape | 11 April 2013 | Reuters
The Democratic Republic of Congo has suspended a dozen senior military officers and is interrogating suspects in connection with a mass rape incident in the country's turbulent east, a spokesman for the U.N. peacekeeping department said on Thursday.
Congo: We did whatever we wanted, says soldier who raped 53 women | 11 April 2013 | The Guardian
As the G8 discusses sexual violence in the DRC, perpetrators and victims speak out about mass rape in Minova.
DR Congo soldiers 'ordered to rape' women | 11 April 2013 | BBC Africa
A team reporting for BBC Newsnight has uncovered evidence that soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were ordered to rape women by their superior officers.
Was the Congolese army ordered to rape in Minova? | 15 April 2013 | Congo Siasa
A BBC reportage that aired this week asserts with conviction that the rapes committed last November by the Congolese army (FARDC) in Minova were ordered, claiming they have “uncovered evidence” for this. Yet, the basis of this “evidence” is rather thin.
UN sees 'important' step in suspension of officers implicated in mass rapes | 12 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Congolese Army Suspends 12 Over Mass Rape Accusations | 12 April 2013 | Voice of America
RDC : l'armée suspend 12 militaires après des dizaines de viols en novembre (ONU) | 12 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has suspended for further investigation the commanding officers of two of its battalions implicated in mass rapes and other human rights violations in what the United Nations today called “an important signal of the commitment of the Congolese authorities to hold the perpetrators of these crimes accountable.”
Congo army battalion accused of mass rape U.S. trained: U.N. envoy | 16 April 2013 | Reuters
An army battalion in the Democratic Republic of Congo, some of whose members have been accused of mass rape, was trained by the United States, a senior U.N. envoy said on Tuesday.
UN to probe claims of rape by DR Congo army, rebels | 17 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC: l'ONU enquête sur des viols présumés par l'armée dans le Kivu | 17 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
The United Nations said Wednesday it would investigate dozens of claims of rape by army officers and rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The UN's mission in the country, Monusco, said that 126 cases of rape were recorded between November 15 and 30 last year in and around Minova, in the restive eastern province of South Kivu.
New Initiative Offers Hope for Survivors of Sexual Violence in Congo | 12 April 2013 | Enough Project
On April 11, the Group of Eight, or G8, a forum of the world’s wealthiest countries, pledged to spend $35.4 million on preventing rape and sexual violence from being used as a weapon of war.
RDC : inquiétude sur le sort de 10 esclaves sexuelles enlevées en février dans l'Est | 14 April 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Une religieuse de la province Orientale, dans le Nord-Est de la République démocratique du Congo, s'inquiète du sort de dix femmes enlevées en février par une violente milice qui est accusée d'en avoir fait des esclaves sexuelles.
Babies as young as six months victims of rape in war: U.N. envoy | 17 April 2013 | Reuters
In her first seven months as U.N. envoy on sexual violence in conflict, Zainab Hawa Bangura has visited a Congolese district where rebels raped babies, and Somalia where a woman was paid $150 restitution for the rape of her 4-year-old daughter.
Lubumbashi Takeover: “Governance by substitution” in the DRC | 15 April 2013 | International Crisis Group blog
La prise de Lubumbashi : gouvernance par substitution en RDC | 15 April 2013 | International Crisis Group blog
The unexpected occupation of Lubumbashi, the second largest city in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), by 440 Mai-Mai fighters last month is another sign of the central government’s lack of capacity to govern, ensure security or pursue reform. The occupation, which resulted in 35 dead and 53 wounded, serves as a reminder that the country’s crisis is not limited to North Kivu, in eastern Congo, or to warlords.



Prime Minister refutes Ugandan support to M23
Mbabazi Responds To Opposition M23 Concerns | 12 April 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi has denied allegations that Uganda supported the M23 rebels to overthrow the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In response to issues raised by the Leader of Opposition in Parliament, Nandala Mafabi, on Thursday, Mbabazi spoke at length about the M23 rebel group, corruption, opposition arrests, safe houses and coup threats.



Rwanda chairs UN debate on conflict prevention in Africa
Rwanda Holds Briefing On the Prevention of Conflict in Africa As President of UN Security Council | 15 April 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
The Security Council, under Rwanda's presidency convened a briefing on "Conflict Prevention in Africa: addressing the root causes". An important topic given that 70 percent of the UN Security Council's agenda deals with conflicts on the African continent.
Mushikiwabo Chairs UN Conflict Debate | 16 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
A high-level UN debate on identifying the root causes of conflict, particularly on the African continent, was yesterday chaired by Rwanda's Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo, with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in attendance.
Mushikiwabo told the meeting that democracy and good governance are not the only tools for conflict prevention in Africa.


Central African Republic

Humanitarian situation in Central African Republic deteriorates further, UN warns | 11 April 2013 | UN News Centre
L'OCHA s'alarme d'une détérioration continue de la situation humanitaire en République centrafricaine | 11 April 2013 | UN News Centre
The humanitarian situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) continues to deteriorate, with massive unrest and large-scale displacement across the country nearly three weeks after armed rebels seized power, the United Nations reported today.
CST devient CNT, Séléka n’arrête pas ses exactions | 12 April 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Le Conseil Supérieur de Transition (CST) change de nom et prend désormais l’appellation du Conseil National de Transition (CNT) comme en 2003. L’organe compte ainsi 105 membres au lieu de 97 conseillers comme prévu dans l’ancienne ordonnance rendu publique le week-end dernier par le nouvel homme fort de Bangui Michel Djotodia.
Over 2,000 children recruited by forces in Central African Republic, UN reports | 12 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Plus de 2.000 enfants enrôlés par les groupes armés en République Centrafricaine, affirme l'UNICEF | 12 April 2013 | UN News Centre
UN: CAR Groups Still Recruiting Child Soldiers | 12 April 2013 | Voice of America
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) today said more than 2,000 boys and girls have been recruited by armed forces in the Central African Republic since the latest wave of violence in the country began in December.
Coup leader elected president in Central African Republic | 13 April 2013 | Reuters
Centrafrique: Michel Djotodia élu président | 13 April 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique : le rebelle Michel Djotodia élu président de la République | 14 April 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
The rebel leader who seized power in Central African Republic, Michel Djotodia, was elected president on Saturday by an acting parliament.
Centrafrique : la rébellion d'Abdoulaye Miskine a perdu "beaucoup d'hommes" | 13 April 2013 | AFP | Jeune Afrique
La rébellion du Front démocratique du peuple centrafricain (FDPC), active dans l'ouest de la Centrafrique, a confirmé vendredi avoir "perdu beaucoup d'hommes" dans des accrochages avec la coalition Séléka, l'ex-rébellion au pouvoir depuis le 24 mars.
Transition Council in CAR to Appoint Vice President | 14 April 2013 | Voice of America
Seven killed in gun battle in Central African Republic capital | 14 April 2013 | Reuters
Centrafrique: scènes de pillages et heurts à Bangui | 14 April 2013 | RFI
Echauffourées à Bangui entre la Seleka et des civils | 14 April 2013 | RFI
In the Central African Republic, the newly created National Transition Council is working to appoint a vice president and other officers after electing rebel leader, Michel Djotodia, president on Saturday. The country has been in chaos since the March 24 rebel coup that toppled the government of President Francois Bozize. Fighting flared Sunday between rebels and loyalists of the ousted regime, killing at least 17 people, according to the Red Cross.
Thirteen dead in Central African Republic gunbattle | 15 April 2013 | Reuters
Centrafrique: des renforts de la Fomac vont sécuriser Bangui | 15 April 2013 | RFI
Centrafrique : une vingtaine de morts après des heurts entre habitants et la Séléka à Bangui | 15 April 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Djotodia accuse Bozizé d’être à l’origine de la crise sociale en RCA | 15 April 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Clashes between fighters who seized power in Central African Republic last month and youths loyal to the ousted former president has killed at least 13 people and left dozens wounded, medical sources said on Monday.
Centrafrique: le président Djotodia annonce des mesures contre l'insécurité à Bangui | 16 April 2013 | RFI
Le président Djotodia a annoncé ce mardi 16 avril des mesures pour lutter contre l'insécurité à Bangui, alors que les pillages se poursuivent dans certains quartiers.
« Tous les quartiers de Bangui doivent être désarmés », dixit Crépin Mboli- Goumba | 16 April 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Le Gouvernement d’Union Nationale (GUN) est sortie de sa tanière pour dénoncer les auteurs de la crise de ces derniers jours à Bangui. Cette crise qui, selon la Croix Rouge centrafricaine, a fait 13 morts, et 21 blessés dans les 4e et 7e arrondissements de Bangui.
L'archevêque de Bangui s'insurge contre les pillages | 16 April 2013 | RFI
Timide retour au calme ce mardi 16 avril à Bangui, en République centrafricaine, après un week-end durant lequel une vingtaine de personnes ont été tuées lors d'affrontements entre les habitants et des éléments de la Seleka, le mouvement qui vient de prendre le pouvoir.
UN senior officials urge action to halt rights violations in Central African Republic | 16 April 2013 | UN News Centre
République centrafricaine : Ban préoccupé par les affrontements meurtriers à Bangui | 16 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Des responsables onusiens réclament la fin des violences en République centrafricaine | 16 April 2013 | UN News Centre
UN: Central African Republic Security Deteriorating | 16 April 2013 | Voice of America
United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay today urged action to stop the lawlessness and grave violations to civilians in the Central African Republic (CAR) including torture, recruitment of children by armed forces, rape and kidnappings.
Ex-rebels launch reprisals in Central African Republic capital | 16 April 2013 | Reuters
Members of a rebel movement that seized power in Central African Republic last month launched a reprisal raid on a stronghold of the ousted former president on Tuesday as the United Nations voiced concern at the deteriorating security situation there.
Centrafrique : Bozizé réclame une enquête internationale sur les violences à Bangui | 16 April 2013 | Jeune Afrique
L'ancien président centrafricain François Bozizé, renversé le 24 mars par la coalition Séléka, a réclamé la mise en place d'une commission d'enquête internationale sur les récentes violences à Bangui.
CAR prime minister appeals for French military help | 17 April 2013 | RFI English
Centrafrique: le Premier ministre en appelle à la France pour sécuriser Bangui | 17 April 2013 | RFI
Central African Republic Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye has appealed for the help of France and of a regional African force to combat following last month’s rebel takeover.
Centrafrique: à peine créé, le CNT déjà contesté | 17 April 2013 | RFI
Le Conseil national de transition en Centrafrique est au complet : les 105 membres sont désignés et le bureau élu. La mise en place de cet organe, censé jouer le rôle d'assemblée, avait été exigée par les chefs d'Etat d'Afrique centrale le 3 avril dernier.
Renegade Fighters Spread Violence, Instability in CAR | 17 April 2013 | Voice of America
Centrafrique : affrontements et lynchages à Bangui | 17 April 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Rebel leaders in the Central African Republic are struggling to rein in their own fighters, blamed for violence in the capital that has left some 20 people dead over the past week. The instability is hampering efforts to aide a needy population, according to a United Nations official in the country.
More Children Killed in Central African Republic Amid Escalating Violence | 17 April 2013 | UNICEF | allAfrica
In the face of intensifying violence in the Central African Republic, including on a playing field and at a church, more and more children are being killed and injured, says UNICEF.
Centrafrique : Laurent Fabius conditionne l'aide de la France à la mise en place d'autorités légitimes | 18 April 2013 | RFI
La situation en Centrafrique est au coeur d'un sommet extraordinaire des chefs d'Etats de la Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique centrale (CEEAC) ce jeudi 18 avril à Ndjamena, au Tchad.
Tchad: une réunion des pays d'Afrique centrale sur la Centrafrique sans Michel Djotodia | 18 April 2013 | RFI
Un sommet extraordinaire des chefs d'Etat de la Communauté économique des Etats d'Afrique centrale (CEEAC) sur la République centrafricaine doit se tenir ce jeudi 18 avril à N'Djamena au Tchad.
Analysis & comments
Pourquoi Bozizé a-t-il été lâché par ses «frères»? | 12 April 2013 | RFI
En janvier 2013, les présidents Idriss Déby Itno, Denis Sassou Nguesso et Ali Bongo Ondimba volent à l’unisson au secours de leur « frère » franc-maçon, François Bozizé, en grande difficulté. Trois mois plus tard, les mêmes ne lèveront curieusement pas le petit doigt pour empêcher la Seleka, la rébellion armée, de s’emparer du pouvoir à Bangui. Décryptage.
Lords of misrule | 12 April 2013 | Africa Confidential
Confusion reigned at the summit on CAR’s future while the new rulers could not halt the prolonged plunder of the capital. The omens are poor.
Mystery Shrouds Rise and Aims of Rebel at Helm of Central African Republic | 13 April 2013 | The New York Times
A portly sexagenarian, Michel Djotodia had dressed for his coup d’état, donning desert camouflage, a turban and sandals like those of the rebels in his region of the Central African Republic.
Conflict trends (no. 13): Real-time analysis of African political violence, April 2013 | 15 April 2013 | Armed Conflict Location and Events Dataset (ACLED) | Reliefweb
This issue of Conflict Trends focuses on recent developments in Central African Republic (CAR), Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and South Sudan.
Tiangaye’s stock rises | 17 April 2013 | West Africa Newsletter
During a recent visit to Paris Central African Republic Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye successfully positioned himself as the country’s most credible politician - in contrast with the increasingly isolated Seleka chief Michel Djotodia.
Congo-B: Sassou concerned about extremism in CAR | 17 April 2013 | West Africa Newsletter
Denis Sassou N'guesso voiced concerns about the predominance of Muslims in mostly Christian Central African Republic's Seleka rebel movement, during a meeting with Francois Hollande on April 8.


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region


Province Orientale: des refugiés centrafricains seront installés à Mombenge Mombila et Monga | 11 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
UNHCR chief urges international support for Central African Republic and DR Congo | 12 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
High Commissioner Guterres visits CAR refugees in DR Congo | 12 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Mission du chef du HCR auprès des réfugiés centrafricains en RDC | 12 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Le Haut Commissaire pour les réfugiés se rend auprès des réfugiés centrafricains en RDC | 12 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Le patron du HCR au chevet des Centrafricains réfugiés en RDC | 13 April 2013 | RFI
RD Congo - Province du Sud-Kivu: Accès humanitaire (au 12 avril 2013) | 12 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Mambasa : 500 ménages de déplacés retournés vivent dans des conditions précaires | 12 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 13/13, 16 avril 2013 | 16 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 16/13, 16 avril 2013 | 16 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale N° 15/13, 16 avril 2013 | 16 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
West and Central Africa Humanitarian Bulletin, April 2013 | 16 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
UNHCR D.R.Congo Fact Sheet, 31 March 2013 | 17 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb


Burundi : Bulletin 1 - Janvier - Mars 2013 | 15 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb


Central African Republic

Humanitarian situation in Central African Republic deteriorates further, UN warns | 11 April 2013 | UN News Centre
L'OCHA s'alarme d'une détérioration continue de la situation humanitaire en République centrafricaine | 11 April 2013 | UN News Centre
UNHCR chief urges international support for Central African Republic and DR Congo | 12 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
High Commissioner Guterres visits CAR refugees in DR Congo | 12 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Mission du chef du HCR auprès des réfugiés centrafricains en RDC | 12 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Le Haut Commissaire pour les réfugiés se rend auprès des réfugiés centrafricains en RDC | 12 April 2013 | UN News Centre
Le patron du HCR au chevet des Centrafricains réfugiés en RDC | 13 April 2013 | RFI
République centrafricaine (RCA) - Revue de Presse Hebdomadaire du 8 au 15 avril 2013 | 15 April 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Hundreds more flee Central African Republic to escape fresh violence | 16 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Des centaines de nouveaux réfugiés centrafricains fuient les flambées de violence | 16 April 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region


ICC trial against Bemba
Insider Tells ICC Bemba Lacked Capacity to Command Alone | 12 April 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
The one witness who testified this week in Jean-Pierre Bemba's trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) served in a senior position in the group the accused led. Testifying under a pseudonym and via video link from an undisclosed location, he said the accused had an "elementary" military background that made it impossible for him to individually make major decisions related to military operations. He claimed the accused had no control over troops deployed for five months in the Central African armed conflict.
Bemba 'Lost Authority' Over Troops Deployed in Car | 12 April 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
On the concluding day of his testimony, a former insider in the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC) said that Jean-Pierre Bemba "lost authority" over his troops once he put them at the disposal of Central African authorities.
ICC prosecutor demands appeal against Ngudjolo
Affaire Matthieu Ngudjolo: la procureure de la CPI demande un procès en appel | 12 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
La procureure de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI), Fatou Bensouda, réclame l’organisation d’un procès en appel dans l’affaire qui oppose cette Cour à Matthieu Ngudjolo, ancien commandant des Forces nationalistes et intégrationnistes (FNI), une milice active dans l’Est de la RDC au début des années 2000.
Chebeya appeal case too slow
Procès Chebeya - L'UE « préoccupée par la lenteur de la procédure judiciaire » | 17 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
La délégation de l'Union européenne (UE) à Kinshasa a délivré mardi 16 avril une déclaration « en accord avec les chefs de mission européens en République démocratique du Congo » dans laquelle elle se dit « préoccupée par la lenteur de la procédure judiciaire » du procès en appel des assassins présumés de Floribert Chebeya et Fidèle Bazana.



Appeal case against Ingabire
Ingabire Back in Court for Appeal Hearing | 16 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The Supreme Court will, today, resume hearing the case in which Victoire Ingabire, who was last year convicted of terrorism, endangering state security and denying the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, is appealing her sentence. Ingabire last appeared before the court on March 25, challenging the October 2012 High Court decision to hand her an eight-year jail term. Ingabire wants the verdict overturned.
Prosecution Asks 25 Years for Ingabire | 16 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda : le parquet requiert 25 ans d’emprisonnement contre l’opposante Victoire Ingabire en appel | 17 April 2013 | RFI
Victoire Ingabire : itinéraire de la prisonnière de Kigali | 17 April 2013 |
Prosecution has prayed to the Supreme Court to hand a 25-year prison sentence to Victoire Ingabire on charges related to spreading rumors with an intention to incite the public to rise up against the State and supporting armed groups.
Ingabire Challenges Evidence in Trial | 17 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Victoire Ingabire started her appeal submissions before the Supreme Court, yesterday, challenging an eight-year jail sentence that was handed to her by the High Court.
Rwanda: à la barre, l'opposante Victoire Ingabire demande le réexamen des preuves | 18 April 2013 | RFI
L’opposante rwandaise Victoire Ingabire, condamnée en octobre dernier pour conspiration et négation du génocide de 1994 à huit ans de prison ferme, a présenté hier mercredi 17 avril, sa défense devant la Cour suprême qui la juge en appel.
Rwanda critizes ICTR
ICTR Betrayed Rwanda, Justice Minister Tells UN | 12 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Justice Minister Tharcisse Karugarama has said the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda's refusal to let the country host records of trial proceedings constitute a betrayal. Karugarama, who said the trial records are an integral part of Rwanda's history, told the United Nations General Assembly on Wednesday that ICTR has failed to serve its cause.
KIgali accuse la justice internationale de “trahison” et réclame les archives | 16 April 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Même si les relations entre le Rwanda et le Tribunal pénal international chargé de juger les crimes commis durant le génocide de 1994 ont toujours été difficiles, cette fois Kigali ne décolère pas : le Ministre de la Justice, Tharcisse Karugarama, a accusé le TPIR de « trahison », ajoutant qu’il avait échoué à atteindre ses objectifs.
Rwanda criticizes ICC
Le Rwanda critique vivement la CPI,« objet de manipulations politiques » | 16 April 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Le Rwanda, qui préside le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies pour ce mois d'avril, a vivement critiqué lundi la Cour pénale internationale (CPI), lui reprochant d'être « l'objet de manipulations politiques » et de violer la souveraineté des Etats.


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region

African countries urged to rethink use of mineral revenues for poverty reduction | 15 April 2013 | Mining Weekly
As Africa's New Wealth Grows, Poverty Must Come Down | 15 April 2013 | World Bank
The outlook for economic growth across sub-Saharan Africa remained robust for the forthcoming three years, but a new World Bank analysis shows that poverty is not declining at a similarly robust pace, particularly in those African economies that are resource rich.



Conflict gold trade
Inside Congo's Link in the Gold Chain | 14 April 2013 | The Wall Street Journal
The rise in smuggling has helped sustain Congo's violent insurgencies. But it also now threatens to taint the precious metal, much like so-called "blood diamonds" from Africa did at the turn of the 21st century.
Wall Street Journal Highlights Congo’s Conflict Gold Trade: U.S. Should Sanction Smugglers | 15 April 2013 | Enough Project
This morning the Wall Street Journal published an exposé on the conflict gold trade from eastern Congo, which is worth an estimated $285-400 million per year. The article details the lucrative trade in conflict gold as it is transported from mines in eastern Congo to smugglers in Uganda and Burundi and then to jewelers and dealers in Dubai and India. 


New Bill To Empower Owners Of Mines Fields | 12 April 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwandans with mineral fields will now be allowed to negotiate mining deals with companies once a new Bill presented to Parliament is approved. The Bill on mines and quarries exploitation was recently presented by the Minister of Natural Resources, Stanislas Kamanzi.


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

Value of fraud in Africa doubles despite decline in occurrence – KPMG | 17 April 2013 | Engineering News
Despite a decline in the number of fraud cases reported in Africa, the value of the reported cases more than doubled during the transition from the first to the second half of 2012, audit, tax and advisory firm KPMG’s third Africa Fraud Barometer has revealed.
The report, released on Wednesday, found that, from July to December 2012, 348 cases of fraud were reported – a 155 decrease from the 503 cases reported during January to June last year.


Drilling Commences on Alphamin's Bisie Project, DRC | 12 April 2013 | Alphamin Resources Corp. | Marketwired
Vancouver, British Columbia - Alphamin Resources Corp announces that the next phase of diamond drilling has commenced on the Gecomines target area of the Bisie Prospect, North Kivu Province, east central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
Randgold Resources Ld: Kibali gold mine poised to deliver | 16 April 2013 | Randgold Resources Ltd | Marketwired
The giant Kibali gold project in the Democratic Republic of Congo is steadily nearing the stage where it will start to deliver value to its stakeholders and to support the economic growth of the DRC, says developer and co-owner Randgold Resources.
Ban on export of copper & cobalt concentrates
Congo bans exports of copper, cobalt concentrates | 17 April 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Congo’s Government Halts Exports of Copper, Cobalt Concentrates | 17 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Democratic Republic of Congo has banned exports of copper and cobalt concentrates to encourage more value-added production, according to an order from the Mines Ministry obtained by Reuters on Wednesday. The order, dated April 5 and signed by Mines Minister Martin Kabwelulu, provides companies 90 days to clear stocks before the ban is enforced. It is not expected to affect Congo's largest copper producer, Freeport McMoRan, which already processes its copper inside the country.
Development of Ivanplats' Kamoa Copper Discovery Not Affected by Reported DRC Decree Banning Exports of Copper Concentrate | 17 April 2013 | Ivanplats Limited | Marketwired
Ivanplats Limited said today the company's planned development of its Kamoa copper discovery would not be negatively impacted by a reported decree, signed by two cabinet ministers of the Democratic Republic of Congo, to prohibit exports of cobalt and copper concentrates.
Ivanplats shares plunge after Congo export ban | 17 April 2013 | Reuters
Ivanplats Ltd shares fell almost 18 percent on Wednesday after Democratic Republic of Congo banned exports of copper and cobalt concentrates, although there was no immediate indication the Africa-focused miner's projects would be affected by the ban.
RDC: le ministre des Ressources hydrauliques promet la mise en service du barrage de Katende pour 2016 | 11 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Interrogé mercredi 10 avril par les députés au sujet des travaux du barrage hydroélectrique de Katende au Kasaï-Occidental, le ministre des Ressources hydrauliques et Electricité, Bruno Kapandji, a promis que la centrale sera mise en service en 2016.
New electricity code | 16 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The Congolese parliament adopted new electricity legislation in early April that sealed the end of a government monopoly over the industry.
World Bank stands by Inga | 16 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence



Museveni Loses Patience With Oil Firms | 15 April 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni took a verbal swing at the mainly upstream oil and gas firms operating in the country in the matter of their reluctance to help build a refinery.
Uganda says agrees on 30 000 bl/d oil refinery with Total, CNOOC | 15 April 2013 | Reuters | Engineering News
Uganda, France's Total and China's CNOOC have agreed to build a small oil refinery in the east African country, Uganda's government said, in a step towards resolving disagreements that have delayed commercial oil production. They agreed on an initial processing capacity of 30 000 bbl/d - well below the 200 000 bbl/d the government had initially sought.
CNOOC | 16 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The three big oil operators in Uganda, Total, Tullow Oil and Chinese National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC) have made president Yoweri Museveni back down concerning the size of a future refinery.
Asian States Interested in Uganda's Oil Refinery | 16 April 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
There is a slight change of plan within Uganda's oil industry. Fred Kabagambe-Kaliisa, the Permanent Secretary in the ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, says they expect to receive a report from Japan's Toyota Tsusho Corporation next month, showing whether it is reasonable to build an oil export pipeline all the way to Lamu in Kenya, especially after government agreed that the oil firms can export up to 120,000 barrels of crude per day.
Cases collide | 16 April 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
With Heritage Oil currently fighting it out with Tullow Oil before the High Court of London to decide who must pay the $400 million tax on capital gains that Uganda extracted (AEI 697), the Canadian group suffered a setback on the question before another jurisdiction, a London arbitration panel.
Tullow-Heritage Case - Day 8, 9 and 10 | 17 April 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
HEARINGS that ended in London recently in a case filed by Tullow against Heritage Oil over Capital Gains Tax to the Uganda Revenue Authority.
Uganda says in talks with China to fund Karuma dam project | 15 April 2013 | Reuters | Engineering News
Uganda is negotiating with China to obtain funding for construction of a Nile River hydropower dam at Karuma, a project that is expected to generate 600 MW of electricity, a senior official said on Monday.


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Reactions to new EU disclosure rules
EITI Chair: EU disclosure rules will complement EITI and improve governance | 12 April 2013 | EITI
EU landed a deal on Tuesday requiring EU companies to disclose tax payments.
European Union reached a deal on Tuesday on a law to require oil, gas, mining and logging companies to disclose all payments they make to foreign governments.
Africa Progress Panel Welcomes Europe's New Rules On Transparency | 16 April 2013 | Africa Progress Panel (Geneva) | allAfrica
Transparence : Africa Progress Panel souhaite voir les règles européennes aider l'Afrique à bénéficier de ses ressources | 16 April 2013 | Le Potentiel
New European rules move the world closer to a global standard on transparency. Now other regions and countries must follow this example. By requiring oil, gas, and mining companies to disclose full information on payments to governments over €100,000, Europe's new transparency rules will help Africa to seize more effectively the opportunity of its natural resource wealth.


EITI says $88m missing in mining taxes
DRC Probes $88M in Missing Mining Revenue | 15 April 2013 | Voice of America
Katanga: le trésor public a perdu 88 millions USD des redevances minières en 2010, selon l’ITIE | 15 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Watchdog says $88m missing in Congolese mining taxes | 16 April 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Anti-corruption investigators in the Democratic Republic of Congo say they can't trace more than $88 million that mining companies paid to a government revenue agency. The investigation has been carried out by the Congolese branch of a global anti-corruption watchdog, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
HP publishes list of smelters
HP Releases List of Supply Chain Smelters | 15 April 2013 | HP | Marketwired
HP today published a list of the 195 smelters that have been identified within its supply chain. HP is the first IT company to publish its supply chain smelter list and to have the smelter identification process be independently reviewed. This move underscores HP's leadership toward achieving a conflict-free supply chain by encouraging suppliers to become conflict-free smelter (CFS) certified and urging the entire industry to move toward greater utilization of conflict-free smelters and refiners.


Central African Republic 

Central African Republic ‘suspended’ following coup d’état | 12 April 2013 | EITI
The EITI Board has decided to temporarily suspend Central African Republic’s status as EITI Compliant, effective 10 April 2013. The Board concluded that the EITI Principles and Criteria could not be adhered to in the current situation.

IPIS Recent Publications

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
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