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Following last weeks UN Security Council resolution mandating a MONUSCO-based intervention brigade, concerns have been raised about causalities to troop contributing State forces – felt most acutely in South Africa, where President Zuma is currently under fierce scrutiny over the country’s involvement in the Central African Republic. Meanwhile, the M23 has continued to take a defensive stance towards the Security Council move, seeking to mobilise anti-brigade sentiment in North Kivu. Talks between the M23 and Kinshasa resumed in Kampala this week.
On the ground in the DRC, Province Orientale has continued to see considerable unrest with armed attacks by unidentified men in Itui and the recruitment of a youth militia by a well known local poacher in Faradje territory. This territory in particular has seen incursions by Lord’s Resistance Army fighters from the CAR and increased FARDC/MONUSCO patrols in an attempt to enhance civilian protection. In North Kivu, civil society has alleged sightings of Rwandan troops on Congolese territory, whilst the MRDC has stoked insecurity in Beni. In South Kivu the FARDC has launched an offensive against the Raia Mutomboki/Mukombozi coalition in a number of localities. The inquiry into the Bakata Katanga Mai-Mai raid on Lubumbashi continues, with four senior officials suspended, and poverty and lack of state authority in certain areas of Katanga being highlighted as factors facilitating Mai-Mai insurgency.
In the Central African Republic AU LRA Task Force operations have been suspended due to political obstacles, though the relevant states have affirmed their continued commitment to the hunt for Kony and his militia. The Economic Community of Central African States  (ECCAS) summit in N’Djamena has rejected Michel Djotodia as the CAR’s national leader demanding the establishment of a transitional council – a demand to which the self-proclaimed President appears to have acquiesced. The rapid adoption of a transitional council ordinance has caused disquiet amongst civil society in the CAR, where diamond traders have this week reportedly confessed to funding Seleka rebels.
Uganda this week has seen contested assertions that the government has won its UK arbitration case against Heritage Oil, as the Tullow/Heritage litigation in the English High Court continues to illuminate further details of Tullow’s dealings in the oil-rich state.
Campaigners in Europe have hailed a victory this week as the EU is reported to have accepted ground-breaking new rules requiring companies working in the extractives and logging sectors to publish details of payments made to governments for access to natural resources.



IPIS’ Latest Publications


Gold and diamonds in the Central African Republic. The country's mining sector, and related social, economic and environmental issues | 26 March 2013 | IPIS
Gold and diamonds in Central Africa easily conjure up images of conflict, rebel funding, human rights violations, and smuggling. As a country landlocked within an unstable region, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and recently the scene of another coup, the Central African Republic (CAR) might be considered an appropriate candidate for analysis within the conflict-mineral perspective. Yet this framework would ignore the country’s mining sector’s very specific characteristics. The sector offers an essential livelihood to many households, represents the country’s second most important export product, and is organised in a particular way. Nonetheless, a wide range of issues regarding the country’s mining sector persist.
This report aims to analyse both the Central African Republic’s gold and diamond mining sector and related environmental and socio-economic issues.

Pinocchio Ltd. The NRA and its corporate partners: US shipments of small arms ammunition by sea | 25 March 2013 | TA-R | IPIS
The National Rifle Association (NRA) claims to have monitored in the last 20 years all United Nations activities that could impact Second Amendment rights. Its latest target is the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), an international treaty to establish common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms presently under discussion at the United Nations. The international community has been calling for the inclusion of ammunition and civilian arms within the scope of the ATT. This reasonable call is used by the NRA to claim that the ATT could restrict the lawful ownership of firearms in the United States.

Major Powers Fuelling Atrocities. Why the world needs a robust Arms Trade Treaty | March 2013 | Amnesty International
IPIS contributed to the research for this AI report.
Every year, thousands of people are killed, injured, raped and forced to flee from their homes as a result of abuses and atrocities committed with conventional arms and ammunition. Harrowing testimonies and images from conflict zones and human rights crises around the world underline the urgent need to end irresponsible arms transfers and illicit trafficking.

The Arms Trade Treaty: Building a Path to Disarmament | 19 March 2013 | Sergio Finardi, Brian Wood, Peter Danssaert, Ken Matthysen
The goal of this article is to examine and suggest proposals that could enhance the role of the international Arms Trade Treaty—presently in discussion at the United Nations—in the regulation of the international arms trade and in addressing the role of the legal trade in: a) providing the bulk of the arms used in armed conflicts, armed violence and human rights abuses; b) the excessive arming of developing countries; and c) the continuous unsettling of power balances in sensitive world regions, not least because of competition amongst arms-exporting countries.


Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Arms Trade Treaty
Making the Arms Trade Treaty work in practice is the real challenge for Africa | 3 April 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
The immediate future of the ATT, in the case of Africa, is to find answers to the question on implementation. Each African states will have to evaluate what resources they have available and then determine what resources are needed to implement the treaty. Several states have been developing capacity on reporting on other related treaties and instruments. This article analyses the future of the ATT from the African perspective.
The Arms Trade Treaty - a Pan-African Global Policy Victory | 8 April 2013 | Think Africa Press | AllAfrica
Analysis piece discussing how African nations led from the front in helping establish a global arms trade treaty.
Russian arms trading to Africa
Arms Deals With Africa - From Russia With Love | 4 April 2013 | Think Africa Press | AllAfrica
As Russia maintains its status as the world's second largest exporter of arms, it looks increasingly to Africa. As part of its foreign policy, Russian authorities have been strengthening military-technical cooperation with a number of African countries. These often include officer training and the sale of military equipment, though the details are rarely publicly available. As well as being an important area of business, some analysts also see Russia's arms trade with African countries as being part of a broader strategy of gaining economic links and influence in the region. The arms trade in of itself is significant, but it can also feed into other arrangements beyond just military deals.
UN intervention brigade for the DRC
RDC : les préparatifs du déploiement de la brigade d’intervention sont très avancés, selon Roger Meece | 5 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in the DRC, Roger Meece, has said that preparations for the deployment of the UN Intervention Brigade in North Kivu are very advanced, but that the political element of the solution to the crisis is being equally asserted.
War Feared Over New UN Force in DR Congo | 5 April 2013 | The Independent | AllAfrica
Article speculating that the deployment of South African and Tanzanian troops to combat negative forces in the DRC may spark regional conflict due to pre-existing tensions between the troop contributing countries and Rwanda, and the proposed force’s lack of preparedness to engage in anti-insurgency combat in jungle terrain.
Responses to Intervention force deployment in troop contributing states
TPDF On Peacekeeping Mission to DRC | 8 April 2013 | Tanzania Daily News | AllAfrica
The Tanzanian Ministry of Defence and National Service has responded to reports about the deployment of the army brigade to 'fight' M23 rebels by stating that Tanzania does not intend to send troops to fight the rebels but rather join other peacekeepers to help restore normalcy in the DRC. A 850 strong troop presence is due to be deployed from the country.
Nouvelle polémique au pays, après l'annonce de l'envoi de troupes en RDC | 8 April 2013 | RFI | AllAfrica
South Africa to Send Troops to Congo After CAR Withdrawal | 8 April 2013 | Bloomberg
South Africa has announced the deployment of troops for the MONUSCO brigade mandated by the UN Security Council amid severe criticisms over the country’s troop presence (and losses) in the CAR.
Brigade de la Monusco : Jacob Zuma appelé à s’expliquer sur l’envoi des militaires sud-africains | 8 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Following the loss of numerous soldiers in the CAR, President Zuma has been asked to explain his deployment of South African troops to join MONUSCO’s intervention brigade before his own national assembly. Concerns have been expressed about the very high risk of further deaths as a consequence of this deployment.
M23 response to UN intervention brigade for the DRC
M23 says it will 'fight back' against UN | 8 April 2013 | AlJazeera
The president of the Congolese rebel group, M23, says it will fight back against a new UN "intervention brigade" if it entered the M23 controlled areas.
Nord-Kivu: la société civile dénonce l’intox du M23 contre la Brigade d’intervention de la Monusco | 9 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in North Kivu has denounced the disinformation campaign being waged by the M23 against the deployment of the MONUSCO intervention brigade. According to a civil society spokesman this maneuver could prevent the return of peace to the country.
Nord-Kivu: des habitants de Nyiragongo fuient la marche contre la brigade d’intervention de la Monusco  | 10 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Many people, mostly young, left Nyiragongo on Wednesday morning to find refuge in the Kabagana and Kabuhanga localities on the border between the DRC and Rwanda. Civil society sources indicate that these people refused to participate in a march against the deployment of the MONUSCO intervention brigade that had been organized by the M23 for Wednesday from Kibumba to Goma. It has been reported that after the departure of these people, the M23 canceled the march and rescheduled it for next Sunday.
Quand le M23 interpelle le parlement sud-africain | 10 April 2013 | RFI | AllAfrica
The M23 is reported to have sent a letter to the South African parliament to protest the announced participation of South African troops in the new rapid intervention brigade UN, threatening to fight back.
RDC : la Monusco condamne la campagne du M23 contre sa brigade d’intervention | 11 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
A MONUSCO spokesman has condemned the M23’s propaganda activities of recent days in seeking to organise civil society meetings in localities occupied by the force to call on local people to oppose the deployment of the intervention brigade.
Kampala talks resumed
RDC : le gouvernement et le M23 de nouveau à Kampala pour harmoniser l’accord final  | 5 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Kampala ou lieu du blanchiment du M23 | 5 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
Reprise des négociations entre le gouvernement et le M23 à Kampala | 5 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
Stalled DR Congo talks resume amid hope and uncertainty | 6 April 2013 | East African | Relief Web
Kampala ou la reprise des pourparlers congolais | 8 April 2013 | Deutsche Welle | AllAfrica
Difficiles discussions Kinshasa et M23 | 10 April 2013 | BBC News
Talks in Kampala between the M23 and Kinshasa resumed on Saturday. Negotiations are stuck particularly on the issue of disarmament and dissolution of the M23.
Lord’s Resistance Army
US offers reward for Uganda warlord Kony | 4 April 2013 | AlJazeera
Reward Offered for Information on Kony | 3 April 2013 | New York Times
The United States' War Crimes Rewards Programme has offered bounties of up to $5m each for fugitive Ugandan warlord Joseph Kony and some of his top LRA aides.
Joseph Kony search suspended amid turmoil in Central African Republic | 9 April 2013 | The Guardian
Ugandan and American troops have suspended their joint hunt for war crimes suspect Joseph Kony and his Lord's Resistance Army. The Ugandan military and the US state department separately announced last week that they had temporarily halted the search because of political turmoil in the CAR. A Ugandan army spokesman, told reporters that the hunt was on hold "until further notice" because rebel leaders in the CAR are refusing to co-operate with Ugandan troops stationed in the country.
Suspended Kony Hunt Worries Civilians | 5 April 2013 | The New Vision | AllAfrica
'Continue Kony Hunt - Invisible Children | 7 April 2013 | RFI | AllAfrica
International and local civil society organisations operating in areas affected by LRA rebel activities in the CAR have appealed to Uganda and the US to remain committed to efforts aimed at ending threats by Africa's longest armed rebellion after they suspended the four-year hunt operation, following a directive from the African Union and a request by coup leaders for foreign troops to leave the country earlier this week.
Fight against the LRA: The Ugandan troops will continue to play their role  | 7 April 2013 | UN Regional Office for Central Africa
The Ugandan military and the AU have confirmed that the 2000 Ugandan soldier handover to the Regional Task Force of the African Union in charge of the "elimination" of the LRA will continue to play their role in this initiative, including in the CAR, in spite of the change of regime there.
Chad and CAR Coup
Ousted CAR President François Bozizé Says No Plans for Asylum | 4 April 2013 | RFI| AllAfrica
La RCA au cœur du sommet de N’Djaména, François Bozizé accuse le Tchad | 4 April 2013 | Radio Ndele Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
In an interview with RFI, François Bozizé has insisted that Chad was behind the recent coup in which he was overthrown, claiming that all the goods pillaged since the outbreak of hostilities has crossed the CAR's borders with Chad or Sudan. Bozizé has said that he has made no asylum application in Benin.
South Africa and CAR
More Than 50 South African Soldiers Killed in Car Bangui Clash - Witness | 4 April 2013 | RFI| AllAfrica
Sources in Bangui indicate that more than 50 South African soldiers were killed in Central African Republic on 23 March, adding to suspicions that the South African government has not given the true death toll, originally stated to be 13.
South Africa to withdraw troops from CAR | 4 April 2013 | AlJazeera
S.Africa pulls troops from C.Africa after deadly firefight | 4 April 2013 | Africa Daily
South Africa has decided to pull its troops out of the Central African Republic because the deal under which they were deployed has become void with the fall of the government there, President Jacob Zuma has said.
Equateur - Les enjeux cachés de la présence des troupes sud-africaines | 9 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
There is reportedly a troop presence of South African forces in Equateur province in the DRC following withdrawal from the CAR.
US Policy on the DRC
Guest Blog: Time for Change in US Congo Policy | 5 April 2013 | Congo Siasa
A guest blog by Anthony Gambino, the former USAID director in the Congo, and Steve Weisman, the former staff director for the US House of Representative's Subcommittee on Africa,concerning the need for smarter international engagement to deal with the continuing challenges in the DRC. Focusing on the US, the authors state that at the heart of the failure of US policy on the DRC is the Obama Administration’s first term failure to follow its own policy directives on democracy promotion. Despite considerable financial leverage (the US alone provided $700 million to the DRC in 2012), the US and other donors have squandered chances to address the Government’s low political legitimacy and the predatory nature of the Congolese state.


 Demobilisation in the DRC
Demobilization in the DRC: Armed Groups and the Role of Organizational Control  | 5 April 2013 | Small Arms Survey | Reliefweb
A new Small Arms Survey Issue Brief—Demobilization in the DRC: Armed Groups and the Role of Organizational Control—analyses disarmament and demobilization in the DRC between November 2004 and September 2011. It focuses on six armed groups, including the CNDP, and is based on interviews with low-level combatants, including rank-and-file troops and junior commanders.
Briefing: M23, one year on | 3 April 2013 | IRIN
Briefing : M23, un an après | 3 April 2013 | IRIN| Relief Web
Article outlining the position of the M23 a year since their formation in 2012, addressing the current humanitarian situation in North Kivu, the M23’s leadership. the fate of the Kampala talks and the current situation regarding international intervention in the region.
Survival in the DRC context
Neither war nor peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): profiting and coping amid violence and disorder | April 2013 |  African Journal of Political Economy
The African Journal of Political Economy has published an issue entitled, "Neither war nor peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): profiting and coping amid violence and disorder". It is edited by Miles Larmer, Ann Laudati and John F. Clark and appears a decade after a landmark double issue of the journal published in 2002 on the DRC crisis. It features articles from commentators such as Jason Stearns, Judith Verweijen, Ann Laudati, and Theodore Trefon. The current Special Issue focuses less than its predecessor on national and international political issues – although the Briefing by Theodore Trefon provides significant insight into this area. Instead, it seeks to show the ways in which some Congolese people, particularly in the east of the country, find strategies to survive, cope and in some cases even to profit from, the liminal socio-political environment in which they find themselves.
DRC Widows Carry Heavy Burdens | 3 April 2013 | Voice of America
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, many widows of soldiers who were killed fighting rebel group M23 last year are trying to collect their husbands’ or partners’ pay, though none have yet received payment.
Province Orientale
RDC: un groupe d’hommes armés insécurisent des villages à Aru | 4 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
A group of unidentified armed men have carried out multiple attacks on villages and FARDC positions for several days in Aru territory in Ituri, near the border with South Sudan. These men  have reduced commercial traffic between the DRC and South Sudan. Local sources report that the men attacked the town of Rendo, last Tuesday, looting shops.
Province Orientale: la Monusco et les FARDC intensifient leurs patrouilles à Dungu et Faradje | 5 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Commander of the Moroccan MONUSCO contingent has said that both MONUSCO and FARDC have intensified military operations to secure the security and protection of civilians in Dungu and Faradje. Among these operations are motorized and foot patrols roaming areas particularly vulnerable to the abuses.
Province Orientale: une rébellion en gestation à Faradje, selon la société civile | 6 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
A youth militia is being recruited in Faradje territory more than 800 km northeast of Kisangani by infamous poacher, Iki Tabani, who is recruiting young people on the border with South Sudan for training in the Savana. FARDC are said to be aware of the situation.
Province Orientale: 5 villages de Faradje se vident suite aux attaques de la LRA | 8 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The inhabitants of five villages in Faradje, more than 800 km north-east of Kisangani have left their homes to seek refuge in neighbouring communities, fleeing repeated incursions by armed men identified as Ugandan LRA fighters. Such incursions have been taking place since the end of March, and the armed men are said to come from the CAR fleeing Seleka fighters. The people of Kudjuwa, Lidjo and Takiani are said to have gone to Faradje-center, whilst those of Nganzi and Ngbalanda are at the State office of Jabir.
Isangi : la population appelle la Monusco et des ONG à détruire les mines antipersonnel | 9 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The police, military and civil society in Isangi have called for MONUSCO and NGOs to destroy unexploded anti-personnel landmine ordnance identified for some time and search for other such ordinance. They made the call following the discovery of a shell at the Protestant mission in Yalikina, a busy neighbourhood of the city.
 Mambasa: des hommes armés tuent une personne à Mabuo | 10 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Gunmen reportedly killed one person and wounded several others on Monday during a raid to the town of Mabuo, 150 km southeast of Mambasa. The inhabitants of this town accuse the attackers of raping three women, torturing forty people and looting. The assailants are reportedly deserters from the army and poachers.
North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : le président de l’assemblée provinciale dénonce le renforcement des troupes du M23 | 5 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Several dozen soldiers from Rwanda have crossed onto the DRC's territory in the last three days to reinforce the M23 in North Kivu, announced the President of the Provincial Assembly of North Kivu during a press conference in Goma. According to him, these reinforcements seek a new attack on the city of Goma to force the government to give in to the M23.
Nouvelle entrée des soldats rwandais et ougandais à Rutshuru - Ière violation de l'Accord-Cadre d'Addis-Abeba | 5 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
Le Potentiel reports that members of civil society in North Kivu have stated that they have witnessed Rwandan and Ugandan troops crossing the Congolese border in Rutshuru territory in breach of the Addis Ababa agreement.
Nord-Kivu : le groupe armé fidèle à Hilaire Kombi contrôle cinq villages à Beni  | 10 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
The rebel Mouvement pour la restauration de la démocratie au Congo (MRDC), loyal to General Hilaire Kombi, has announced having had control over five villages in Beni (North Kivu) for several days now. Civil society has confirmed this information though it is denied by the Congolese army.
South Kivu
Sud-Kivu: les FARDC attaquent les positions de Maï-Maï à Ngando | 8 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
FARDC launched an attack on the positions of the Raia Mutomboki and Raia Mukombozi coalition in Mwenga on Monday. Military sources have not stated the outcome of these confrontations, but they indicate that this is an operation to hunt for armed groups in this area. The army opened another front against the same militia coalition in the town of Chinda in Walungu on the same day.
Katanga : la société civile satisfaite des premières sanctions dans l’affaire de Bakata Katanga | 8 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Katangan civil society has reportedly said that it is "satisfied" with the suspension of the commander of the 6th military region of the FARDC and the Congolese provincial inspector of National Police, two weeks after the Katanga Bataka Mai-Mai raid on Lubumbashi.
Katanga: la misère favorise l’émergence des groupes Maï Maï au Nord, selon les députés provinciaux  | 9 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Residents of several administrative entities in northern Katanga live in poverty and with an absence of State authority, creating a basis for the re-emergence of the Mai-Mai, stated MPs at a provincial meeting in Katanga.
DRC’s mining heartland a volatile ‘powder keg’ - lawmaker | 10 April 2013 | Mineweb
Growing unrest in
Democratic Republic of Congo's copper-rich Katanga province risks scaring off investors and derailing its thriving mining sector, said the lawmaker heading an inquiry into a rebel attack on the provincial capital last month. "If nothing is done, Katanga is a powder keg and anything can happen," Claudel Andre Lubaya, a legislator who is the rapporteur for the parliamentary commission for defence and security, said on Tuesday following a visit to Lubumbashi.
Congo Suspends Four Security Officials Over Katanga Violence  | 10 April 2013 | Bloomberg
The DRC has suspended four top security officials for failing to prevent violence by the Bakata Katanga Mai-Mai separatist militia in Lubumbashi, which killed at least 15 people last month. Army and police commanders in Katanga were aware of the militia advance “but they did not understand the gravity of the situation,” said Claudel Andre Lubaya, head of a parliamentary commission investigating the attack.
Kasai Occidental
Kasaï-Occidental : des hommes armés sèment la terreur dans la ville de Tshikapa | 9 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
There has been renewed insecurity in Tshikapa, 265 kilometers west of Kananga, for several days as gunmen regularly raid houses, robbing people of their property, especially traders. The police complain that they lack the logistics to fight against this insecurity. According to the victims, whilst armed, the bandits do not shoot. Their latest attack, two days ago, targeted the diamond purchase organisations, Solidarity and Anselm.
Parc de Salonga: 13 morts après un accrochage entre gardes-parc et habitants de Mpuluwote | 7 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Clashes occurred in Mong'eyase groupment in Bokungu territory killing thirteen people including ten children last Thursday. Salonga Park wardens are reported to have tortured and killed a poacher from the village of Mpuluwote in Lomela territory (Kasai Oriental), leading angry villagers to chase the rangers into a plantation located at the boundary between the Lomela and Bokungu. The rangers fired on their assailants and 50 houses were burnt during the clashes.


UPDF Commander Brig. Kankiriho Passes On  | 8 April 2013 | New Vision | AllAfrica
A renowned UPDF officer, Brig. Patrick Kankiriho who led a military operation in the forests of Garamba in the DRC in 2008 has died.


ECCAS summit outcome
Regional Leaders Refuse to Recognize Rebel Head in Central African Republic | 3 April 2013 | The New York Times
African heads of State on Wednesday refused to recognize rebel leader Michel Djotodia’s self-appointment as president of Central African Republic, calling instead for the creation of a new transitional body to guide the country to elections.
Self-Proclaimed CAR President Accepts Transitional Council - Report | 5 April 2013 | AllAfrica
Michel Djotodia accepte les exigences du sommet de N’Djamena | 4 April 2013 |
New CAR Leader Accepts African Transition Plan  | 4 April 2013 | Voice of America
The Prime Minister of Central African Republic, Nicolas Tiangaye, has announced that rebel leader, Michel Djotodia, has accepted the outcome of a regional Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) summit in N'Djamena on the country's crisis. This outcome called for the election of a new interim president following last month's coup. ECCAS leaders refused to accept Djotodia as president after the ousting of elected president Francois Bozize, and have reportedly agreed that a freshly elected council should take charge of the transition and play an executive role. This body is to vote for a transitional president who would serve for not more than 18 months.
Supreme Council of Transition
L’ordonnance portant création du CST contestée par plusieurs entités politiques et la société civile | 8 April 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
The signing of the ordinance establishing the Supreme Council of Transition (CST) for the Central African Republic has invoked strong reaction from all sides, with civil society representatives, democratic opposition and the Central Union of Journalists contesting the configuration of the new body both in terms of procedures for establishment and the substantive content of the founding ordinance.
Seleka diamond funding
Des diamantaires reconnaissent avoir financé la Seleka | 10 April 2013 | RFI | AllAfrica
Key players in the diamond industry in the CAR have admitted to funding the Seleka rebels, with some even confessing to have been commissioned to sell diamonds over the border in Sudan.
Security situation in the CAR
As Security Council Meets On Central African Republic, UN Flies in Emergency Aid | 9 April 2013 | UN News Service | AllAfrica
First Flight of Emergency Relief Reaches CAR | 9 April 2013 | Voice of America
With the United Nations Security Council set to meet on the CAR on Tuesday, more than 23 tonnes of essential medical supplies and water tanks were delivered by the United Nations Children's Fund to assist some 200,000 people.
Fragile Calm Returns to Bangui, CAR | 4 April 2013 | Voice of America
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reports that calm has been restored to Bangui, though warns that the risk of looting and renewed fighting remains high.
Central African Republic: UN envoy briefs on ‘highly volatile’ situation | 9 April 2013 | UN News Centre
More than two weeks after armed rebels seized power, the political and security situation in the Central African Republic continues to be “highly volatile,” a United Nations envoy has said, stressing the need to restore the rule of law in the country. 


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region


Humanitarian Bulletins and reports

Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province de Maniema N° 06/13, 02 avril 2013 | 2 April 2013 | OCHA
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 11/13, 2 avril 2013 | 2 April 2013 | OCHA
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale N° 13/13, 03 avril 2013 | 3 April 2013 | OCHA
Bulletin d'information humanitaire - Province du Katanga N° 12/13 - 02 avril 2013 | 2 April 2013 | OCHA
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 14/13, 3 avril 2013 | 3 April 2013 | OCHA


Humanitarian need
Urgent humanitarian needs in post-coup Central African Republic | 4 April 2013 | IRIN
Des besoins humanitaires urgents après le coup d’État en République centrafricaine | 7 April 2013 | IRIN | ReliefWeb
OCHA has reported that the people of Bangui are in critical need of humanitarian aid, including access to health and nutrition and clean water, and security and protection of civilians.
CAR Refugees
U.N.: 37,000 have fled Central African Republic | 5 April 2013 | CNN
The number of civilians who have fled from the Central African Republic since a conflict began there in December has risen to 37,000, the UNHCR said Friday. More than 30,800 of them have sought refuge in the neighbouring DRC.
Humanitarian reports
Central African Republic Situation Report No. 5 | 5 April 2013 | World Food Programme 


 Rwandan genocide

19th Commemoration of the Genocide Against the Tutsi Begins in Rwanda | 8 April 2013 | Government of Rwanda| AllAfrica
Tuesday marked the beginning of the 100 days of remembrance as Rwandans and friends of Rwanda across the world commemorate the genocide against the Tutsi. This year's commemoration theme is "Striving for self-reliance."


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

ICC’s Bemba trial
Bemba Trial Resumes Next Week | 5 April 2013 | Bemba Trial Website| AllAfrica
Hearings in the trial of Congolese opposition leader Jean-Pierre Bemba will resume on Monday, April 8, most likely with the testimony of 'Witness D04-21,' who will testify via video link from an undisclosed location. The trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) has been on spring judicial recess since March 28.
Bemba Had 'Elementary' Military Knowledge but Troops Were Well-Trained | 5 April 2013 | Bemba Trial Website| AllAfrica
Jean-Pierre Bemba did not have the ability to single-handedly command his private militia, the ICC heard on Tuesday. According to a new witness, who testified under a pseudonym, the former vice president of Congo had an "elementary" military background that made it impossible for him to individually make major decisions related to military operations.


ICC’s Mathieu Ngudjolo acquittal
RDC: le procureur de la CPI demande l’annulation de l’acquittement de Matthieu Ngudjolo | 5 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
ICC prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, has requested an appeal on the guilt of Congolese militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo, who was acquitted last December from charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes in Ituri in north eastern DRC in 2003.  


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region


Kipoi plant development progressing well, first output due mid-2014  | 9 April 2013 | Mining Weekly
About 60% of the bulk earthworks at copper producer Tiger Resources’ Kipoi Stage 2 solvent extraction and electrowinning plant development project, in the DRC, has been completed.


 Uganda/Heritage arbitration
Heritage Says Arbitration Over Uganda Tax Claims Not Over | 4 April 2013 | Bloomberg
Heritage Oil, a U.K. oil and gas exploration company, rejected press reports that it had lost an arbitration case over tax claims by the government of Uganda, having slumped 7.1 percent to 165 pence, its steepest drop since August 9, after the New Vision newspaper earlier reported the company had lost the arbitration case: “Heritage is concerned to note that press comments attributed to the Ugandan authorities regarding the arbitral decision are inaccurate as well as being breaches of the requirement of confidentiality imposed upon both parties to the proceedings,” it said in the statement.
Market round-up: Heritage tumbles as investors take fright on tax row in Uganda | 4 April 2013 | The Evening Standard
Assistant commissioner for litigation at the Uganda Revenue Authority has told Reuters: “On the core question of the taxability of Heritage’s transaction with Tullow, the tribunal in London ruled yesterday that that had already been settled by the tax appeals tribunal here in Uganda [ruling against Heritage] and it was satisfied with that ruling.” According to Ugandan officials, therefore the London hearing as been found in Uganda's favor; Heritage’s shares declined 5.6p to 173p on the news. However, other sources have said that only a partial judgement has been issued and that the arbitration case has yet to rule on whether a clause in a contract existed to ensure Heritage would not be liable for the capital gains tax.
How Uganda Triumphed in Oil Case | 8 April 2013 | East African Business Week | AllAfrica
Uganda has reportedly won a landmark $434m (over sh1.1 trillion) oil tax arbitration case in London against Heritage Oil and Gas Ltd. A three-member arbitration team is said to have ruled against the three core tax claims by Heritage top of which was contesting the decision by the Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) to tax their $1.45billion transaction with Tullow Oil. 
Heritage/Tullow litigation in the UK High Court
Oil - How Museveni Hired Bitature to Nail Tullow | 5 April 2013 | The Observer | AllAfrica
A tax dispute case between oil firms Tullow and Heritage has shone a huge spotlight on the larger role played by prominent Ugandan businessman Patrick Bitature in the conflict over taxpayers' money. The UK High court has heard that Bitature was appointed by President Museveni as a key broker to exert pressure on Tullow Oil to pay over $404m in capital gains levy that the company owed the government over the acquisition of an oil block from Heritage.
Finance Boss Named in Tullow Oil Saga | 8 April 2013 | New Vision | AllAfrica
A director for tax policy in the Ministry of Finance has been named complicit in a proposed undocumented $50m Tullow Oil company payment at the heart of allegations of impropriety revealed during a court proceedings filed by Tullow Oil against Heritage that ended last week in London.
Day 2 - Tullow-Heritage Case | 9 April 2013 | The New Vision | AllAfrica
During court hearings that ended last week, allegations were made that Tullow Oil officials discussed a payment of an undocumented $50m instead of the $313million they eventually paid as Capital Gains Tax to the Uganda Revenue Authority. Transcripts for days 1 and 2 of the London hearing available via this link.

Oil development
Archbishop Odama Warns Against Oil Curse | 9 April 2013 | New Vision | AllAfrica
The Ugandan Archbishop of Gulu, John Baptist Odama, has commended the church's effort in ensuring that national resources are equitably distributed for the benefit of all Ugandans, but has stated that clearer laws on oil must be carved out.
Local Firms Asked to Partner With Foreign Oil Training Institutes | 9 April 2013 | The New Vision | AllAfrica
Abdul Kibuuka, the Tullow Uganda head of human resources, has said that local firms should partner with foreign training institutions to enable the country develop a critical mass of skilled personnel for the oil and gas industry. 


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 
EU transparency policy on extractives sector payments
EU agrees landmark anti-corruption law for global resource companies | 9 April 2013 | Global Witness
European Union reaches deal on historic oil and mining transparency law | 9 April 2013 | Publish What You Pay
European Union reaches deal on tough oil, gas anti-corruption law | 9 April 2013 | Reuters, Transparency International and Oxfam | BHRRC
The EU has today agreed ground-breaking new rules forcing oil, gas, mining and logging companies to publish details of the payments they make to governments for access to natural resources around the world. By providing millions of citizens in resource-rich countries with detailed information about the money generated by their natural resource sectors, the directive represents a watershed moment in the fight against corruption, and is seen as a major victory for campaigners after 15 years of fighting for these measures.  


 Mineral certification process
RDC : la société civile veut participer au processus de certification des minerais | 4 April 2013 | Radio Okapi
Twenty organizations of Congolese civil society have created a platform for monitoring the process of minerals certification. Spokesman for the new platform, Jean-Claude Katende, president of the African Association for the Defence of Human Rights (Asadho), said that the certification of minerals should reduce the movement of minerals from conflict zones in the DRC.
Minerals and mining
Le pays célèbre la Journée Internationale pour la sensibilisation au problème des mines et l'assistance à la lutte anti-mines | 8 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
On 4 April the DRC together with the other countries of the world celebrated the "International Day for the awareness of the problem of mines and assistance to mine action" proclaimed on 8 December 2005 by the United Nations.
Hydrocarbons legislation
La société civile apporte sa contribution à la consistance du projet de code des hydrocarbures | 8 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
A workshop analyzing the DRC's corporate civil code of hydrocarbons under discussion in the Lower House of Parliament took place on 6 April 2013 at the Interdiocesan Centre of Kinshasa. Participants made relevant recommendations that the legislator should take into account prior to its adoption in the National Assembly.
Mining code revision
Révision du code minier - La société civile analyse en interne les propositions d'amendements | 9 April 2013 | Le Potentiel | AllAfrica
In anticipation of the revision of the mining code, organizations of civil society working in the mining industry met between 8 and 9 April 2013 at CEPAS to analyze the amendments made by all the parties involved in this process.


IPIS Recent Publications

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | OECD - IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.
The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
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