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Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

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From next Monday, 18 March, until 28 March, in New York the UN Final Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty will take place. The first round of negotiations was held in July 2012, but did not result in an agreement on a treaty text. Organizations and human rights activists are urging the international community to adopt robust rules on international transfers of conventional arms and ammunition.
In eastern DR Congo, fighting in Rutshuru territory, North Kivu, between the two rival factions within the M23 rebel movement continued and intensified. Meanwhile the situation in Kampala at the peace talks with the Congolese Government remained unclear. The Government delegation drafted an agreement proposal, but Bertrand Bisimwa, the newly appointed president of the pro-Makenga faction, expected to be willing to sign an agreement with the Government, claimed he only learned of the proposal from the press. Still the Government said the Kampala talks will be finished this Friday 15 March in one way or another, with or without a signature.
Fighting in Kitchanga, North Kivu, between the APCLS Mai-Mai militia and a FARDC regiment finally stopped. At the request of the population the army unit was replaced.
In northern North Kivu, the ADF/Nalu militia remained active, while in Ituri, Province Orientale, unidentified armed men occupied six villages in Aru territory. No violence by Mai-Mai in Katanga was reported over the past week, but the humanitarian situation remains critical. 
MONUSCO, the United Nations mission in the DR Congo, called on the national army of the DRC to suspend two of its battalions which, according to investigations, have been involved last year in mass rapes and other human rights violations in the town of Minova, South Kivu, and surrounding villages.

In the Central African Republic (CAR), a dissident faction of the Seleka rebel coalition seized three towns in the southeast of the country, including Bangassou. Former Defence Minister and former rebel leader Jean-Jacques Demafouth fled to Chad fearing his arrest in Bangui.
While the President of Burundi, Pierre Nkurunziza, was in France on a state visit, in Bujumbura the first political dialogue between the Government and the opposition since the 2000 Arusha Peace Agreement was held.


IPIS’ Latest Publications

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Exploitation minière industrielle et artisanale au Sud-Kivu. Possibilités d'une cohabitation pacifique ? | December 2012 | Gabriel Kamundala Byemba
Le secteur minier en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) en général et au Sud-Kivu en particulier alimente toujours les débats tant au niveau international qu’au niveau national. Présenté sous plusieurs facettes, ce secteur au Sud-Kivu a été dans le temps industriel, puis artisanal et aujourd’hui il est en même temps artisanal et industriel. Le retour en force, ces dernières années, des sociétés industrielles dans le paysage minier du Sud-Kivu coïncide avec l’accélération des dynamiques minières, grâce aux opportunités qu’offre la RDC en matière d’investissements privés et aux réformes amorcées du cadre législatif et réglementaire du secteur minier congolais. Ces réformes ont abouti à la mise en place du nouveau Code minier en 2002 et du Règlement minier en 2003.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment.


Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) conference
Women Explain Why an Arms Trade Treaty Can Save Many Lives | 7 March 2013 | Amnesty International | allAfrica
It is estimated at least half a million people are killed with guns every year and on average a further 200,000 men, women and children die as an indirect result of armed conflicts and violence that are frequently fuelled by the uncontrolled flow of small arms.
Priorities for African states negotiating for an Arms Trade Treaty | 11 March 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
Policy Brief. A strong Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) is needed because of the poorly regulated international transfer of conventional arms and the current absence of global standards based on human rights and international humanitarian law to control such transfers.
World Powers Urged to Support a Robust Arms Trade Treaty | 12 March 2013 | Amnesty International | allAfrica
Arms supplied by the world's major powers are among those contributing to the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives and blighting the livelihoods of millions of people every year, Amnesty International said in a new briefing published just days before final negotiations on a global Arms Trade Treaty open at the United Nations.
Getting It Right. The pieces that matter for the Arms Trade Treaty | 12 March 2013 | Oxfam - Saferworld
Oxfam Briefing Paper. This paper highlights the missing pieces that must be in the treaty text, if it is to save lives and protect people.
Urgent Call for Tighter Rules On Arms Trade On Eve of Final Treaty Negotiations | 12 March 2013 | Oxfam International | allAfrica
Draft Arms Trade Treaty text littered with loopholes which need fixing urgently to save lives.
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
The Hill Op-ed: Staying the Course to End the LRA | 12 March 2013 | The Enough Project
Analysts conjectured years ago that a commander of the Lord’s Resistance Army named Caesar Acellam wanted to defect – and that he might be key to dismantling the group. Last May, he came out of the bush.



MONUSCO weekly press conference
Conférence de presse des Nations Unies du mercredi 13 mars 2013 | 13 March 2013 | MONUSCO
Jean-Marie Runiga à la VOA : “Le M23 est un et indivisible, c'est celui que je dirige” | 6 March 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
On ne l'avait pas entendu depuis son éviction par le camp Makenga. Le pasteur Runiga sort de son silence en exclusivité sur la VOA, accuse ses adversaires de s'être fourvoyés et promet de poursuivre sa lutte.
M23 Consumed by Infighting | 7 March 2013 | The Enough Project
Over the course of last week, the M23 has been consumed by internal fissures so profound they might precipitate the demise of the group. The M23 has long struggled with an internal division between the military leader Sultani Makenga on the one hand and the International Criminal Court indictee General Bosco Ntaganda and his sidekick, the groups’ political leader Jean-Marie Runiga on the other.
PM to UN Group - Uganda Did Not Aid M23 | 7 March 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi has assured the visiting UN group of experts on DR Congo that Uganda did not in any way support the M23 rebels as alleged in their 2012 report to the UN Security Council.
RDC : Bertrand Bisimwa devient président du M23 | 7 March 2013 | RFI
Bertrand Bisimwa porté à la tête du M23 | 8 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC - Bertrand Bisimwa, chef politique du M23 : "Nous attendons un projet d'accord de Kinshasa" | 8 March 2013 | Jeune Afrique
DRC: New Rebel Leader Drops Challenge to President | 8 March 2013 | Voice of America
Bertrand Bisiimwa Is New M23 President | 8 March 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The military high command of DR Congo's M23 rebel group has installed a new president, Bertrand Bisiimwa, after Bishop Jean-Marie Runiga was relieved of his duties last week.
RDC: reprise des hostilités entre les deux factions du M23 à Rutshuru | 9 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC : reprise des combats entre factions de la rébellion du M23 (pro-Makenga) | 9 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Les troupes de Makenga et Runiga se sont affrontées à la base militaire de Rumangabo | 9 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Les deux ailes du M23 se battent à Rumangabo | 10 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
DRC peace talks halt as M23 split deepens | 9 March 2013 | The East African
Peace negotiations between the government of the DR Congo and M23 rebels, which have been going on in Kampala for the past month, have broken down owing to the split in the rebel group. Now, Uganda’s Minister of Defence Crispus Kiyonga, who is the chief facilitator of the talks, needs to establish which of the two splinter groups represents the grievances of eastern Congo.
Le chef rebelle Bosco Ntaganda abat 26 de ses hommes à Kibumba | 9 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Nord-Kivu: la société civile demande au Gouvernement d’arrêter le dialogue avec le M23 | 9 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: l'opposition dénonce l'accord entre le gouvernement et le M23 | 10 March 2013 | RFI
Congo government keen to sign peace deal; rebels cool | 11 March 2013 | Reuters | AlertNet
The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo said on Monday it hoped to sign a peace deal with eastern rebels on March 15, but a rebel leader said more talks were needed.
RDC : perspective d'un accord avec le M23 | 11 March 2013 | La Voix de l’Amérique
Fin des pourparlers entre Kinshasa et le M23 ce vendredi, mais y-aura-t-il un accord de paix ?
Nord-Kivu : les combats entre les deux factions du M23 se poursuivent à Rugari | 11 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC : poursuite des combats entre factions rivales du M23 dans l'Est | 11 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Nord-Kivu : la société civile appelle les deux factions du M23 à arrêter les combats | 11 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu - Le M23 aile Ntaganda renforce ses positions à Kibumba | 11 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
DRC: Will the M23's Split Upend or Help Peace Talks? | 11 March 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
Divisions within the M23 rebel group have deepened, with the factions clashing. What does this mean for the ongoing peace process in the eastern DRC?
RDC : les luttes intestines du M23 éloignent la possibilité d'un accord à Kampala | 12 March 2013 | Jeune Afrique
La signature d'un accord de paix "d’ici le 15 mars" comme espéré lors des négociations de Kampala entre Kinshasa et le Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) devient de plus en plus hypothétique. Les combats qui ont repris, le 9 mars, entre les deux factions rivales de la rébellion compliquent sérieusement la donne.

Incertitude à Kampala | 12 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Azarias Ruberwa: «Kinshasa n’a pas le choix, il y aura intégration du M23» | 12 March 2013 | RFI
Nord-Kivu : des combats entre les 2 factions du M23 ont fait 15 morts, selon la société civile | 12 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
DRC Offers Terms of Amnesty to M23 Rebels | 12 March 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The DR Congo government will grant amnesty to members of the M23 rebel group, as well as offer them positions in the national army if they agree to lay down arms and sign a peace accord this week.
Le M23-Makenga veut « neutraliser » et remettre Bosco Ntaganda à la CPI | 12 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
RDC : une partie du M23 nie la proximité d'un accord avec le gouvernement | 13 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Ten M23 elements surrender to MONUSCO Police in Katale, Nord Kivu | 13 March 2013 | MONUSCO
Ten armed elements of the M23 rebel group including eight Congolese police officers and two Rwandan soldiers surrendered on 18 February in Goma to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO).
Framework Agreement - reflections
Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC: hopes and challenges | 8 March 2013 | Institute for Security Studies
Cooperation in the Congo: Will the Regional Peace Deal Bring Stability? | 11 March 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
A new peace framework could bolster MONUSCO, push Congolese reforms and enhance cross-border cooperation. But while positive, these steps are not enough.
Accord-Cadre d'Addis-Abeba - Protocole d'accord RDC-Rwanda de 2002 - Un air de famille | 11 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Intervention Brigade - preparations
RDC: des officiers supérieurs des armées tanzanienne, sud-africaine et malawites en mission dans l’Est | 13 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Tripartite summit in Angola
President Discusses Regional Situation With South African, DRC Counterparts | 11 March 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
Les présidents dos Santos, Zuma et Kabila autour d’un sommet tripartite en Angola | 12 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Presidents of Angola, South Africa and DRC Discuss Regional Situation | 12 March 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
La situation de l'Est de la RDC abordée à Luanda | 12 March 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
A tripartite summit gathering the presidents of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos, South Africa, Jacob Zuma and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Joseph Kabila, is taking place this Tuesday in Luanda.
A press note from the Civil Office of the President of the Republic states that statesmen are going to discuss the situation in the eastern DRC and concert, with a view to implementing the Framework Agreement for peace, stability and cooperation in that country and region.
The agreement of cooperation for peace and stability in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Great Lakes region, with the involvement of neighbouring countries, regional and international communities, was signed last February in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.
President Leader Defends Reflection On Great Lakes Peace Contribution | 12 March 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
The Angolan Head of State, José Eduardo dos Santos, on Tuesday here called for a reflection on the contribution for strengthening and making effective the mechanisms that will be set to guarantee a successful materialization of peace accords and security in the Great Lakes region, Angop has learnt.
L’Angola et l’Afrique du Sud peinent aux côtés de la RDC pour instaurer la paix au Nord-Kivu | 13 March 2013 | RFI
Presidents Agree On DRC Peace Mechanism | 13 March 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
Kabila, Santos et Zuma créent « un mécanisme tripartite de coopération conjointe » | 13 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The heads of State of Angola, South Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo have decided to set up a tripartite cooperation mechanism to ensure the implementation of the Framework Accord for Peace in the DRC.
Kitchanga, North Kivu
Thousands of people in danger in DR Congo as clashes continue in Kitchanga – UN | 7 March 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : les civils congolais menacés par les affrontements armés à Kitchanga | 7 March 2013 | UN News Centre
Nord-Kivu : la société civile réclame le départ des FARDC de Kitshanga | 7 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Kitshanga : les combats ont perturbé l’intégration des miliciens dans l’armée, selon les notables de Masisi | 7 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Kitchanga (Nord Kivu) ville martyre | 7 March 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Nord-Kivu : Richard Muyej promet de sanctionner les auteurs des crimes à Kitshanga | 12 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu: après le déploiement de la police, les activités reprennent timidement à Kitshanga | 12 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
ADF/Nalu in Beni territory, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu: nouveaux affrontements entre FARDC et ADF/ Nalu a Eringeti | 9 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le calme règne, depuis ce samedi 9 mars matin à Eringeti, après  de violents affrontements qui ont opposé la veille les FARDC aux rebelles ougandais des ADF/Nalu, dans cette localité située à près de 50 Kilomètres au nord-est de la ville de Beni au Nord-Kivu. Selon des sources locales, trois militaires ont été grièvement blessés pendant les combats.
Beni : les populations fuient des enlèvements par des rebelles ougandais des ADF/Nalu | 11 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Les populations civiles de Nzuma et Matiba dans la ville de Beni (Nord-Kivu) fuient leurs villages depuis samedi 9 mars pour se réfugier dans le village voisin de Mangoko, situé à 7 kilomètres au Sud-Est de la ville.
Armed groups in Province Orientale
Province Orientale: des hommes armés occupent 6 villages du territoire d’Aru | 12 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Des hommes armés non encore identifiés occupent, depuis  une semaine, six villages du territoire d’Aru à plus de 300 kilomètre au nord de Bunia (Province Orientale).
Province Orientale: Roger Meece invite les groupes armés à déposer les armes | 13 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
DRC and South Sudan cooperate to combat armed groups
La RDC et le Soudan du Sud décident de pacifier leur frontière commune | 10 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
La RDC et le Soudan du Sud ont décidé, au cours d’une réunion tenue dernièrement à Juba, de combattre les groupes armés actifs le long de leur frontière commune. Les deux pays ont également plaidé pour une cohabitation pacifique de population et pour des échanges commerciaux entre celle-ci le long de ces frontières, en proie à des groupes armés.
Congo’s Katanga Province in ‘Humanitarian Crisis,’ UN Says | 8 March 2013 | Bloomberg
Democratic Republic of Congo’s copper-rich Katanga province is in an “acute humanitarian crisis” amid resurgent fighting between local militias and the army, the United Nations humanitarian agency said.
Sexual violence
UN calls for suspension of DR Congo military units involved in mass rapes | 8 March 2013 | UN News Centre
La MONUSCO demande la suspension de soldats congolais impliqués dans des viols à grande échelle | 8 March 2013 | UN News Centre
UN in DR Congo 'army rape' ultimatum | 8 March 2013 | BBC Africa
RDC: la Monusco menace de cesser sa coopération avec deux unités de l’armée | 9 March 2013 | RFI
The UN peace force in the Democratic Republic of Congo has issued an ultimatum to two units within the army over allegations of mass rape. Unless swift legal action was taken against the accused soldiers before the end of March, the UN said it would stop working with their brigades. Investigations conducted over the past three months by the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO) in the town of Minova and surrounding villages found that two units of the Congolese armed forces (FARDC) engaged in mass rapes and other human violations in late November 2012, said UN spokesperson Martin Nesirky.
RDC: enquêtes sur les exactions | 9 March 2013 | BBC Afrique
Le pays promet d'« arrêter et punir » les soldats ayant « violé 126 femmes » à Minova | 9 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le ministre de la Défense de la République démocratique du Congo, Alexandre Luba Ntambo, a déclaré samedi qu'il n'y aurait pas d'impunité pour les militaires qui se sont rendus coupables de viols et de pillages fin novembre dans l'Est du pays, alors qu'ils fuyaient la progression de rebelles.
Interview: Is there too much focus on sexual violence in the Congo? | 8 March 2013 | Congo Siasa
On Monday this week, Laura Heaton published an article in Foreign Policy about the mass rape of women in the Congolese jungle town of Luvungi in late July and early August 2010. Heaton’s reporting suggests that that the rape figures were exaggerated, and that in general sexual violence has received far more funding and attention than other humanitarian needs in the eastern Congo––she reports that the 1,4 million displaced people in 2011 only received half as much aid as rape victims, and that NGOs dealing with sexual violence in South Kivu had grown from 10 to 300 in ten years. 
RDC : les viols sont devenus une stratégie de guerre, affirme le Dr Mukwege | 12 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Est RDC : poursuite des violences sexuelles "massives" et "systématiques" (Dr Mukwege) | 12 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC: le Dr Mukwege dénonce une recrudescence des viols dans le Sud-Kivu | 13 March 2013 | RFI
Le célèbre docteur Denis Mukwege s’est exprimé mardi 12 mars à Kinshasa, deux mois après son retour en RDC. Ce chirurgien qui vient au secours des femmes violées dans l’Est du pays était parti en exil en Europe après avoir été la cible d’hommes armés, en octobre 2012. Il a repris ses activités à Bukavu et constate que les violences contre les femmes se poursuivent.
Child Sexual Exploitation on the Rise in North Kivu | 12 March 2013 | Inter Press Service
Over the last two years, an increasing number of brothels have opened in Goma where under-age girls are being sexually exploited and the illegal trade is on the rise.
Des progrès dans la lutte contre l’impunité en matière de violences sexuelles grâce au STAREC | 13 March 2013 | MONUSCO
Interview: Stabilizing the Kivus--Lessons learned, the path ahead | 10 March 2013 | Congo Siasa
Guillaume Lacaille is an independent political analyst who specializes in conflicts in Africa. He has previously worked as a political officer with MONUC and as the senior Congo analyst for the International Crisis Group (ICG). In 2012, he was seconded by the Swiss government to MONUSCO to support the UN stabilisation unit in redesigning the international stabilisation strategy for eastern Congo (I4S). 
Monusco to Be Headed By African | 10 March 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The proposal to appoint an African to head the United Nations Organisation Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Monusco) is at advanced stages, a senior official of the African Union has said.



Mbuya Attackers Linked to Rebels | 11 March 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
As the daring and mysterious attack on the tightly-guarded Mbuya army barracks continues to trigger intense debate, it has emerged that remnants of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels were involved.
Parliament Asked to Demand a Briefing On Gun Attacks | 12 March 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Opposition Democratic Party leader, Norbert Mao has called upon Parliament, to demand for a formal explanation from the government on the reported gun attacks on security organs in Kampala.
Democratic Party Members Worry of Growing Insecurity | 13 March 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The Democratic Party (DP) has called for a national dialogue involving all stakeholders to address the growing insecurity, political injustices and other issues affecting the nation. Referring to the recent violent attacks by gunmen at Mbuya barracks, Bombo barracks and Entebbe police station, the DP leader Norbert Mao told journalists on Tuesday that it is possible some Ugandans have resorted to violence to express their grievances with the NRM government.



British ex-PM Blair’s campaign for Rwanda | 7 March 2013 | Pambazuka News
'The pretense that everyone is wrong about Rwanda’s involvement with M23 except President Kagame, Tony Blair and Howard Buffet is in itself a symptom of the corrupting power of money and unchallenged political influence'.
Rwanda Should Reject This 'Food for Work' From the UK | 8 March 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Opinion piece.
UK to channel £9m in aid through Rwanda government programme | 13 March 2013 | The Guardian
Cash transfers provided under 'reprogrammed' UK aid package will be disbursed using Rwanda's social protection scheme.
MPs Decry DRC Reports As Conspiracy Against Rwanda | 10 March 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Last week, the parliament's ad hoc committee which was tasked with analyzing the continued conflict in the Eastern DRC and their consequences on Rwanda, presented its report to the plenary session of both chambers. It reiterated that the allegations contained in the report by the UN Group of Experts (GoE) accusing Rwanda of backing the M23 mutiny are baseless and biased.


Central African Republic

Réaménagement technique du gouvernement, Séléka insiste | 7 March 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Centrafrique : des éléments de la Séléka attaquent deux villes | 11 March 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Centrafrique: la Seleka prend Bangassou | 12 March 2013 | BBC Afrique
Central African Republic Seleka rebels seize Bangassou | 12 March 2013 | BBC Africa
Rebels in the Central African Republic (CAR) have captured the key south-eastern town of Bangassou, a government minister has said. The attack took place despite the fact that the Seleka rebels signed a peace accord with the government in January.
CAR Government Condemns Recent Rebel Attacks | 12 March 2013 | Voice of America
RCA: les autorités de Bangui condamnent l’offensive de la Seleka | 12 March 2013 | RFI
The government of the Central African Republic said a recent attack by insurgents on a southern town shows the Seleka rebel group is still intent on occupying the country.
Seleka forces launched an assault Monday on Bangassou, which lies near the country's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. The attack comes just months after the rebels signed a peace accord with the government.
La coalition des rebelles de Séléka frappe encore malgré l’accord de Libreville | 13 March 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Les villes de Gambo et Bangassou (dans la préfecture du Mbomou)  situées à environ 800 Km à l’est de Bangui sont passées le  lundi 11 mars  sous le contrôle des éléments de la coalition Séléka,  après de rudes affrontements avec les Forces armées centrafricaines (FACA).
Centrafrique : Jean-Jacques Demafouth se réfugie au Tchad | 13 March 2013 | Jeune Afrique
L’ancien ministre centrafricain Jean-Jacques Demafouth est arrivé au Tchad mercredi matin où il "demande protection" aux autorités après avoir échappé, dit-il, à une arrestation suite à des accusations de soutien à la rébellion de la Séléka, dont des éléments sont encore en guerre contre Bangui.
Centrafrique : la Séléka peine à reprendre en main ses troupes | 13 March 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Mardi 12 mars, des éléments dissidents de la coalition Séléka ont poursuivi leur avancée et se sont emparés de la ville de Rafaï dans le sud-est de la Centrafrique. La veille, ils avaient pris Bangassou.


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region


République Démocratique du Congo: Bulletin humanitaire - Numéro 01 | Février 2013 | 28 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'information humanitaire - Province du Katanga N° 08/13 - 06 mars 2013 | 6 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Thousands of people in danger in DR Congo as clashes continue in Kitchanga – UN | 7 March 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : les civils congolais menacés par les affrontements armés à Kitchanga | 7 March 2013 | UN News Centre
Humanitarian concern for thousands of people caught in clashes in Kitchanga | 7 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
R.D.Congo : les civils menacées par les affrontements armés à Kitchanga | 7 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Emergency response for the situation in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo - Supplementary Budget Appeal | 7 March 2013 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
UNHCR Appeals for More Funding for Displaced in DRC | 7 March 2013 | Voice of America
Thousands Flee as Violence Continues in Kitchanga, North Kivu | 7 March 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
DR Congo: Violence against civilians in Masisi must stop | 7 March 2013 | ICRC | Reliefweb
RD Congo : la violence contre la population doit cesser dans le Masisi | 7 March 2013 | ICRC | Reliefweb
Nord-Kivu: le CICR appelle à la cessation des violences contre les civils à Kitchanga | 8 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Q&A: Future remains bleak for Democratic Republic of the Congo | 8 March 2013 | UNHCR
Aerial Reconnaissance Reveals Worsening Displacement in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo | 8 March 2013 | International Organization for Migration | Reliefweb
Congo’s Katanga Province in ‘Humanitarian Crisis,’ UN Says | 8 March 2013 | Bloomberg
RDC: l’Union africaine se dit préoccupée par la situation humanitaire au Nord-Kivu | 9 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: les déplacés du camp Mugunga II réclament l’aide humanitaire | 9 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu: 15 000 déplacés vivent difficilement à Mayi Moya, selon la société civile | 10 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Uvira: plus de 1000 familles vivent dans des conditions déplorables à Mushojo | 11 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Thousands flee fighting in DR Congo: UN | 12 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : près de 12.000 déplacés par les combats entre rebelles du M23 | 12 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Suite aux récents combats dans le Nord Kivu - Plus de 100 000 personnes auraient fui la ville de Kitchanga | 12 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Nord-Kivu : le gouverneur Julien Paluku craint une catastrophe humanitaire dans la région | 13 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province de l’Equateur N° 07/13, 13 mars 2013 | 13 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 08/13, 12 mars 2013 | 12 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 11/13, 13 mars 2013 | 13 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Nord-Kivu : les déplacés de Mugunga III accusent le PAM d’avoir distribué des vivres avariés | 13 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
UNHCR and WFP Join Forces To Assist Central African Republic Refugees In Demoratic Republic Of Congo | 8 March 2013 | WFP
RDC: le PAM assiste 3.500 enfants centrafricains réfugiés sous-alimentés | 8 March 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Le HCR et le PAM ensemble pour apporter une assistance aux réfugiés centrafricains en RDC | 8 March 2013 | UN News Centre
RCA: les réfugiés continuent de fuir les combats et l’insécurité | 9 March 2013 | RFI



North Kivu Refugees Hope to Find Peace in Uganda | 7 March 2013 | Inter Press Service
North Kivu refugees seek peace in Uganda | 11 March 2013 | Radio Netherlands Worldwide



Remaining Refugees Must Accept Govt's Offer to Return Home With Open Arms | 12 March 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica


Central African Republic

Republic of Central Africa: Humanitarian Bulletin, Issue 01 | 01- 28 February 2013 | 28 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
République Centrafricaine : Bulletin humanitaire, numéro 01 | 01- 28 février 2013 | 28 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Les religieux appellent à l'aide internationale en Centrafrique | 7 March 2013 | RFI
Humanitarian concern for 1.5 million people affected by the current crisis in the Central African Republic | 12 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Les humanitaires s’inquiètent pour plus de 1,5 million de personnes affectées par la crise en République centrafricaine | 12 March 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Over 1.5 million people in Central African Republic (CAR) are facing a humanitarian crisis as a result of the Séléka offensive that was launched on 10 December 2012. The rebel coalition now controls over two thirds of the country, home to over 1.5 million people or 34 per cent of the country’s population. The Séléka’s latest advance to the southern town of Bangassou has cut off a major hub for humanitarian actors’ access to the Southeast, affecting 300,000 people already suffering from six years of LRA attacks.


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region


ICC trial against Bemba
Bemba's 15th Witness Continues Testimony in Closed Session | 11 March 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica

Witness Questioned About Bemba's Battalion Deployed in CAR | 13 March 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

Africa exploration losing lustre as corruption rife | 12 March 2013 | Miningmx
The Fraser Institute, a Canadian organisation that has a reputation for the authority of its business trends surveys, has some unpalatable reading for investors who believe Africa’s resources industry has come of age. The institute, for instance, found the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) among the most corrupt places on earth to do mining exploration. Zimbabwe pips the DRC, just.



Banro gold ops update as John Clarke takes on interim CEO position | 9 March 2013 | Mineweb
A CEO change at DRC gold miner Banro knocked the share price, but an experienced interim replacement has quickly been appointed and has issued a calming statement on the company’s ongoing operations.
Zambia, Congo, Tanzania railways sign deal to free up traffic | 12 March 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Lusaka – The national railways of Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania have signed an agreement to make it easier to transport goods such as copper by rail between the countries, an official said on Monday.
Work to resume on Luena’s coal | 12 March 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Gecamines is about to resume large-scale mining at Luena which proven reserves work out to around 50 million tons and which recorded peak output of 88,000 tons in 1990 before falling into disuse.
Mines : Martin Kabwelulu favorable à la recherche de la connaissance du sous-sol congolais | 13 March 2013 | ACP |
Secteur minier - Des experts réfléchissent sur la télédétection et le traitement des minerais | 13 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le gouvernement congolais a initié, en partenariat avec le Japon, à travers la société JOGMEC, des recherches conjointes axées sur la télédétection des ressources minérales du sous-sol congolais.
La RDC valorise-t-elle comme il se doit les délicates potentialités de ses ressources d’énergie nucléaire ? | 13 March 2013 |
« Comment vivre en sécurité avec la radioactivité » est le thème sous lequel le Commissaire général à l’énergie atomique (CGEA) a animé une très controversée conférence interpellant les responsables des sociétés minières du Katanga qui paient à cette institution de suspectes taxes n’atterrissant pas dans les caisses du trésor sur l’exploitation en RDC des mines radioactives.
China resources firms eye tie-ups, Africa for growth – BOCI | 14 March 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Singapore - Resource-hungry Chinese firms eager for a slice of Africa's mineral wealth are opting for joint ventures over mergers and acquisitions to limit costs in the face of fragile global growth, a Bank of China International official said on Wednesday.
"The biggest attraction is asset quality. In the Democratic Republic of Congo there are a lot of copper, nickel and base metals projects that are high quality. Even though there is a big risk there, they will still invest," said Cheng, who handles natural resources and mergers and acquisitions. DRC only produced around three percent of global copper supply last year but it has one of the world's richest deposits of the metal. Unrest has grown with rebels in the east and fighters in the southern Katanga region, Congo's economic engine, moving out of their base and towards mining areas.
Le pays et l'Afrique du Sud s'apprêtent à signer le traité de coopération sur le « Grand Inga » | 11 March 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Coopération : la RDC et l’Afrique du Sud raffermissent leur relation dans le domaine de l’énergie | 12 March 2013 |
La RDC et la République Sud-Africaine (RSA) ont tenu, du 5 au 10 mars à Lubumbashi, dans la province de Katanga, une rencontre de travail axée principalement sur le renforcement des relations entre les deux pays dans le domaine de l’énergie.
Electricité dans les zones de la Sadc : le grand Inga déterminé à libérer le continent africain de la pauvreté et du chômage | 13 March 2013 |
Le projet ratifié entre l’Afrique du Sud et la Rdc vise le renforcement de la coopération et de l’amitié entre Kinshasa et Prétoria ainsi que l’amélioration de la desserte en énergie électrique dans la zone de la Sadc.
Hydrocarbures : gros soucis d’augmenter la quantité du pétrole par l’exploitation dans l’arrière-pays | 12 March 2013 | ACP |
Le secteur des hydrocarbures en République Démocratique du Congo est libéralisé et la préoccupation majeure est d’augmenter la quantité du pétrole par l’exploitation dans l’arrière-pays.



Oil Debate Shifts to Northern Uganda | 11 March 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
In Luo folklore, two feuding brothers, Gipir and Labong, quarreled and split ways.
Heritage, Tullow Uganda tax squabble reaches UK court | 12 March 2013 | Reuters | Engineering News
A fight between two oil firms over Ugandan tax kicks off in London's High Court on Tuesday. At stake is enough to buy almost half of one of the companies and finance months of exploration drilling for the other.
'Collusion' charge ignites Uganda oil tax trial | 13 March 2013 | Reuters | Engineering News
Tullow Oil colluded with Uganda to extract tax from its former exploration partner Heritage Oil in pursuit of its own commercial gain, Heritage plans to prove in London's High Court this week.
No Cheap Fuel When Oil Starts Flowing | 12 March 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
As Uganda embarks on the process of refining its oil, government has ruled out subsidizing locally-refined petroleum products to enable citizens enjoy the benefits of the country's most lucrative mineral discovery.
Vivo to Stay Out of Oil Exploration | 12 March 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Vivo Energy, the company that acquired Shell's assets in Africa's downstream industry, will not invest in Uganda's upstream industry, preferring to beef up its presence in selling petroleum lubricants.



Mining Sector Among Top Income Generators for the Country - PM | 7 March 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Last year, the mining sector provided the country revenue of US$ 136.6 million, the second source of income after the tourism sector. Revenue from minerals accounts for 28% of total export earning and the sector employs more than 20,000 Rwandan. In 2012, exports from mining are higher than tea that brought 14%, while coffee exports accounted for 12.6%.
Govt Projects Mineral Revenues to Triple | 8 March 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda's Mining Sector to Benefit From Increased Government Investment PM Tells Parliament | 8 March 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
Rwanda's revenues from mineral exports are set to triple - from US$136.6 million (over Rwf87 billion), in 2012, to US$409 million (about Rwf261 million), by 2017, according government projections.
Guard Against Obstacles to Achieve Mining Forecast | 10 March 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Lawmakers Root for Safety of Mine Workers | 10 March 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
As prime minister Pierre Damien Habumuremyi briefed Parliament on the country's mineral sector, last week, the legislators were more concerned about the safety of mine workers and proper remuneration, protection of the environment and gender equality.


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 


New Whitepaper Examines Results of Pilot Implementation Program on Conflict Minerals | 8 March 2013 | MetalMiner
MetalMiner, in conjunction with The Elm Consulting Group International, has just issued a new white paper that examines how downstream organizations (companies from smelter down to OEM) have begun to implement the new conflict minerals compliance requirements. The authors analyze the OECD Cycle 3 Final Report, “Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk.”


DRC - census
RDC: le ministre du Plan annonce le début des opérations du recensement de la population | 10 March 2013 | Radio Okapi
Le ministre du Plan, Célestin Vunabandi, a annoncé, samedi 9 mars à Goma (Nord-Kivu), le début des opérations techniques du recensement général de la population congolaise. Il a indiqué que ces premières dispositions techniques seront déjà mises en œuvre à partir du mois mai prochain.

Burundi – dialogue with opposition
Burundi: deux des principaux opposants au président Nkurunziza de retour d’exil | 10 March 2013 | RFI
Au Burundi, deux figures parmi les principaux leaders politiques d’opposition qui avaient fui le pays après le retrait de l’opposition des élections générales de 2010 et les violences qui s’en étaient suivies, sont rentrés d’exil samedi 9 mars. Alexis Sinuhije, du MSD, et Pacaline Kampayano, de l’UPD, reviennent pour participer à un dialogue politique sous l’égide de l’ONU, à partir de lundi.
Secretary-General hails commitment of Burundian political actors to dialogue | 11 March 2013 | UN News Centre
Le Secrétaire général salue l'engagement des acteurs politiques burundais en faveur du dialogue | 11 March 2013 | UN News Centre
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today commended Burundian political actors’ commitment to dialogue as all political parties met in the country’s capital, Bujumbura, for the first time since 2010 to discuss issues related to the electoral process.
Burundi: visite de Pierre Nkurunziza en France alors que s'ouvre le dialogue avec l'opposition | 11 March 2013 | RFI
La France et le Burundi signent un accord de coopération | 12 March 2013 | RFI
Burundi : pour Pierre Nkurunziza, Hassan Ruvakuki a eu «un procès équitable» | 12 March 2013 | RFI
Burundi : ouverture du premier dialogue politique entre le pouvoir et l’opposition | 12 March 2013 | RFI
Dialogue politique au Burundi: vers un accord de principe | 13 March 2013 | RFI
Le premier dialogue politique entre le pouvoir et l'opposition au Burundi, organisé sous l’égide des Nations unies dans le but d’éviter le fiasco électoral de 2010, semble tenir ses promesses.
Ruvakuki, Mali, dialogue avec l'opposition, présidentielle de 2015 : Pierre Nkurunziza sur RFI | 13 March 2013 | RFI
Burundi Government, Opposition Begin Dialogue | 13 March 2013 | Cameroon Tribune | allAfrica
The Burundian government and opposition yesterday, March 11, 2013 began holding talks aimed at seeking ways and means of avoiding a repeat of the controversy over the 2010 elections that almost plunged the country into another civil war. The three-day discussions are the first since the 2000 Arusha Peace Agreement between the two sides, Radio France Internationale, RFI, reported.
Referred to as 'workshop,' the discussions have been organised by the United Nations in the capital, Bujumbura to prepare for the 2015 elections in a bid to keep the fragile peace in the country from collapsing. During the talks, participants will among other things, revisit the 2010 elections that were boycotted by the opposition in order to come up with what the UN described as a credible road map for the holding of all-inclusive, transparent, free and fair elections.


IPIS' Recent Publications

Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
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