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WEEKLY BRIEFING 14TH - 20TH FEBRUARY 2013

Content

Editorial
 
IPIS' News
Upcoming events

 
IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

Burundi
CAR
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

CAR
 
Justice and Tribunals

Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
 
Other

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL

As the Kampala talks between the M23 and Kinshasa seem to have remained in deadlock this week, the UN has announced a second meeting in Addis Ababa to secure the signature of a UN-brokered peace accord for eastern DRC, due to take place on 24 February 2013. The announcement comes as the DRC deploys a 500 strong battalion of its own troops to strengthen the AU-led taskforce hunting the Lords’ Resistance Army. As further details are released regarding the arrested Congolese rebels planning to overthrow the Kabila regime in South Africa, Amnesty International appeals to the Angolan authorities not to extradite alleged DRC coup plotters arrested on its territory in November last year back to Kinshasa.
 
On the ground in the DRC, Maniema has attracted considerable attention after complaints of ethnically based FARDC harassment of locals in Punia were followed by the Raia Mutomboki’s brief seizure of the gold rich city, recaptured by FARDC the following day. Fears have been expressed regarding a possible ethnic conflict in North Kivu following clashes between predominantly Hunde Mai-Mai Shetani and the Hutu aligned Mai-Mai Nyatura, whilst the Raia Mutomboki continue to be active in South Kivu. In Province Orientale the presence of the LRA in Ango territory has caused alarm, as rising criminality in Bunia has led local vigilante groups to target FARDC officers. Katanga continues to see considerable insecurity caused by armed groups and general lawlessness, as well as clashes between Congolese police and artisanal miners on Gecamines owned property.
 
The Central African Republic maintains a tense security situation with some rebel groups continuing to engage in abuses against the population, sparking concerns of an ethnic rift.
 
Initiatives to curb the trade in conflict minerals including the Dodd-Frank Congo initiative and OEDC guidelines are under scrutiny this week with concerns about their impact on local economies in the DRC.
 
Valentines day saw increased media focus on sexual violence in the context of the conflict prevailing in the DRC.

 

IPIS' News

Upcoming Events

Blood Coltan 5 March 2013, 19:00-20:30
University of Maastricht, Minderbroedersberg 4-6, Maastricht
Mobile phones, smart phones and tablets all contain tiny electronic circuits, and they couldn’t work without a mineral called coltan. Coltan is mined in eastern Congo. Here, this mineral helps to fuel one of the world’s deadliest conflicts. Our demand for phones has been helping to finance a civil war in Congo. The event, organised by the Studium Generale of Maastricht University and the European Studies Association Concordantia, will discuss the human rights violations and ecological devastation accompanying coltan mining and trading.

Toward a EU initiative on conflict minerals? 13 March 2013
Senate House, Brussels
IPIS Research will be presenting on the OECD due diligence guidelines and the principle results of implementation monitoring.
 
CONCORD Raw Materials Task Force - Stakeholder analysis on conflict minerals 14 March 2013, 9:00-15:30
11.11.11, Brussels
IPIS research will be presenting on the principle results of the OECD pilot implementation phase and possible EU strategies on conflict minerals at this NGO platform event.

 

IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.


Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.


Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
 


Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Kampala talks
 
Kampala : le gouvernement juge illégitimes certaines revendications du M23 | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese delegation to Kampala has called several of the M23's demands "illegal, illegitimate and moot," including their request for the cancellation of the November 2011 elections and an amnesty for rebels. The delegation insists that the talks focus on the evaluation of the March 2009 agreement; security issues; social, political and economic issues and a plan of implementation for the agreement to be signed at the end of the current talks. Meanwhile, the M23 has called for the cancellation of Joseph Kabila's electoral win; a total amnesty for rebels; and the planning of joint operations with the FARDC against armed groups in North Kivu.
 
M23 - Agreement on disagreements | 16 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le Potentiel report on the signature of an agreement on the implementation of the March 2009 peace accord stating that both sides appear to be claiming a victory in the recognition of partial implementation, and highlighting the points of discord between the two parties.
 
International Intervention force for the DRC
 
RDC : les discussions sur le déploiement d’une force internationale se poursuivent, selon la Monusco  | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
MONSCO military spokesman, Felix Bass, has said that discussions on the deployment of an international brigade are on-going and that the SADC force is expected have its own command structure, its own rules of engagement and will report to the United Nations, whilst working alongside MONUSCO.
 
UN-brokered peace accord for eastern DRC
 
New Report: The Missing Element from Congo's Peace Process | 14 February 2013 | Enough Project
The Enough Project has released a policy brief identifying incentives and coercive economic and diplomatic tools that can be used to bring the necessary parties to end the DRC conflict to the negotiation table in a mind set where they are willing to make the difficult decisions necessary to forge a lasting peace. The third in a three-part series on Congo's peace process, the report argues that the international community, with behind-the-scenes U.S. leadership, must apply a carefully calibrated package of leverage on relevant stakeholders.
 
The UN Framework Agreement - A serious peace process? | 15 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
Blog piece outlining in the contours of the UN Framework agreement for peace and stating that it is promising but that a lot still needs to happen to make it a reality, and to overcome entrenched interests and inertia in both reforming the Congolese state and bringing an end to foreign interference in the Kivus.
 
U.N. says delayed Congo peace deal due to be signed Feb. 24 | 16 February 2013 | Reuters | AlertNet
L’Onu annonce la signature de l’accord de paix en RDC pour le 24 février | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Congo-Kinshasa: Vers un accord-cadre pour sortir de la crise | 19 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
RDC : signature avant fin février de l'accord-cadre pour pacifier l'Est (Premier ministre) | 19 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | reliefweb
La VSV encourage les chefs d’Etats des Grands Lacs à signer l’accord de paix sur l’Est de la RDC | 20 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ban Ki Moon is expected to preside over the signature of a peace accord between eleven signatory states composed of SADC and ICGLR members on 24 February in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As part of the agreement states will undertake not to support, fund or host the armed groups responsible for instability in eastern DRC. To ensure this, control mechanisms and more binding UN supervision will be established in each of the signatory countries.

East African Community Security Protocol
 
EAC Partner States to Sign Security Protocol Today | 18 February 2013 | Rwandan Government Website | allAfrica
Last week, partner States of the East African Community (EAC) were due to sign a peace and security agreement which is expected to serve as a regional instrument to enhance security across the bloc. The protocol, developed through a highly consultative and inclusive process, was to be approved by a joint sectoral ministerial summit due to take place in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania.The event was also used as a platform to encourage efforts in the fight against the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, with over 3,000 SALWs destroyed as a sign of the EAC partner states' commitment to eradicating illegal firearms.
 
Rwanda and the DRC
 
Mushikiwabo to UN: Enhance Civilian Protection | 13 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Louise Mushikiwabo has called upon the UN Security Council to invest greater energy into conflict prevention in order to ensure the protection of civilians during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict.
 
Un an après sa disparition, Katumba Mwanke n’a jamais été remplacé | 17 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Article discussing the significance of the death of Katumba Mwanke to relations between the DRC and Rwanda and outlining his role as an interlocutor and adviser, suggesting that he has until now been irreplaceable in this capacity. The article goes on to discuss the Congolese position one year on from his death.
 
Paul Kagame en visite de deux jours à Brazzaville | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
President Kagame's Third Visit to Congo Marks Closer Ties | 18 February 2013 | Rwandan Government Website | allAfrica
President Kagame has paid his third official visit to the Republic of Congo since 2004, to discuss bilateral and regional issues, including the crisis in the DRC and the need to continue supporting the ongoing regional peace process.
 
Old is New: M23, Rwanda and Conflict in the Eastern DRC | 20 February 2013 | World Politics Review
Article discussing armed groups and Rwandan involvement in the DRC. Subscription required.
 
Plot to overthrow the DRC government
 
Angola Must Not Send Detainees to Democratic Republic of Congo | 14 February 2013 | Amnesty International | allAfrica
Nine Congolese detainees are currently being held in Angola on charges alleging an attempt to destabilise the government in the DRC. Amnesty has appealed that the men not be returned to Congo where they face a real risk of torture, ill-treatment and subjection to the death penalty.
 
Afrique du Sud: les 20 Congolais accusés de complot contre Kabila vont comparaître le 27 février | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Suspected DRC coup plotters in court | 14 February 2013 | Times Live
Twenty men arrested for forming a plot to overthrow of the Kabila government will appear in Pretoria Regional Court on 27 February 2013. The latterly arrested twentieth member of this group, the group's leader, is named after Etienne Kabila and claims to be a son of Laurent Kabila, father and predecessor of the current president of the DRC, Joseph Kabila. The men belong to the Nationalist Democratic Union for Renewal and are reported to have been arrested in possession of 5,000 AK47 rifles, 500 rocket TKM surface-to-air missiles, 50 suitcase satellites, 200 Walkie Talkies and 1000 grenades .
 
DRC/Uganda security
 
Committee Setup to Normalize DR Congo Relations | 19 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Shooting at Uganda-DRC border kills 3 | 20 February 2013 | The New Vision
A 12-person committee has been set up to normalize relations between Uganda and the DRC, following recent skirmishes over the common border on Lake Albert (the latest taking place on 13 February with a confrontation between the Congolese police and demonstrators killing three). The next border security meeting is due in three months' time in Bunia in Ituri.
 
Lord’s Resistance Army
 
Traque contre la LRA: le bataillon congolais de la force régionale présenté à Dungu | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
La RDC met 500 soldats à disposition de la force régionale d'intervention de l'union africaine contre la LRA | 14 February 2013 | UN News | allAfrica
DRC Troop Deployment a Boost to Anti-LRA Efforts  | 17 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
A battalion from the DRC has been deployed to boost the African Union’s regional taskforce hunting the LRA. A 500 strong Congolese light infantry battalion was presented at Dungu in Orientale Province by the Congolese Chief of Staff in charge of operations.

US involvement in combatting insecurity in the Great Lakes
 
Washington est prêt à soutenir la RDC pour le retour de la paix dans l’Est, selon Matata Ponyo  | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Following a visit to the US by Congolese Prime Minister Matata Ponyo, he has affirmed that Washington has expressed its intention to see an international brigade deployed as soon as possible. The impending framework agreement is expected to set the contours of the international brigade and drones (originally opposed by Kigali) are due to be dispatched between June and July 2013.
 
Open Letter to the President | 15 February 2013 | Enough Project
In an open letter to the President, Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast and Executive Director John C. Bradshaw have offered specific policy recommendations for Congo, the Sudans and the LRA. The letter includes recommendations to: appoint a Presidential Special Envoy to support a comprehensive United Nations-led peace process; ensure the peace initiative addresses the political, economic and security issues fuelling the conflict, including through the imposition of sanctions; help to develop a clean, certified minerals trade that benefits communities in eastern Congo and the Congolese state; and negotiate military access to safe havens in Sudan, Congo and the Central African Republic and work with the African Union to encourage the deployment of a special forces unit to combat the LRA.

DRC 

Violence against women in the DRC
 
Roving Courts in Eastern Congo | 13 February 2013 | Institute for War and Peace Reporting
Article discussing the mobile court programme being utilised in South Kivu to tackle sexual violence and other crimes. The article outlines how the programme has been welcomed in localities and by international justice experts and has aided to bring a sense of justice being seen to be done in smaller communities and helped to strengthen the rule of law. The article points out however that questions have been raised as to the fairness of the trials for defendants, including due to politicised selectivity, lack of adequate legal defence support and a victim bias.
 
Ban Ki-Moon plaide pour un monde sans violence sexuelle  | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has called on  the world's governments to commit to combatting sexual violence and violence against women and girls as part of the 'One Billion People Standing Up against Sexual Violence' Campaign.
 
Agnès Sadiki - 'Barrer la route à ceux qui empêchent la femme de s'épanouir'   | 14 February 2013 | Radio Netherlands Worldwide | allAfrica
Article discussing the ‘One Billion People Standing up against Sexual Violence’ campaign event that took place in Bukavu to raise awareness of violence against women in the DRC.
 
'It was like dying': a raped woman in Congo DRC speaks out | 14 February 2013 | The Guardian
Article relaying the experiences of sexual violence of a young Congolese woman who was raped during conflict and a Congolese child soldier who has raped women.
 
Denis Mukwege: The rape surgeon of DR Congo | 19 February 2013 | BBC News
Article outlining the incidence of the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC from the experiences of gynaecologist Denis Mukwege, who has reportedly treated nearly 30,000 rape victims  in the country and is developing considerable expertise in the treatment of serious sexual injuries.
 
Preventing Conflict-related Sexual Violence | 19 February 2013 | Peace Research Instiute Oslo | Human Security Report Project
This paper emphasises the need to focus on prevention of sexual violence. It states that the fact that many armed groups manage to effectively prohibit sexual violence shows that prevention is possible. The paper outlines several routes to prevention, including by changing how survivors are perceived and treated in their communities; protecting witnesses; ending impunity; strengthening command responsibility for acts committed by troops; and developing a more systematic and integration of sexual violence prevention in DDR processes and security sector reform.
 
M23
 
Jean-Marie Runiga, président du M23 - «Je ne suis pas extrémiste» | 13 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Interview with M23 President, Jean-Marie Runiga, addressing the dialogue between the M23 and Kinshsa taking place in Kampala, the M23’s goal in the negotiations, its response to allegations that the M23 is a negative force in the east, Runiga’s personal association with Kabila, the political aspirations of the M23 and its relationship with Laurent Nkunda and Bosco Ntaganda.
 
North Kivu
 
Nord-Kivu: les Mai-Mai Shetani contrôlent la cité de Nyamilima | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Mai-Mai Shetani group took control of the town of Nyamilima, located forty kilometers from the capital of Rutshuru, on Sunday 17 February. They managed to dislodge the Nyatura People's Movement self-defense militia, which had reportedly controlled Nyamilima for over a week. There is currently said to be a lull in the town,  though people are still holed up in their homes. FARDC did not intervene though are stationed only 10 km away.
 
Nord-Kivu : la société civile redoute une guerre interethnique à Nyamilima | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Two local armed groups that recruit their members in different ethnic groups in Rutshuru territory are currently engaged in conflict over the control, of the Binza groupment in the territory. The Mai-Mai Shetani, mainly composed of Nande militiamen and fighters from the Popular Movement for Self Defense (MPA), loyal allies to the Hutu Nyatura have engaged in clashes in recent weeks, stoking fears of an ethnic conflict in the Binza groupment. These fears have now been voiced by civil society representatives. With each faction claiming to protect its ethnic population, civil society groups seek a social dialogue to end the crisis.
 
Nord-Kivu : les activités ont repris à Nyamilima après des combats entre miliciens | 19 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Life has returned to Nyamilima following its seizure by the Mai-Mai Shetani with shops gingerly reopening on Tuesday. The Nyatura Mai-Mai dislodged from this locality are currently reported to be in Burhamba.
 
South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu: situation précaire de plus de 80 ménages déplacés à Uvira  | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Fighting between the Raïa Mutomboki and Burundian rebels of the National Liberation Front (FNL) allied to Rwanda Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) as caused 80 households from the Nakisherwe Bushute locality and the highlands of Uvira to flee, taking refuge for three days in Uvira-center. The IDPs are reportedly living in very difficult conditions.
 
Les Mai-Mai Raia Mutomboki tuent deux militaires à Shabunda | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Sud-Kivu: les activités sociales et économiques paralysées à Shabunda-centre | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Raia Mutomboki have reportedly killed two soldiers in Shabunda during an attack on the town, followed by their retreat back into the bush.
 
Province Orientale
 
Province Orientale: reprise des activités après accrochages entre miliciens et FARDC à Bafwabango | 15 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ituri : Bafwabango à nouveau vidé de ses habitants après une menace de miliciens Maï-Maï | 19 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Activities have resumed in Bafwabango following FARDC clashes with a splinter group from Morgan’s Mai-Mai, with the recommencement of a number of services and commercial outlets. FARDC reportedly continues to maintain control over the trading center and is said to have captured three Mai-Mai during hostilities in which the splinter group was ousted from the city after a day’s occupation. At least six persons were killed during the fighting, which has displaced nearly 3,500 towards Wamba. The Mai-Mai have reprtedly established their headquarters about 240km from Bafwabango.
 
Province Orientale : des présumés combattants LRA tuent 8 éleveurs Mbororo | 15 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Province Orientale: un élu d’Ango se plaint de la présence des rebelles de la LRA dans ce territoire  | 16 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Elected National Deputy, Robert Paisayo, has expressed concern about the presence of LRA groups and armed Mbororo herders in Ango territory since the cessation of FARDC operations against negative forces in the region. Ugandan LRA rebels ambushed and killed 8 nomadic Mbororo herders in the locality of Gwane at the beginning of February. A meeting between a UN delegation and Congolese authroities took place to discuss rebel groups in Ango on Monday.
 
Aru : 2 Soudanais et un Ougandais arrêtés parmi des bandits dans la cité de Kengezi Base | 16 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
FARDC has detained Ugandan and Sudanese bandits following hostilities in the city of Kengezi Base last Thursday on the border between the DRC and South Sudan, in Aru territory. The bandits had been extorting property at the border and the arrests and hostilities form part of the army’s attempt to quell insecurity in the area. Patrols are now in place.
 
Province Orientale: la société civile dénonce le regain de criminalité à Bunia | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Province Orientale: un militaire lynché et un autre blessé par la population à Bunia | 20 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Following heightening concerns about the significant upturn in criminal activity in Bunia, one FARDC soldier has been killed and a nother wounded following lynchings by the local population who found the individuals to be involved with a gang of armed robbers. Ten bandits have been arrested among whom FARDC soldiers have been confirmed. The rise in crime and insecurity in Bunia was denounced by civil society on Sunday.
 
Ituri : incursion de sept hommes armés à Teturi, plusieurs biens de valeur emportés | 19 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Half of the population of Teturi in Ituri fled the town on Monday evening following a raid by seven armed men who looted several household valuables and a weapon from a police officer.
 
Maniema
 
Thousands flee army harassment in eastern DRC | 15 February 2013 | IRIN
Thousands are reported to have fled Punia following threats to their ethnic community by the FARDC. Nearly a third of the population of Punia, a town of 53,000 inhabitants, has reportedly fled to the forest or to other areas around the town. A 6 February 2013 OCHA report states that the people of Punia have been threatened on the basis of their ethnicity.
 
Maniema : des miliciens Raia Mutomboki occupent la cité de Punia | 15 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Raia Mutomboki came to occupy the gold rich city of Punia from Saturday following two hours of hostilities with the FARDC. A meeting of the Provincial Council of Safety was held in early afternoon in Kindu, the provincial capital, following the occupation of the city.
 
Maniema: les FARDC délogent les Raïa Mutomboki de la cité de Punia | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: le Gouvernement confirme la reprise de la cité de Punia par l’armée | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Punia reprise par les forces régulières | 18 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
The Congolese government has announced that FARDC resumed control of Punia on Sunday morning following its seizure by the Raia Mutomboki. It is alleged that the city was seized by the rebels in order to pillage the gold in the city, a major gold mining locality. Many of those displaced by fighting were driven to Lubutu.Last week, the head of the Raïa Mutomboki , "colonel" Shabani Kingumba issued the Congolese government with a demand that they meet all  members present at Punia and accused the FARDC of committing abuses against the civilian population.
 
Maniema: les affrontements entre FARDC et Raïa Mutomboki ont fait 7 morts | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Sunday’s clashes between the FARDC and the Raia Mutomboki is reported to have killed 7 people in Punia, including six militia men and a child. The Raia are said to have engaged in looting during their occupation of the city.
 
Katanga
 
Katanga : des Mai-Mai tigres ont pillé et incendié des biens des habitants de Lukafu | 16 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Mai-Mai tigers attacked Lukafu Kasenga territory last Wednesday (13th February). Witnesses said the attackers looted and burned civilian property including the mission of the Catholic priests of the Congregation of Franciscans. The rebels were reportedly repelled by the FARDC later that day.
 
Katanga: les Mai-Mai Bakata Katanga tuent 3 personnes à Kinsevere  | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Mai-Mai Katanga Bakata, lead by Tanda Imena, have killed three people during a raid on the town of Kinsevere, about 40 km from Lubumbashi, on Sunday. According to local sources, the militia killed an agent of the National Intelligence Agency (ANR), a policeman and the village chief before retiring from Kinsevere.
 
Insight: "Triangle of death" looms over Congo's mining heartlands | 19 February 2013 | Reuters
Article discussing the rising insecurity in Katanga in the context of secessionist sentiment in the province. It states that the insecurity risks presenting a major disruption to mining activities in the region as Mai-Mai rebels appear to be heading further and further south, targeting the government and civilians with some disruption of mining activities through for example the hijacking of buses carrying workers. The article states that local grievances and secessionist aspirations are being exploited by the Mai-Mai, now around 2,000 strong. They have reportedly displaced around a quarter of a million people from the north east of the province, an area referred to as the “triangle of death” due to the massacres, rapes and other atrocities committed there. The local population is reported to fear both the Mai-Mai  and the FARDC, the latter being accused of engaging in pillaging and summarily executing “rebels” found hiding in the bush. MONUSCO will now be deployed around Pweto. The article goes on to discuss secessionist politics in the region.
 
Katanga: Moise Katumbi attribue l’attaque de Kinsevere à des bandits armés | 20 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The governor of Katanga, Moise Katumbi Chapwe, has stated that the attack on the village of Kinsevere was perpetrated by armed bandits and not the Mai-Mai Bakata Katanga, as previously thought. Katangans have been offered a large reward for anyone who manages to capture the bandits.
 
Katanga: affrontements entre creuseurs et policiers sur un site de la Gecamines à Kambove | 20 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Clashes have taken place between thousands of artisanal miners and the Congolese police on Wednesday (20 February) in Kambove, following attempts to expel the miners from the site. Police fired into the air to disperse the miners, who responded by throwing stones, leading to an escalation of the situation. Angry miners burned and looted property, five people were injured, three died and ten people were arrested at the Gecamines site.
 
Kasai Occidental
 
Kasaï-Occidental: conflit foncier entre les chefs coutumiers et l’église catholique de Kabwe | 19 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A land dispute between the church and traditional authorities in Kabwe Kazumba is heightening tensions leading to death threats being made against priests for failure to pay for land rights.
 
Equateur
 
Equateur: signature du pacte de non agression entre ethnies à Kungu | 18 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ethnic Lobala (Enyele), Boba (Monzaya) Bomboli, Bomboma and Monzombo in Kungu territory, Sud-Ubangi district  signed a pact of non-agression on Monday in Gamena. The signing of this document is dedicated to the end of inter-ethnic conflicts in the territory with representatives agreeing to put an end to the evils of such conflict and work for peace and reconciliation.
 

Uganda

 Museveni and the UDPF
 
Editor's Q & A - How Has Museveni Stayed in Power? | 12 February 2013 | Think Africa Press | allAfrica
A Q&A with Think Africa Press’ editor addressing how Museveni has come to be one of the longest serving heads of state, how Uganda has managed to retain its strong standing with its western allies, opposition to Museveni, his relationship with the UDPF and his future prospects.
 
The UDPF
 
Muhoozi - How He Controls The UPDF | 15 February 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Article stating that the second promotion of Museveni’s son, Muhoozi Kainerugaba, in August 2012 raised few questions suggesting that the public are accustomed to seeing him in high military command and stating that Muhoozi’s command of the Special Forces renders him now effectively at the head of the third service constituting the UDPF, alongside the regular armed forces and the air force. Article goes on to discuss Muhoozi’s command in the context of the UDPF’s structure.
 
UPDF Not Partisan - Aronda | 18 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Uganda’s Chief of Defence Forces Gen. Aronda Nyakairima has said that UPDF is a national army that is politically conscious, but will never be partisan. Article relaying speeches made by military personnel at an annual breakfast meet.
 
Coup threats
 
It Isn't Just Coups That Undermine Democracy | 19 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Opinion piece discussing recent threats of a military coup and stating that the political aim of silencing parliament could more readily be achieved through constitutional reform. The piece opines that disorganisation and powerlessness in society has undermined politics and democracy in Uganda more than talks of a coup and that new types of leadership at all levels to guide the country's politics is now required.


Burundi

Extension of UN Burundi Office mandate 

Le Conseil de Sécurité proroge le mandat du bureau des Nations Unies au pays jusqu'au 15 février 2014 | 13 February 2013 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
BNUB brings together actors to prepare 2015 elections in Burundi | 19 February 2013 | UN Intergrated Office in Burundi | Reliefweb
The UN Security Council has extended the mandate of the UN Office in Burundi emphasising the intention of the office to continue its work in 2013 of developing an understanding of lessons learned in the 2010 elections ahead of the 2015 round of elections, amongst other things. The resolution extending the mandate also requests the Government of Burundi to focus, with the support of the Commission of peacebuilding, on honoring its commitments regarding  prioritising peacebuilding.


CAR

Seleka attacks
 
Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) Central African Republic (ECHO/CAF/BUD/2013/91000) Last update: 12/02/2013 Version 2 | 12 February 2013 | European Commission Humanitarian Aid Department | reliefweb
Update report highlighting that the current situation in the CAR remains highly uncertain and SELEKA still occupies two thirds of the territory despite the signed peace agreement. Many NGOs have been and still are regularly looted. Some rebel groups continue to attack civilians and cause population movements.
 
Les religieux alertent sur le risque de violences interconfessionnelles | 13 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Religious leaders have come together to vocalise the risk of interfaith clashes in the CAR stating that they have evidence of potential "clashes between Christians and Muslims" in the provinces, due to attacks by Seleka rebels targeting Christians.
 
L’insécurité alimentaire guette les zones affectées par les conflits armés en Centrafrique | 13 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | reliefweb
Ubango province administrators have reported that between February 7 and 13, "8,646 people have fled Mobaye", a Central African border town close to positions held by the rebel Seleka coalition due to fears of attacks by the rebels who are looting and carrying out atrocities.

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

CAR refugees in the DRC
 
L’insécurité alimentaire guette les zones affectées par les conflits armés en Centrafrique | 13 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | reliefweb
Ubango province administrators have reported that between February 7 and 13, "8,646 people have fled Mobaye", a Central African border town close to positions held by the rebel Seleka coalition due to fears of attacks by the rebels. The current number of refugees in Ubgani is now estimated to be around 11,000.
 
Equateur: plus 15 000 réfugiés centrafricains vivent dans des conditions difficiles à Mobayi-Mbongo | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
15,703 CAR refugees have fled to Mobayi Mbongo in North Ubangi, in Equateur province and lack water, food and medicines. Most children, aged 0-5 years, suffer from malnutrition and diarrhea. The refugees say they have fled fighting between the military and the rebels of the Central coalition Seleka in their communities. A multi-agency taskforce began assessing the humanitarian situation on Saturday.


DRC 

IDPs in Maniema
 
Le PAM apporte une assistance vitale par avion à des milliers de déplacés dans la province enclavée du Maniema | 15 February 2013 | World Food Programme | reliefweb
The World Food Programme has transported food by air to provide emergency assistance to thousands of newly displaced people in the small town of Punia, Maniema province. Aircraft are currently the only mode of transport capable of reaching Punia as the roads are impassable in the rainy season especially for trucks.
 
IDPs in Katanga
 
Katanga : le nombre de déplacés internes a sextuplé en un an | 15 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Katanga province has 316,000 IDPs in February 2013 as compared to 55,000 in January 2012, according to figures released by the UN Agency for Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), during the presentation of its 2013 humanitarian plan on Thursday.
 
Katanga : des déplacés venus de Kasomeno vivent dans des conditions difficiles à Lubumbashi | 19 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
IDPs from Kasomeno fleeing violence between the Mai-Mai and the FARDC are living in difficult conditions in Lubumbashi, including being asked for rent by land owners.
 
Katanga : des déplacés venus de Kasomeno vivent dans des conditions difficiles à Lubumbashi | 19 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
IDPs from Kasomeno fleeing violence between the Mai-Mai and the FARDC are living in difficult conditions in Lubumbashi, including being asked for rent by land owners. The IDPs report that unlike the Mai-Mai, the FARDC has been engaged in looting from civilians.
 
IDPs in South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu: situation précaire de plus de 80 ménages déplacés à Uvira  | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Fighting between the Raïa Mutomboki and Burundian rebels of the National Liberation Front (FNL) allied to Rwanda Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) as caused 80 households from the Nakisherwe Bushute locality and the highlands of Uvira to flee, taking refuge for three days in Uvira-center. The IDPs are reportedly living in very difficult conditions.
 
Regional Humanitarian Bulletins
 
Bulletin d'information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu - N° 05/13, 13 février 2013 | 13 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
Bulletin humanitaire provincial - Province du Sud-Kivu, 2012 en revue | 13 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province de l’Equateur N° 04/13, 13 février 2013 | 13 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
Bulletin d'information humanitaire - Province du Katanga - 13 février 2013 | 13 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
 
National Humanitarian Bulletins
 
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Note d’information à la presse, 13 février 2012 | 13 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
USAID/DCHA DRC Complex Emergency Fact Sheet #1 - FY 2013 | 13 February 2013 | US AID | reliefweb

 

CAR

National humanitarian reports
 
Central African Republic: Situation Report No. 6 (as of 18 February 2013)  | 18 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
République Centrafricaine : Rapport de situation N°6 (au 18 février 2013) | 18 February 2013 | OCHA | reliefweb
 

 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

Rwanda 

Norwegian genocide conviction
 
Un rwandais condamné à 21 ans de prison en Norvège | 14 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Norway jails Rwandan for 21 years over role in 1994 genocide | 14 February 2013 | The Guardian
A Norwegian court has convicted a Rwandan man living in Norway for participating in the 1994 genocide in his home country and sentenced him to 21 years in prison. Oslo district court found Sadi Bugingo, 47, guilty of complicity in the premeditated killings of at least 2,000 people belonging mainly to the Tutsi ethnic group. It singled out three prolonged attacks in his home town of Kibungo, eastern Rwanda, during April 1994.
 
 


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

Resource curse
 
Avoiding the Curse of the Oil-Rich Nations  | 13 February 2013 | Opinionator | New York Times
Article discussing the resource curse and outlining how Alaska might be an example of best practice in avoiding it and maximising the benefits to be derived from oil exploration beyond the duration of exploitation, including through derivatives.
 
East African Petroleum Conference and Exhibition
 
Uganda Oil - Region Has Lessons to Learn | 18 February 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
Article outlining events at the the East African Petroleum Conference and Exhibition in Arusha, Tanzania and commenting that the usual value based splits could be observed amongst, environmentalist, political and corporate delegates and that there was a notable absence of civilian input on expectations regarding expectations of petroleum development. 


DRC 

Diamonds
 
Delrand Updates DRC Diamond Exploration Activity  | 14 February 2013 | Canadian Mining Journal
Delrand Resources Limited has provided an update on its diamond exploration activities in the DRC.
 
Timber
 
RDC: un groupe d’ONG dénonce l’exploitation illicite des bois | 17 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A group of NGOs working in the timber sector in the DRC has expressed concern that 251 of the 750 logs illegally cut and seized by the prosecutor of Bandundu, had already found their way to the port of Kinkole, in Kinshasa. These organizations (including the World Wide Fund for Nature, the Observatory for the Fight against Corruption in Central Africa and civil society environment) oppose the misuse of these woods.
 
Resource governance
 
Washington est prêt à soutenir la RDC pour le retour de la paix dans l’Est, selon Matata Ponyo  | 14 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Congo and IMF to Discuss Disputed Mine Deal, Premier Says | 14 February 2013 | Bloomberg
Prime Minister, Matata Ponyo, has stated that the DRC has levelled the divergence of views between it and the IMF over the management of the mining sector, with experts on both sides committed to building on the issue of mining contracts to ensure transparency. The IMF had suspended its loan of over two hundred and forty million dollars to the DRC in December 2012 following criticism of the DRC for not having published the terms of asset sales by state-owned copper miner Gecamines to a company associated with Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler.
 
Senior aide undercuts minister | 19 February 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The secretary-general of the DRC’s hydrocarbons ministry seems intent on bringing down his boss, including by having him sign agreements banned by the president. Full article requires subscription.

 

Uganda

Oil
 
Nation Earns U.S.$2 Million From Oil in North | 15 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Uganda has reportedly earned $2m in bonus from the recent oil discoveries in block-I in Northern Uganda. The oil was discovered by TOTAL, a French oil firm licenced to operate in the exploration area.
 
Uganda Oil - Region Has Lessons to Learn | 18 February 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
Article outlining events at the East African Petroleum Conference and Exhibition and the current backdrop to oil development in Uganda, highlighting that official secrecy on deals remains the biggest hazard to Uganda's fledgling oil sector.
 
Oil - Success Dependent On Politics  | 19 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Analysis piece stating that despite Uganda's technocrats being one of its strengths in avoiding the resource curse, their role is expected to be overshadowed by political powers, especially with the enactment of the Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill 2012, now awaiting presidential assent. The new law vests a lot of executive powers in the hands of the minister which will politicize decisions. The article discusses the recent Chatham House report by Ben Shepherd on lessons to be learned by Uganda and highlights that at present there is a risk of patronage politics and that transparency is essential to avoiding the curse.
 
Oil Money Could Hurt Economy - Bank Chief | 19 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Central Bank Deputy Governor Dr Louise KaseKende has said that Uganda should spend its anticipated oil revenue on projects that can spur the economy and create employment for its young and fast growing population if it is to avoid the pitfalls of other countries where oil revenues have ended up funding "white elephants".

 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Cobalt
 
World’s Top Cobalt Producer Powering Up? | 20 February 2013 | Investing News
Katanga mining has reported that it achieved a record tonnage from its operations in the DRC, with Katanga’s KTO underground mine putting out 1.84 million metric tons (MT) of ore in 2012 — up 14 percent from 2011. However, Katanga’s net attributable income for 2012 came in at $44.1 million, a 66-percent decline from the $130.8 million the company earned in 2011.
 
Gecamines and artisanal miners
 
Katanga: affrontements entre creuseurs et policiers sur un site de la Gecamines à Kambove | 20 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Clashes have taken place between thousands of artisanal miners and the Congolese police on Wednesday (20 February) in Kambove, following attempts to expel the miners from the site. Police fired into the air to disperse the miners, who responded by throwing stones, leading to the escalation of the situation. Angry miners burned and looted property, five people were injured, three died and ten people were arrested at the Gecamines property.

 

Uganda

Investment
 
Kampala to Host Energy Summit | 18 February 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
The American Chamber of Commerce in Uganda in partnership with the Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) will on Thursday (February 21) host a one day summit on Investment in the Energy and Infrastructure Sector in Kampala. The summit will address four key strategic issues in ensuring that Uganda embarks on the next 50 years of economic growth: the power sector, the infrastructure sector, the new and renewable energy sector and the oil and gas sector, with the hope of attracting American investors.
 
Mbabazi still backing ENI | 19 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Ugandan prime minister Amama Mbabazi is continuing to discreetly support the Italian multi national oil and gas company ENI’s efforts to pick up acreage in Uganda.
 
Oil exploration progress
 
Total Hits Two Dry Wells in Nebbi | 13 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Total E&P Uganda, the French oil company handling the exploration and production of oil in Block 1 in the Albertine region has hit two dry wells in their first attempt to discover commercially-viable hydrocarbons in Nebbi district.
 
Oil absent at Tullow Oil's Uganda exploration well | 21 February 2013 | Share Cast
Oil producer Tullow Uganda has said that no hydrocarbons were found at a well seeking to test the limits of the EA-1A Block, stating that further evaluation was being carried out on the Lyec- discovery and that partners were re-evaluating the remaining exploration potential of the area in light of recent well results. Exploration drilling had continued in the Total-operated EA-1A block to the north of Lake Albert, with the Ondyek-1 exploration well, located 16km northwest of the Nigiri-1 oil discovery.
 
 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 
Mining ethics
 
The Missing Ethics of Mining  | 14 February 2013 | Ethics and International Affairs
Article discussing the increasing number of social conflicts involved in the mining sector from the author’s experience of working in this sector and highlighting the frequent neglect of mining in formulating ethical practice codes in the environment, development and business sector. The author notes the prevailing phenomenon of an uncontrollable increase in artisanal miners in lockstep with the steep rise in the price of gold after September 11, 2001; and increasingly tense—and frequently violent— land-use conflicts between local artisanal miners and foreign industrial mining companies.
 
CSR
 
Apple Makes New Pledges on Conflict Minerals, Should Begin Clean Congo Sourcing Program | 15 February 2013 | Enough Project
Article reporting on Appel’s progress in tackling the conflict minerals issue. The article notes that apple has joined the Public Private Alliance on Responsible Minerals Trade, issued even clearer guidance to suppliers regarding supply chain expectations and placed a firm count on the number of smelters in its supply chain but has yet to begin a Congo sourcing programme to purchase clean minerals.


DRC

Dodd–Frank Section 1502
 
Unintended consequences of the conflict minerals rule? | 14 February 2013 | Lexology
DRC experts have filed an amicus brief in support of a petition for review of the SEC’s conflict minerals rule, although they have made it clear that their support for the petition arises not out of sympathy with the petitioners’ commercial interests but because of the negative impact of the Rule on the Congolese people. The experts argue that the SEC failed to consider whether the Rule would actually weaken armed groups in the DRC. They argue that the SEC compounded that error by choosing to draft the Rule and provide guidance that expands the scope of the Rule and increases the cost of compliance resulting in a de facto embargo on minerals sourced from the DRC. The experts conclude that the Rule is having an unintended negative impact on the legitimate mining industry in the DRC and surrounding countries– harming the very people that the Rule was intended to help. This article discusses that amicus in further detail.
 
EU's soft power in Congo toothless on 'conflict minerals' | 15 February 2013 | Euractive.com
The EU has been called toothless in respect of its ability to stem the flow of conflict resources through the scrutiny of companies sourcing minerals from the DRC, undermining its considerable development and security expenditure in the region. It is now being called upon by NGOs such as Global Witness to adopt due diligence laws, including the requirement of adherence to the OECD’s voluntary due diligence initiative on responsible supply chains.
 
OECD Guidelines on conflict minerals – impact in the DRC
 
Corporates aren't the only solution to conflict gold | 18 February 2013 | The Guardian
Article addressing the impact of the OECD due diligence guidelines on the ground in the DRC and stating that lack of alternative opportunities for local people (other than artisanal mining, smuggling or criminal activity) means that the guidelines may push increasing numbers of people who can no longer engage in artisanal mining into smuggling, ultimately heightening insecurity and violence in the region. It states that the guideliens fail to engage small scale miners and miss the root of the problem.

 

Uganda

Corruption
 
Mbabazi Supporter Bags Sh13 Billion in Oil Case | 19 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The Ugandan government has been ordered to pay sh12.9bn in legal costs to a lawyer who successfully placed an injunction on Parliament blocking it from forcing Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi and other Ministers to step down for investigations into oil bribery allegations. The lawyer contended that Parliament had denied the Ministers a fair hearing before passing a resolution to try and force them to step aside, which was unconstitutional.
 
Corruption - Museveni Backs Bill to Grab Assets  | 19 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
President Museveni has backed a draft bill to empower government to confiscate property owned by convicted public officials, automatically interdict civil servants implicated in corruption and immediately sack political officials implicated in corruption. Two meetings have been held to fine-tune the bill.
 
Oil legislation
 
Oil - Success Dependent On Politics  | 19 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Analysis piece stating that despite Uganda's technocrats being one of its strengths in avoiding the resource curse, their role is expected to be overshadowed by political powers, especially with the enactment of the Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill 2012, now awaiting presidential assent. The new law vests a lot of executive powers in the hands of the minister which will politicize decisions. The article discusses the recent Chatham House report by Ben Shepherd on lessons to be learned by Uganda and highlights that at present there is a risk of patronage politics and that transparency is essential to avoiding the curse.

 

Rwanda

 Land rights
 
Lawmakers Debate Land Rights for Foreigners | 13 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Members of the standing committee on agriculture, land and environment, have discussed a section of the land-use bill, which will allow foreigners to own land on a contractual basis. Foreigners will own land under a emphyteutic lease, entitling them  to land for a renewable period of 49 years. Freehold titles are reserved for Rwandan citizens and therefor can only be obtained by foreign entities where at least 51% of its stake in Rwandan owned.

 
 

Other



Ugandan Space Programme
 
Uganda to Launch Its First Space Observer  | 13 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Uganda Ready to Get Its Space Program Off the Ground | 15 February 2013 | Voice of America
According to Capt. Chris Nsamba, the chief executive officer and founder of the African Space Research Program (ASRP), Uganda will soon launch the first space observer called Cadimella. The space probe has self-defence, anti-time missile features, which protect it from being hit by missiles destined to destroy it in case it passes in the space of another country. The probe is also  fitted with cameras with a wide angle fish-eye lens to be used in taking pictures of Uganda from space and other features on the planet. The intention is to dispatch a mouse with the probe as an initial test to determine Uganda's ability to send a human into space.

Rwandan politics
 
Rwanda's Debate On Change and Continuity Is Crucial | 18 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Opinion piece from the New Times stating that in the run up to the 2017 elections constitutional debate on change and continuity is required hinting that it may be necessary to consider extending the maximum number of terms in office for a ruling government without being swayed by outside observers.

 
 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
 
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