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WEEKLY BRIEFING 21ST - 27TH FEBRUARY 2013

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Editorial
 
IPIS' News
Upcoming Events
 
IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

Central African Republic
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

Central African Republic
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC

 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

Rwanda
Central African Republic
 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda

Burundi
Central African Republic
 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL


Last Sunday in Addis Ababa the “Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region” was signed by the DR Congo, its nine neighbours and South Africa, as well as by the UN and the African organisations AU, ICGLR and SADC. In this agreement the neighbouring countries make a renewed commitment not to interfere in the DRC, and the DRC to boost reforms, including security sector reform and democratization. The accord was greeted with a great deal of scepticism by Congolese and international civil society, Congolese political opposition and international observers; its supporters point out that oversight mechanisms at various levels are created to monitor the implementation of the commitments undertaken. Included in the agreement are also the appointment of a UN Special Envoy to the region and a “strategic review” of the UN Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO). Part of this review should be the deployment of the long-awaited Neutral International Force in the form of a special Intervention Brigade within MONUSCO, with a more robust peace enforcement mandate. While asking support for the creation of such a Brigade, Ban Ki-moon told the UN Security Council on Wednesday that neighbouring countries of the DRC continue to support rebel groups in the east of the country.
 
The same day the Framework Agreement was signed, dissension within the M23 rebel movement between pro-Nkunda and pro-Bosco factions led to heavy fighting in Rutshuru town, leaving at least eight people dead. On Wednesday evening, M23’s military leader Sultani Makenga deposed the movement’s political coordinator Jean-Marie Runiga.
 
Not far from Rutshuru, in the former CNDP stronghold of Kitchanga, the Congolese armed forces clashed with the APCLS militia. The army and the rebel group each hold half of the town.
 
Further up north in North Kivu province, a soldier was killed and three wounded in two ambushes by rebel group ADF/Nalu.
 
In South Kivu the Raia Mutomboki militia remained very active in Shabunda territory, while in Uvira territory the population continued to flee from FDLR and Burundian FNL.
 
The Rift Valley Institute published two more reports of its Usalama Project, both on conflict in Ituri, past and present.
 
In Katanga province, different Mai-Mai groups continue to create havoc; a Belgian missionary gives a gruesome account.
 
 
In the Central African Republic (CAR), the scheduled cantonment of the Seleka rebels was postponed indefinitely. The rebels accuse the government of failing to respect certain terms of the 11 January Libreville peace agreement, like the freeing of political prisoners and the departure of foreign troops.



 

IPIS' News

Upcoming Events

Blood Coltan 5 March 2013, 19:00-20:30
University of Maastricht, Minderbroedersberg 4-6, Maastricht
Mobile phones, smart phones and tablets all contain tiny electronic circuits, and they couldn’t work without a mineral called coltan. Coltan is mined in eastern Congo. Here, this mineral helps to fuel one of the world’s deadliest conflicts. Our demand for phones has been helping to finance a civil war in Congo. The event, organised by the Studium Generale of Maastricht University and the European Studies Association Concordantia, will discuss the human rights violations and ecological devastation accompanying coltan mining and trading.

Toward a EU initiative on conflict minerals? 13 March 2013
Senate House, Brussels
IPIS Research will be presenting on the OECD due diligence guidelines and the principle results of implementation monitoring.
 
CONCORD Raw Materials Task Force - Stakeholder analysis on conflict minerals 14 March 2013, 9:00-15:30
11.11.11, Brussels
IPIS research will be presenting on the principle results of the OECD pilot implementation phase and possible EU strategies on conflict minerals at this NGO platform event.

IPIS’ Latest Publications



Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.


Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.


Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment

 
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 


LRA
Issue Brief: Intelligence Needs in the Hunt for the LRA | 22 February 2013 | The Enough Project
With operations by the Lord’s Resistance Army spanning several countries and swaths of dense jungle, hunting down the rebels requires excellent real-time intelligence—something long deficient in the efforts to bring the LRA to an end. In a new  issue brief published by the Enough Project, LRA analyst. Ashley Benner, offers six reasons why intelligence about the LRA is difficult to collect and suggests six ways that the U.S. could address this challenge.

 

DRC 

MONUSCO weekly press conference
Conférence de presse des Nation Unies du mercredi 27 février 2013 | 27 February 2013 | MONUSCO

 
 
Framework Agreement signed in Addis Ababa
‘Framework’ Announced for Peace in Congo | 24 February 2013 | The New York Times
Leaders of several African countries and United Nations officials on Sunday announced a new “framework” to tackle instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a war-torn country that has become synonymous with suffering and has eluded countless attempts to build a lasting peace over the years.
 
Crise en RDC: signature dimanche de l'accord international de paix à Addis-Abeba | 24 February 2013 | RFI
 
DR Congo: African leaders sign peace deal | 24 February 2013 | BBC Africa
Signature d'un accord pour la paix en RDC | 24 February 2013 | BBC Afrique
Crise à l’Est de la RDC: un accord de paix a été signé à Addis Abeba | 24 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
African Leaders Sign DRC Peace Deal | 24 February 2013 | Voice of America
Eleven states sign United Nations deal for peace in Congo | 24 February 2013 | The Guardian
Accord de paix régional et projet de force internationale robuste en RDC | 24 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Regional leaders sign peace deal for eastern DR Congo | 25 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Regional African leaders have signed a UN-brokered accord which aims to bring peace to the troubled eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
Joseph Kabila : «Il est plus que temps que nous garantissions à nos populations le droit à la vie» | 24 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Statement By H.E. Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda, at the Signing Ceremony of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the Region | 24 February 2013 | Government of Rwanda | allAfrica
 
UN urges long-term commitment to today's peace deal on DR Congo | 24 February 2013 | UN News Centre
Ban demande le soutien des Etats Membres à l'Accord-cadre pour la paix et la sécurité en RDC | 25 February 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC: pour l'ONU, l’accord international de paix adopté à Addis-Abeba est un «début» | 24 February 2013 | RFI
Ban Ki-Moon salue la signature de l’accord de paix sur la RDC | 24 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today urged regional African leaders to provide sustained support at the highest political and diplomatic levels to implement a newly signed United Nations-backed accord aimed at stabilizing the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
 
SADC Will Continue Assisting Peace in DRC - Guebuza | 25 February 2013 | Mozambique News Agency
Mozambican President Armando Guebuza on Sunday pledged that the Southern African Development Community (SADC) will continue working for a sustainable solution to the crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
 
L'accord-cadre pour la paix en RDC sera présenté au conseil de sécurité le 5 Mars prochain | 27 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
 
Reactions, comments & analyses
RDC : le futur accord-cadre pour la pacification de l’Est critiqué | 21 February 2013 | RFI
 
L’accord cadre sur la pacification de l’Est du Congo est enfin prêt | 21 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
Les étoiles et les ravines | 21 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
RDC : Kinshasa n'attend pas grand chose de l'accord d'Addis Abeba | 22 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
 
The Framework Agreement: More questions than answers | 22 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
 
RDC: les acteurs de la société partagés sur la signature de l’accord de paix à Addis-Abeba | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
U.S. Ambassador Rice On Signing of Peace Agreement for DRC | 24 February 2013 | US Department of State | allAfrica
The United States welcomes today's signing of the Peace, Security, and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Region, a significant step toward promoting long-term peace in the Great Lakes.
 
Joint Statement by High Representative/ Vice President Catherine Ashton and Commissioner Andris Piebalgs on the adoption of a "Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region" | 24 February 2013 | European Union
Déclaration conjointe de la Haute Représentante/Vice-présidente, Mme Catherine Ashton et du Commissaire M. Andris Piebalgs sur l'adoption "d'un accord-cadre pour la paix, la sécurité et la coopération en République Démocratique du Congo et dans la région" | 24 February 2014 | Union européenne
The HR/VP Catherine Ashton and Development Commissioner Andris Piebalgs, welcome the adoption in Addis today of a "Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region". They commend the UN Secretary General for his strong leadership and the leaders of the region to have chosen dialogue and cooperation as a basis for addressing the many challenges the region is facing.
 
Forty-six leading Congolese and international NGOs welcome Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework, but call for further action to make peace a reality | 24 February 2013 | Reliefweb
Quarante-six ONG Congolaises et internationales de premier plan saluent l'accord-cadre pour la paix, la sécurité, et la coopération, mais appellent à des actions complémentaires pour que la paix devienne réalité | 24 February 2013 | Reliefweb
NGO policy brief on framework agreement | 24 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
Goma/Kinshasa/ Rome/ Washington DC – A group of prominent Congolese and international NGOs today called on countries in the Great Lakes region, along with their international partners, to ensure that the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement signed in Addis Ababa is given the political backing necessary to bring an end to war in the eastern Congo.
 
'Make or Break Time' for Eastern DRC After New Peace Plan, Warns Oxfam | 24 February 2013 | Oxfam International | allAfrica
A framework for peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo, due to be signed today, will fail to end the suffering of millions of people in the east of the country unless concrete actions are now taken to ensure leaders stick to the deal and tackle key issues of land, ethnicity and development, international agency Oxfam said today.
 
Accord-cadre d'Addis-Abeba - Ni force d'intervention ni chapitre 7 | 24 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
RDC sous tutelle | 24 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Rwanda Welcomes DRC Peace Deal | 24 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
President Paul Kagame has welcomed the deal aimed at bringing peace and stability to the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo after years of unrest.
 
Kampala: le M23 ne se sent pas concerné par l’accord-cadre signé à Addis-Abeba | 25 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Nord-Kivu: la société civile appelle au respect de l’accord de paix d’Addis-Abeba | 25 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Signature of Framework Agreement for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region | 25 February 2013 | U.S. Department of State
Press Statement.
The United States strongly supports the initiative of the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.) and ten other African heads of state in signing the Peace, Security, and Cooperation Framework for the D.R.C. and the Region, witnessed by three African regional bodies and the United Nations.
 
Peace Plan for DRC - Another Illusion? | 25 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
 
Accord d’Addis Abeba : les réactions de la classe politique congolaise | 26 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
DRC Peace Deal Is Just the Start | 26 February 2013 | Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) | allAfrica
A group of prominent Congolese and international NGOs have called on countries in the Great Lakes region, along with their international partners, to ensure that the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement signed in Addis Ababa is given the political backing necessary to bring an end to war in the eastern Congo.
 
Le Renadhoc estime que l’accord de paix d’Addis-Abeba n’a pas de «valeur ajoutée» | 27 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Le gouvernement appelle le M23 à mettre fin à son existence | 27 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
 
Kinshasa - « Aucune sanction n'a été prise contre le M23 et le Rwanda » dans l'Accord-Cadre | 27 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
 
UN – International Force/Intervention Brigade
RDC : Ban Ki-Moon promet «une nouvelle stratégie» pour faire face à la violence dans l’Est | 21 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
L’ONU débute l’examen d’un renforcement de la Monusco en RDC | 22 February 2013 | RFI
 
DR Congo: UN envoy warns security situation dire, urges additional resources | 22 February 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : la MONUSCO demande des ressources supplémentaires pour relever le défi sécuritaire | 22 February 2013 | UN News Centre
UN Alarmed by Militias' Resurgence in DRC | 22 February 2013 | Voice of America
Le Chef de la MONUSCO dit « placer beaucoup d'espoirs » dans le déploiement de drones et de la brigade d'intervention de la SADC dans l'est de la RDC | 22 February 2013 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
RDC: « Le M23 a consolidé son administration et sa structure au Nord-Kivu », affirme Roger Meece | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ahead of a new peace deal for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to be signed this weekend, the top United Nations official there warned today that the security situation is unstable, and urged the Security Council to provide the necessary support and authorization for an additional military brigade force within the current UN peacekeeping force.
 
Accord de paix régional et projet de force internationale robuste en RDC | 24 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
 
RDC : l'ONU veut créer une force spéciale contre les groupes armés | 25 February 2013 | RFI
 
L'ONU inquiète de la situation en RDC malgré l'accord de paix | 25 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
 
Déploiement des drones dans l'Est - Le Conseil de sécurité donne son feu vert | 26 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
RDC : mise en garde de Ban Ki-moon contre les pays soutenant les rebelles | 27 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : Ban Ki Moon accuse les voisins | 28 February 2013 | BBC Afrique
 
Ntumba Lwaba: «La brigade spéciale d’intervention aura un mandat offensif d’imposition de la paix» | 27 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Mozambique: Govt to Send Troops to DRC | 27 February 2013 | Mozambique News Agency | allAfrica
The Mozambican Council of Ministers (Cabinet) on Tuesday approved a proposal to send a military contingent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to join a United Nations peace enforcement mission.
 
 
 
M23 in North Kivu
Splits deepen within the M23 | 21 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
Reports from various sources––the UN peacekeeping mission, M23 insiders, and the Congolese army––this afternoon suggest that the rift between Bosco Ntaganda and Sultani Makenga is deepening. Details are still vague, with some going so far as saying that the two have been taking to Kigali for a sitting-down, but it is clear that the long-standing tensions have escalated.
 
RDC: « Le M23 a consolidé son administration et sa structure au Nord-Kivu », affirme Roger Meece | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Kampala: le M23 ne se sent pas concerné par l’accord-cadre signé à Addis-Abeba | 25 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
DR Congo: M23's Makenga and Runiga factions 'clash' | 25 February 2013 | BBC Africa
Les rebelles du M23 s’affrontent | 25 February 2013 | BBC Africa
RDC: affrontements entre deux factions du M23 à Rutshuru, 8 morts | 25 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Des affrontements internes au M23 font une dizaine de victimes | 25 February 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
At least eight people have been killed in the first clashes between rival factions of the M23 rebel group in DR Congo, sources have told the BBC. The violence was linked to a power-struggle between M23 political leader Jean-Marie Runiga and military chief Sultani Makenga, the sources said.
 
République démocratique du Congo: le M23 est-il en train de se diviser? | 25 February 2013 | RFI
 
Divisions meurtrières au sein des rebelles congolais du M23 | 25 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
RDC : Guerre des chefs au M23 ? | 25 February 2013 | Afrikarabia
 
In Congo, 8 Killed in Clash Between Rival M23 Factions | 26 February 2013 | Voice of America
 
Mystery surrounds killing of M23 officer | 26 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
The killing of M23 Major Anicet Musana on Sunday in Rutshuru sent shock waves through the region, coming on the same say as the signing of the Addis Ababa agreement. What exactly happened, however, is shrouded in mystery.
 
Rutshuru: la guerre des chefs se poursuit au sein du M23 | 26 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
RDC : la rébellion du M23 au bord de la scission | 26 February 2013 | Jeune Afrique
 
Guerre des chefs militaires Makenga et Ngaruye au M23 à Rutshuru | 26 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
RDC: le M23 est au bord de l’implosion | 27 February 2013 | RFI
 
Une journaliste parmi les 17 personnes tuées à Rutshuru dans les affrontements entre factions du M23 | 27 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Premières “victimes” de l’accord de paix: les rebelles congolais | 27 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
RDC: Sultani Makenga destitue Jean-Marie Runiga de la direction politique du M23 | 28 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Clashes army-APCLS in Kitchanga, Masisi/Rutshuru, North Kivu
Les communautés contraintes de nourrir l’armée et les rebelles | 21 February 2013 | IPS
 
Nord-Kivu: une attaque contre les positions des Mai-Maï APCLS fait 3 morts à Kitchanga | 25 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Nord-Kivu: violents combats entre FARDC et la milice APCLS à Kitshanga | 27 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
DR Congo: UN mission shelters hundreds of civilians following clashes | 27 February 2013 | UN News Centre
 “The UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) reports that, earlier today, near its base in Kitchanga, North Kivu, heavy fighting took place,” deputy UN spokesperson Eduardo del Buey told journalists in New York. The situation remains “tense” following the clashes between Congolese armed forces and elements of the Alliance des Patriotes pour un Congo Libre et Souverain (APCLS), an armed group, Mr. del Buey added.
 
 
Ambushes by ADF/Nalu, Beni, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : un mort et trois blessés dans des embuscades tendues par des rebelles ougandais | 24 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Violence by Raia Mutomboki in Shabunda, South Kivu
Shabunda: la localité de Katamba se vide de ses habitants | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Affrontements FARDC /Maï-Maï Rahiya Mutomboki à Shabunda | 25 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
 
Population fleeing FDLR and FNL in Uvira, South Kivu
Sud-Kivu: les habitants des hauts plateaux d’Uvira fuient les rebelles FDLR et FNL | 27 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Ituri district, Province Orientale
Ituri: la société civile accuse les FARDC de rançonner la population | 21 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Ituri: l’Etat major des FARDC décide de déloger les militaires de la cité à Bunia | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Province Orientale: 10 miliciens Simba de Morgan arrêtés par les FARDC à Nia Nia | 24 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
UPC in Ituri: The External Militarization of Local Politics in North-eastern Congo | February 2013 | Rift Valley Institute
By Henning Tamm.
UPC in Ituri: The External Militarization of Local Politics in North-eastern Congo by Henning Tamm examines the convergence of factors that helped create and then broke apart the Union des patriotes congolais (UPC, Union of Congolese Patriots), one of Ituri’s most powerful armed groups. Created in the context of Ugandan occupation, which led to an increased militarization of politics, the UPC represented a local attempt to regain political and military control over the district. The movement was largely driven by elite interests from within the Hema community, the socio-economically dominant ethnic group in Ituri, and attracted external support first from Uganda, then from Rwanda.
 
Ituri: Gold, Land, and Ethnicity in North-eastern Congo | February 2013 | Rift Valley Institute
By Dan Fahey.
Ituri: Gold, Land, and Ethnicity in North-eastern Congo by Dan Fahey sets out the background to the years of conflict in Ituri district of the north-eastern DRC. The particularly vicious nature of war in Ituri––including large-scale massacres, widespread sexual violence, and the use of child soldiers––led to interventions by the European Union and United Nations, and prompted the International Criminal Court (ICC) to indict four of Ituri’s armed group leaders. Conflict in Ituri has been intimately linked to conflict in the provinces of North and South Kivu, and other parts of the eastern DRC, but it is also rooted in local histories of socio-economic relations and natural resource exploitation.
 
 
Army harassing gold diggers in Watsa, Province Orientale
Watsa: la société civile accuse les FARDC de traquer les orpailleurs à Gimbiya | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Mai-Mai in Lomami National Park, Opala, Province Orientale
Province Orientale: les miliciens abattent les éléphants et attaquent le personnel de l’ICCN | 26 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Mai-Mai violence in Katanga
Un prêtre belge a pu fuir les Maï Maï du Katanga | 21 February 2013 | La Libre Belgique
 
UN Alarmed by Militias' Resurgence in DRC | 22 February 2013 | Voice of America
The top United Nations official in the Democratic Republic of Congo warns that resurgent militia activity in some eastern parts of the country is threatening civilian populations. The head of the U.N. mission in the DRC, Roger Meece, told the Security Council on Friday there have been “worrisome security developments,” particularly in northern Katanga province, where Mai-Mai militia leader Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga, known as Gédéon, escaped during a mass prison break in September 2011. Gédéon is under a death sentence dating back to 2009 for his role in the long-running conflict in the eastern Congo.
 
Katanga: la population tue 2 miliciens Maï-Maï à Kitembo | 22 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Katanga: une attaque des Maï-Maï fait 7 morts à Nsenga-Ndjimbu | 25 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Katanga: les Maï-Maï enlèvent un chef de localité à Pweto et blessent un autre à Mitwaba | 27 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Katanga: les FARDC lancent la traque contre une milice à Nsela | 27 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 

 
 

Uganda

Army Deploys At DR Congo Border | 25 February 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The Uganda People's Defense Forces (UPDF) has deployed heavily at the Uganda - Democratic Republic of Congo border in Kanungu district following renewed fighting between Mai Mai militia and M23 rebels close to the Uganda border in Nyamirima.
 

 
 

Rwanda

Tony Blair defends Rwanda's role in DR Congo | 27 February 2013 | BBC Africa
Former UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair, has defended Rwanda over its part in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. He told the BBC the causes of that conflict were complex and Kigali should not be singled out for blame. He also said it was wrong to withhold aid to Rwanda, as many Western countries have done.
 

 

Central African Republic

Experts Weekly: Will the Central African Republic's New Unity Government Hold? | 21 February 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
Negotiations between Seleka rebels and President Bozizé led to the establishment of a new power-sharing government. Think Africa Press asked a panel of experts about its prospects.
 
Ndjotodia sensibilise ses troupes pour leur cantonnement | 22 February 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
 
RCA: début des opérations de cantonnement des combattants de la Seleka | 23 February 2013 | RFI
 
RCA: le cantonnement des troupes de la Seleka reporté | 24 February 2013 | RFI
Central African Republic: Cantonment of CAR Rebels Postponed | 25 February 2013 | Cameroon Tribune | allAfrica
Amidst accusations that the government of President François Bozizé has not respected certain terms of the January 11, 2013 Libreville Peace Accord, the beginning of cantonment of Seleka rebels in the Central African Republic, CAR, that was scheduled to begin on Sunday, February 24, 2013, has now been postponed indefinitely.
 
Une frange de la Séléka conteste le cantonnement et menace de reprendre les hostilités | 25 February 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
 
Accords de Libreville: en RCA, la Seleka s'impatiente | 27 February 2013 | RFI
 
 

 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

République Démocratique du Congo: Personnes déplacées et retournées (au 31 Janvier 2013) | 31 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 06/13, 21 février 2013 | 21 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Maniema : 6 000 ménages éparpillés autour de Punia | 21 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Bulletin d'information humanitaire - Province du Katanga N° 06/13 - 20 février 2013 | 22 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Les combats continus mettent des vies en danger au Katanga | 22 February 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
Hundreds Flee Increased Fighting in DRC’s Katanga Province | 25 February 2013 | Voice of America
 
Equateur : un site pouvant accueillir 20 000 réfugiés centrafricains a été défini à Inke | 22 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC - Plus de 22 300 centrafricains sont réfugiés dans les provinces de l'equateur et orientale | 27 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Nord-Kivu : le HCR apporte des médicaments aux déplacés de Mugunga 3 | 22 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province Orientale N° 08/13, 26 février 2013 | 26 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
La Police MONUSCO conçoit un projet en vue de renforcer la sécurité dans les camps de déplacés | 26 February 2013 | MONUSCO
 
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Note d’information à la presse, 27 février 2013 | 27 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu N° 07/13, 27 février 2013 | 27 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 09/13, 27 février 2013 | 27 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 


Central African Republic

Looming food crisis in the Central African Republic | 24 February 2013 | IRIN
Crise alimentaire imminente en République centrafricaine | 24 February 2013 | IRIN
 
Central African Republic: Situation Report No. 7 (as of 25 February 2013) | 25 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
République Centrafricaine : Rapport de situation N°7 (au 25 février 2013) | 27 February 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Le spectre de l’année blanche plane sur les régions occupées par Séléka | 27 February 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
 
 

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

ICC trial against Bemba
Le procès Bemba reprend lundi avec une déposition en vidéoconférence | 21 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency
 
Bemba Trial in Closed Session At Restart of Hearings | 25 February 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
Hearings in Jean-Pierre Bemba's trial resumed today, but proceedings were held entirely in closed session. In fact, according to the schedule published by the International Criminal Court (ICC), all of this week's hearings will be conducted in closed session.
 
New Defense Witness Will Give All Evidence in Closed Session | 26 February 2013 | Bemba Trial Website | allAfrica
 
Le procès du Sénateur congolais Jean-Pierre Bemba a repris à huis clos | 26 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency
 


 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

DRC 

Armed groups and army harassing artisanal miners
Sud-Kivu : une ONG déplore la présence des hommes armés dans les mines | 22 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Watsa: la société civile accuse les FARDC de traquer les orpailleurs à Gimbiya | 23 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Traceability/conlict-free minerals
Le Prince Jaime de Bourbon Parme des Pays-Bas et une délégation de haut rang visitent les mines du Sud-Kivu | 24 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Sourcing Conflict-free Minerals from the Kivus No Longer a Pipe Dream, Monitoring Must Follow | 26 February 2013 | The Enough Project
Eastern Congo’s Kivu provinces are making slow but steady progress to establish certified minerals trading routes. A total of 20 mining sites qualified and validated as “green” (conflict-free) in North and South Kivu by a multi-stakeholder body made up of the Congolese government, minerals dealers, and local NGOs. In South Kivu, the electronics company Philips, Motorola Solutions, the Congolese government, and the Dutch Ministry for Development Cooperation have initiated a conflict-free supply chain through a pilot project called Conflict-Free Tin Initiative, or CFTI. 
 
First conflict-free tin metal from Congo due in March | 27 February 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
An industry programme to revive legal mining in eastern Congo after a crackdown on conflict minerals will produce its first refined tin by the end of March, its organisers said on Tuesday. So far over 200 tonnes of tin ore have been sold to a Malaysian smelter from the Kalimbi mine in South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) under the Conflict Free Tin Initiative (CFTI), the organisers said in a statement.
 
Enough in crusade against conflict gold | 26 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The American NGO Enough headed by John Prendergast, who played a significant part in drafting the Dodd & Frank Act’s due diligence procedures for importers of coltan, cassiterite and tungsten in Central Africa, has launched a “crusade against conflict gold.
 
 
UNICEF helping children out of the mines
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, helping children of the mines find a way out | 26 February 2013 | UNICEF
MBUJI MAYI, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 26 February 2013 – The roads I travel to get to the Matempu diamond mine, nestled in the Bakwa Tshimuna area of Kasai Oriental’s capital city Mbuji Mayi, are precarious – ambiguous and muddy, with deep, sinking holes in the red earth from which young faces peek out. 


 

Rwanda

New Mineral Monitoring System Coming | 25 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The Ministry of Natural Resources has unveiled a new technology system that will boost transparency in the sector by monitoring the mineral output of mining sites across the country. The 18-month project, which started last month, is being managed by Spatial Dimension, a Canadian IT firm that operates similar projects in over 10 countries, including the DRC, Uganda, Liberia and South Africa.
The project will be a major landmark once completed, according to officials from the geology and mines department, as the system is expected to improve audits and inventories of mining firms.
 

 
 

Central African Republic

Central African Republic's mining revenue doubles | 21 February 2013 | EITI
Mining revenues in CAR almost doubled between 2008 and 2010, but remain a small part of government income.
 
 

 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Mining
Congo's neglected state miner hankers for past glory | 22 February 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
At the heart of the Democratic Republic of Congo's southern mining belt, Kambove once churned out ton upon ton of copper for Gecamines, a sprawling conglomerate that used to make up 60% and more of the country's exports.
 
Mwana upgrades Zani–Kodo resource to 2.6 Moz | 26 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
Aim-listed Mwana Africa has increased the Joint Ore Reserves Committee-compliant resource at is Zani–Kodo project, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, Province Orientale) to 2.6-million ounces of gold.
 
New transportation outlet for copper belts | 26 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The possibility of shipping out minerals through Angola is hardening up for mining companies in Katanga and Zambia which normally pass by way of South Africa or Mozambique. 
 
 
Hydrocarbons
RDC : des ONG souhaitent que l’exploitation du pétrole profite « réellement » à la population | 21 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Réflexion sur la problématique de l'exploitation des hydrocarbures au pays | 21 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
 
Hydropower
RDC: la Bad donne 8 millions de dollars pour électrifier la ville de Zongo | 21 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
 

 
 

Uganda

Oil
Tullow Oil provides East Africa exploration and appraisal update | 21 February 2013 | OilVoice
In Uganda, the Ondyek-1 exploration well did not encounter hydrocarbons.
 
Parliament Passes Second Oil Bill | 22 February 2012 | New Vision | allAfrica
Parliament Thursday moved a step closer to completing the oil law chain to govern the country's nascent oil and gas sector by passing a bill to regulate midstream operations.
 
Strong competition for Kenya-Uganda oil pipeline | 22 February 2013 | Engineering News
Fourteen companies are jostling for the contract for an oil pipeline connecting East African neighbours Kenya and Uganda.
 

 

Burundi

Electricity
Burundi: Govt Plans to Build 50 Megawatt Dam | 26 February 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
The European Investment Bank (EIB) is financing 50% of a 50 Megawatts hydroelectric power dam on Jiji and Murembwe rivers.
 
Burundi to get 68m euros in EU aid to boost power supply | 25 February 2013 | Engineering News
The European Union will give Burundi 68-million euros to be used to improve electricity generation and transmission in rural areas to improve food production in the tiny central African country, an EU official said on Friday.
 
 
Mining - oil
Time to Invest in Burundi Is Now | 26 February 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
(…) Several companies have also become very interested in what lies below the ground in Burundi with several of them doing mining exploration and now drilling for oil. So far, Burundi has been proven to have large reservers of nickel which is now being exploited. There are several other reserves of minerals which are in various stages of exploitation.

 
 
 

Central African Republic 

Central African Republic's mining revenue doubles | 21 February 2013 | The Guardian
Mining revenues in CAR almost doubled between 2008 and 2010, but remain a small part of government income.
The largest share of the payments is made by industrial mining companies which are in the exploration phase or just holding their concessions for future development. For instance, the annual special payment by French uranium miner Areva of US $8 million alone made up 40% of total payments to the CAR government in 2010.
 
 

 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 


Citizens’ groups call for oil companies to drop anti-transparency lawsuit | 25 February 2013 | Publish What You Pay
Ahead of Tuesday’s international board meeting of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Oslo, civil society organisations urge oil companies to drop a lawsuit that aims to overturn US transparency laws.



 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
 
 
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