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IPIS’ Latest Publications
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
Central African Republic
Refugee and IDP Reports
Justice and Tribunals
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
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IPIS Recent publications


Last Wednesday saw the adoption of an evaluation report on the 23 March 2009 agreement between Kinshasa and the then CNDP, by Congolese and M23 delegates in Kampala. The profound differences between the two delegations has led commentators to suggest that the talks are likely to end in failure, and civil society representatives have demanded that Kinshasa now disengage from the negotiations. Indeed, as the strengthening of M23 positions around Goma ratchets fears of a renewed seizure of the city, the SADC states are reported to have drafted a deployment plan for an intervention force in the east, with hopes that a framework for peace might be signed by eleven states by the end of the month.
On the ground, North Kivu has seen the formulation of an agreement between five rebel groups to end inter-militia fighting in Masisi and restore authority in the region. Meanwhile, in Ketrie intra-militia violence has taken place following the splintering of the Nytura group controlling the town. Ango territory in Province Orientale continues to be terrorised by groups of the Lord’s Resistance Army and in South Kivu police have reportedly arrested Gustave Bagayamukwe Tadji, head of the Union of Revolutionary Forces of Congo. In Katanga concerns have been expressed by MONUSCO,and local leaders, about the high rates of insecurity and humanitarian need in the north with the Mai-Mai Bakata Katanga reportedly responsible for a large number of civilian killings in the last three weeks.
In Rwanda the government appears to be readying its mining sector to become a major player in the country’s economy, expediting its mineral legislation, commencing the development of a computerised cadastre system and preparing for the establishment of an east African commodities exchange in Kigali. The country continues to react to the ICTR’s recent acquittal of two former ministers of government previously convicted for genocide. MONUSCO has confirmed that site visits show there to be no Rwandan military presence on the borders of the DRC, as claimed by civil society groups last week.


IPIS’ Latest Publications

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Final Report on one-year pilot implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | January 2013 | IPIS
This report is the final in a cycle of three reports on the pilot implementation by upstream companies of the "Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas". The goal of the report is to provide an overall assessment of the progress and impact of the one-year pilot implementation phase of the OECD Guidance and its Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten. The pilot implementation phase of the Guidance focused on Africa’s Great Lakes region and was carried out during the period August 2011 – October 2012. Drawing on lessons from the ground, this final report identifies key trends and common approaches to overcome challenges as well as tools used by companies to implement the OECD Guidance.

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region.

Kampala talks between the DRC and the M23
Kampala : le gouvernement et le M23 adoptent le rapport sur l’évaluation de l’accord du 23 mars | 7 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese government and the M23 have considered and adopted the report on the evaluation of the 23 March 2009 peace agreement between Kinshasa and the former CNDP. The final report finds that of 35 points 15 were fully implemented, 8 partially implemented and the remader left unactioned. Ugandan Minister of Defence and facilitator, Cripsus Kiyonga, has recommended the establishment of a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation of the accord.
The Kampala impasse | 9 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
Article stating that having now analysed compliance with the March 23 agreement, which has found a number of provisions unfulfilled or only partially implemented, the Congolese delegation has indicated that it is willing to reintegrate the M23 into the FARDC below the rank of Major with all individuals wanted under national or international arrest warrants to be arrested. The M23 have little interest in this and seek political demands including security and electoral reform. It is suggested that as a result of these profound differences it is unlikely that the talks will culminate in agreement, with Congolese delegates potentially waiting for the deployment of a neutral force to coerce the M23 into submission.
RDC : la société civile du Nord-Kivu exige la fin des pourparlers de Kampala | 12 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society groups have demanded that the Congolese government and the ICGLR put an end to talks in Kampala stating that the purpose of this dialogue (assessment of the March 2009 peace accord) has been met in light of the final report on that matter, and that the government should refrain from ay act of power sharing or reintegration of M23 elements into the police or army.
Intervention force in eastern DRC
RDC: Hervé Ladsous espère la signature d’un accord de paix dans les prochains jours | 7 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
UN Deputy Secretary General in charge of Peacekeeping, Hervé Ladsous, has expressed hope that the framework agreement on peace in eastern DRC will be signed over the next few weeks. The agreement is expected to clarify the obligations of the DRC to reform the security sector and the military, and reassert the authority of the state in the eastern provinces . Initially negotiated by eight countries - the DRC, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Uganda, Congo - Brazzaville, South Africa and Tanzania - the framework agreement will now be signed  by eleven countries with the addition of Central African Republic, Zambia and South Sudan.
RDC : rien ne bloque le déploiement de la brigade internationale d’intervention, selon Lambert Mende  | 9 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Spokesperson for the Congolese government, Lambert Mende, said on Friday that "nothing is blocking" the deployment of international intervention brigade, stating that a framework agreement will be signed between the countries concerned by the end of February.
Southern African peace force 'gets mandate to fight Congo rebels' | 9 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Reliefweb
RDC: la SADC décide d’envoyer ses troupes dans les Kivu | 9 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
SADC Awaiting UN Go-Ahead for Troop Deployment in Congo | 10 February 2013 | AIM | allAfrica
DA Welcomes SADC Troop Deployment to the DRC | 12 February 2013 | Democratic Alliance | allAfrica
SADC Executive Secretary, Tomas Salomao, has said that a deployment plan has been drawn up for a SADC intervention force in the DRC, and the member states are making troops available. SADC is now reportedly waiting for a UN mandate though some sensitive questions under discussions such as the security of the soldiers stationed in eastern DRC, remain.
Deux délégations de la SADC à Goma pour évaluer la mise en place de la Force internationale neutre | 11 February 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
Hopes have been expressed on the progress of the deployment of an intervention force following the arrival of two SADC delegations in Goma this week to assess the security and humanitarian situation of the city. The first delegation consisted of civilian and police delegates, followed later by a military delegation.
'Drone' - a Dirty Word in UN Lexicon  | 11 February 2013 | Radio Netherlands Worldwide | allAfrica
Article discussing the use of reconnaissance drones in eastern DRC and claiming that some UN diplomats fear that UN drones may eventually be armed, if and when the conflict in DRC takes a turn for the worse.
UN Group of Experts on the DRC
Appoint Neutral Experts On the DRC Panel  | 12 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
How Credible Are the New UN Group of Experts? | 10 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The Government of Rwanda has questioned the impartiality of two members of the newly instituted UN Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, citing their long-standing hostility towards Kigali.
Rwandan involvement in eastern DRC
RDC: les troupes rwandaises ne se sont pas déployées à la frontière, selon la Monusco | 7 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A MONUSCO spokesperson has said that Rwandan troops have not been deployed to the border with the DRC contrary to civil society claims earlier in the week. His remarks follow a visit to the localities where Rwandan troops were alleged to have been present, confirming only the presence of the M23.
Kagame Speaks Out On Third Term, Drones, Crisises | 7 February 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
In his first press briefing of 2012 Kagame has addressed Congolese attitudes towards Rwandans and stated that whilst Rwanda would like more information about what it is that the proposed UN drones would do on their borders, they are not in a position to prevent their deployment.
US position on the DRC
US bounty could forment M23 splits | 9 February 2013 | Congo Siasa
Stearns suggests that the US government’s recent issuance of a bounty for Bosco Ntaganda could potentially deepen splits within the rebellion. The US recently issued a $5 million reward for Ntaganda, FDLR commander Sylvestre Mudacumura, and the three top LRA commanders.
Finding a Lasting Solution to Instability in The Democratic Republic of the Congo  | 11 February 2013 | US Department of State (full speech)
'Don't Write Off the Congo' (DRC), Says Chief U.S. Africa Policymaker  | 11 February 2013 | allAfrica
RDC: les Etats-Unis soutiennent l’intégration d’une brigade régionale au sein de la Monusco | 13 February 2013 |Radio Okapi
US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Johnnie Carson, has made a speech at the Brookings Institute appealing to states to redouble their efforts to end instability in the DRC and laying out possible proposals on how to do so. He highlights the national and financial interests involved in ending the crisis and outlines the four basic components of a holistic approach to ending the crisis: agreement and implementation of a UN framework agreement by the Great Lakes states; the establishment of a comprehensive peace process; a re-evaluation of MONUSCO’s role, strength, mission and structure; and Congolese democratic reform. Carson affirmed the US’s support of the integration of a regional brigade into MONUSCO.
Lord’s Resistance Army
2012 Crisis Tracker Security Brief Highlights Trends in LRA Violence | 8 February 2013 | Enough Project
LRA Crisis Tracker: 2012 Annual Security Brief  | 7 February 2013 | Human Security Report Project
Killings by the Lord’s Resistance Army in 2012 fell to a new low since 2007. Abduction remains a calling card of the LRA, with 512 cases of kidnapping over the past year. Fresh statistics and valuable analysis about the dynamics of one of Africa’s longest running insurgencies are captured in the LRA Crisis Tracker Annual Security Brief, produced by Resolve and Invisible Children and released this week.
Army Recovers Elephant Tusks Hidden By Lord's Resistance Rebels | 9 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The Ugandan army has reported recovering a cache of elephant tusks that it says was hidden by the Lord's Resistance Army in the jungle in the Central African Republic.
Regional strategy to fight against the LRA | 11 February 2013 | UN Regional Office for Central Africa| Reliefweb
ONU : une réunion à Entebbe pour définir des priorités dans la stratégie de lutte contre la LRA | 11 February 2013 | UN Regional Office for Central Africa| Reliefweb
Between 11 to 12 February, the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA) held a meeting in Entebbe to evaluate and discuss priorities in the implementation of the regional strategy to fight the LRA, adopted in June 2012 by the UN Security Council. A road map taking into account a clear division of labour between all parts of the international system as well as UN organizations was to be the subject of discussions.
DRC/Angola relations
DRC Thanks Angola for Support for Stability | 7 February 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
The DRC's envoy to Angola has expressed the DRC's gratitude to Angola and José Eduardo dos Santos, for their effort towards peace in its northern region.


RDC : des professeurs d’universités publient un ouvrage sur « le complot de balkanisation du pays » | 12 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A book arguing that there is a conspiracy to balkanise the DRC dating back since colonial times has been published by 12 co-authors, many university professors. The book questions the “real” mandate of MONUSCO, amongst other things.
North Kivu
La guerre menace à nouveau Goma | 6 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
The M23 have advanced their position towards the centre of Goma and are now reported to be occupying the buffer zone around the airport and some of the neighbourhoods. MONUSCO has convened several meetings to deter the M23 from resiezing the city. Braeckman surmises that the Kampala talks are likely to end in failure and that this will lead not only to a probable resumption of conflict in Goma but possibly beyond, given the proliferation of other armed groups in the region.
RDC : accord entre des chefs de bandes armées du Masisi | 7 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Reliefweb
Masisi : 5 milices signent un pacte pour mettre fin aux conflits ethniques | 8 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A historic meeting has taken place between the leaders of various armed groups in Masisi culminating in an agreement to end the deadly clashes between these groups, particularly between Hutu and Hunde militias.  Colonel Janvier Buingo Karairi, leader of the Alliance of Patriots for a Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS representing the Hunde ethnic group), Colonel Bwira (Defence Forces of Congo Chief), and from the Hutu side Nyunga Munyamariba and Colonel Kapopi, leader of the Nyatura Mai Mai, have reportedly engaged with the deal. Groups involved include the Forces for the Defense of Human Rights, Movement Action for Change, APCLS, the Raia Mutomboki and a branch of deserters from FARDC. The decision is reportedly expected to restore the authority of the state in the area.
North Kivu Region of Masisi Faces Growing Insecurity and Threat of Cholera | 8 February 2013 | Oxfam | allAfrica
Oxfam states that the insecurity in North Kivu is causing a humanitarian crisis in the region, especially in Masisi. It states that lack of protection by the national army and MONUSCO means communities have started to take justice into their own hands, forming patrols which are becoming small militias and risk further exacerbating violence.
Nord-Kivu : les ADF/Nalu enlèvent 8 personnes à Beni | 11 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Eight people, including six men and two women were kidnapped whilst extracting palm oil in Beni Bakila-Tenambo on Saturday by militiamen from the ADF-Nalu. These kidnappings bring the total of persons taken from the area to over 90 in the past year. None have been returned.
Nord-Kivu: le calme revient à Ketire après des affrontements entre miliciens Nyatura | 12 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Calm has returned to Ketrie following clashes between two factions of Mai-Mai Nyatura after attempts by one faction to plunder food from locals. The management of tax collections has led a faction of Nyatura commanded by “colonel” Noeri to split from the Nyatura controlling Ketrie (commanded by “colonel” Kasongo), leaving the area but later returning to take food, only to be repelled.
Province Orientale
RDC : SOS de l’Evêque de Bondo face à la situation sécuritaire et humanitaire dans le Territoire d’Ango  | 8 February 2013 | Caritas | Reliefweb
The Bishop of the Bondo diocese has issued a call for assistance to a number of agencies regarding the security and humanitarian situation prevailing in Ango territory in the Bas-Uele district of the province. He highlights that, inter alia, small bands of LRA have been terrorising the local population by committing atrocities in various localities including killings and looting. He also notes that whilst FARDC’s return to the area is welcomed in terms of improving stability in the area, there was nevertheless a notable the decline in security incidents after FARDC’s departure for training.
Ituri : les communautés Alur et Lendu s’engagent à résoudre le conflit foncier qui les oppose | 8 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The communities of Alur of Mahagi and Lendu of Djugu, have pledged to end the land dispute that has persisted between them for several months degenerating into clashes in Djugu on 13 January, killing seven people.
Isangi: violents affrontements autour du droit de pêche entre deux villages, 10 blessés | 13 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ten people were injured and five houses ransacked on Tuesday after a confrontation between the Yatamba and Yaongowa communities in the Isangi territory over fishing rights. Armed with machetes, sticks and stones, young people demonstrated in front of the police office before traveling to Yaongowa chanting war songs.  A violent fight with machetes, spears, javelins and other stone throwing ensued, with police eventually intervening. The incident is the second in three days.
Isangi: la société civile dénonce les tracasseries militaires le long du fleuve Congo | 13 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in Isangi territory has accused FARDC of erecting over fifteen barriers to extort money from traders on the Basoko-Kisangani road along the Congo River. The complaint was made in a report to the Office of Civil Affairs of MONUSCO, stating that each boat is obligated to pay between 2,000 Congolese francs ($ 2.2) and 3,000 Congolese francs ($ 3.3) or other goods in kind at every barrier.
South Kivu
RDC : rien ne bloque le déploiement de la brigade internationale d’intervention, selon Lambert Mende  | 9 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Congolese government spokesperson, Lambert Menda, has denied the establishment of a new armed group in South Kivu.
DR Congo police arrest rebel leader | 11 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Reliefweb
RDC: le leader d’une nouvelle coalition rebelle arrêté à Uvira | 11 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese police are reported to have arrested rebel leader Gustave Bagayamukwe Tadji, head of the Union of Revolutionary Forces of Congo (UFRC), on Sunday. His armed movement is reported to be a coalition of 12 armed groups seeking to topple Kabila. Tadji is now reported to be being transferred to Kinshasa.
RDC : appel aux groupes armés au Sud-Kivu d'intégrer l'armée régulière | 11 February 2013 | UN Radio | Reliefweb
Uvira: le général Pacifique Masunzu appelle les groupes armés à intégrer les FARDC | 11 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
South Kivu commander, General Pacific Masunzu, has appealed to armed groups in the region to integrate into the regular army. Military sources say that 400 militiamen, of whom 253 are from the Mayelegroup, 98 from the Kashoroko group, 23 are from the Bwasakala group and 31 from the Muhasha milita, have already gathered in a number of locations to integrate into the regular army. The FPLC in Fizi is also reported to have expressed a willingness to integrate.
Sud-Kivu : des groupes armés continuent d’enrôler des enfants, selon une ONG | 12 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The NGO BVS has stated that child recruitment into armed groups continues, with UNICEF protection officers confirming that the security situation has not allowed for the proper operation of social reintegration processes for child soldiers in certain areas, with some children returning to militias after receiving reintegration support.
Katanga: 758 cas de violences sexuelles enregistrés dans le Tanganyika en 2012 | 8 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Seven hundred and fifty-eight cases of sexual violence were registered in the district of Tanganyika in 2012. This figure, released by the Ministry for Gender, Family and Children is down compared to the last three years, when the number of cases sometimes exceeded one thousand.
Katanga: les Mai-Mai tuent plus de 65 personnes en l’espace de trois semaines à Mwemena  | 9 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Mayi-Mayi Bakata Katanga, led by Tanda Imena, has killed more than sixty-five people between 22 January to 8 February, in the Mwemena groupment in Kasenga territory, 250km from Lubumbashi. The militiamen have reportedly killed a daily average of four to six people per village. Among the victims is a customary court judge from the Mwemena locality. The killings have provoked fear in the people of Mwemena who have begun to leave their homes and seek refuge in neighbouring communities.
Katanga: Roger Meece said he was "concerned about the security and humanitarian situation" in Pweto | 12 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Roger Meece has expressed concern about the prevailing security and humanitarian situation in Pweto territory, which has been subjected to disorder caused by Mai-Mai activities for several weeks. OCHA reports that militia attacks against villages in this area have resulted in the displacement of nearly 300,000 people who live in difficult conditions. Meece is reportedly discussing with local authorities the possibility of deploying MONUSCO troops to the region to regain stability.
Katanga: le commandant des FARDC accuse les hommes politiques d’entretenir l’insécurité au Nord | 12 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Following his meeting with Roger Meece, FARDC’s General Michel Ekutchu, has accused politicians of maintaining insecurity in the north of the province as Mai-Mai militia relay their speeches calling for the secession of Katanga province.


Central African Republic

A shaky accord | 9 February 213| The Economist
Article speculating that the peace accord in the CAR may not last long and stating that President Bozizé has put loyalists in key posts, including foreign affairs, justice and the economy, and has already been accused of trying to undermine members of the opposition in the new Unity government.
UN assessment mission finds widespread looting in Central African Republic  | 12 February 213| UN News Centre
A UNHCR assessment mission to Bambari last week has fond widespread looting with many villages completely deserted, as residents hide in the bush from armed groups and looters. The assessment mission is the first since violence erupted in December and notes that Seleka held areas are seeing considerable looting with humanitarian facilities being a main target.


Girl Child Soldiers Face New Battles in Civilian Life 12 February 2013 | IRIN | allAfrica
Article highlighting recent illumination of the role of girl soldiers in conflicts such as the DRC and that demobilisation and reintegration programmes are often ill equipped to cater for their needs as ex-combatants.


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region


Humanitarian Reports
RDC : Préparation & Réponse aux Urgences, Rapport de situation - 07 février 2013 | 7 February 213| WHO | Reliefweb
Humanitarian report highlighting that the overall security in North Kivu is tense and unpredictable with MONUSCO reporting that the M23 is strengthening their postion around Goma; South Kivu continues to experience a generally volatile security situation  with the Raia Mutomboki Mai-Mai expanding their influence on several mining areas and the establishment of a new armed group in the region; instability in the north east of Katanga and a volatile security situation in southern Irumu in Province Orientale due to the presence of the FRPI.
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 07/13, 12 février 2013 | 12 February 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
OCHA Humanitarian Bulletin for South Kivu up to 12 February, highlighting clashes between FARDC and the Raia Mutomboki in Kalonge.


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region
South African DRC coup prosecutions
In South Africa, 19 Accused in Congo Plot | 6 February 2013 | The New York Times
Suspected Congolese Rebels Charged With Plotting Coup | 7 February 2013 | Voice of America
Nineteen people accused of being Congolese rebels, including one American citizen, had offered mining rights in Congo in exchange for weapons and training, their South African Prosecutor has said. The individuals are reported to be part of the rebel group Union of Nationalists for Renewal.


Ituri : le chef du parquet militaire d’Aru arrêté pour extorsion et association de malfaiteurs | 10 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Two FARDC officers are being prosecuted for conspiracy and extorting quantities of gold from four Ugandan traders in collusion with a Congolese criminal group.


France Denies Delaying Trial for Genocide Suspects | 7 February 2013 | The Independent | allAfrica
France has denied delaying to dispense justice to genocide fugitives on its soil, arguing that the halting of diplomatic relations between France and Rwanda from 2006-2009 played a role in French courts not speeding up the process of trying the suspects.
Rwanda Threatens to Expel ICTR Observers  | 7 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Kigali has accused the ICTR of having double standards, and has threatened to throw out Tribunal observers monitoring the trial in Rwanda of Jean Uwinkindi, stating that if the Tribunal does not appoint observers for the two cases transferred to France it will expel its observers.
Rwanda: ICTR Acquittals Shocking but Expected | 12 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Opinion piece highly critical of the operations of the ICTR since its inception.
Rwandans Rally Against ICTR Acquittals | 12 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Manifestation pacifique à Kigali pour dénoncer l’acquittement par le TPIR de deux ex-ministres | 11 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency
Hundreds of Rwandans have taken to the street to express their anger against recent decisions by the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to overturn the guilty convictions of two former cabinet ministers.


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

East African Commodities Exchange

Kigali, future minerals trading platform | 12 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
A commodities exchange in East Africa that will deal initially with farm goods and minerals covering the entire Great Lakes region, will be set up in Kigali, capital of Rwanda, in the third quarter of this year.


Conflict in DRC Congo threatens chimpanzee tourism programme | 8 February 2013 | The Guardian
Fighting between government troops and M23 rebels in eastern DRC has disrupted a promising plan for chimpanzee tourism in Virunga national park.
Les environnementalistes saluent la construction d’un institut de gaz et de pétrole à Muanda | 13 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The construction of an higher institute for research in oil and gas in Muanda in Bas Congo, was begun in 2010 and is now reported to be nearing completion. The institute is called upon to train senior executives specializing in oil. It is expected to work with Texan universities to organise several branches of study, including in exploration of oil and gas, drilling and production, refinery, oil management, marketing of oil and gas, the processing of finished products and by-products and the training of fire fighters.
Conflict Gold 101 | 8 February 2013 | Enough Project
The Raise Hope for Congo campaign has released a new campaign video, “Conflict Gold 101" outlining the details of the DRC's conflict gold trade and putting the spotlight on jewellery companies who can play a role in reforming this deadly trade. Gold has emerged as the most lucrative conflict mineral because it is easy to smuggle small quantities for large profits. More than $600 million in gold is estimated to leave Congo annually, and fighting in and around gold mines continues.


Nation to Contribute 20 Percent to Refinery | 11 February 2013 | East Africa Business Week | allAfrica
The government of Uganda is looking for investors with whom they will partner to raise funds to construct an oil refinery. Uganda's minister of State for Mineral Development has said that the government will not foot the entire bill of building the refinery though can currently incur about 20% of the total cost of the refinery.
Oil Debate Must Move Beyond Politics - Report | 12 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
A new report by the Royal Institute for International Affairs has noted the considerable technical knowledge developed by Uganda on the preliminary phases of oil development. This report warns that while the checks and balances built into the proposed system for oil management (based on the Norwegian model) under Uganda's oil bills are positive, the complexity of setting up such an institutionally heavy system risks confusion over roles and expense. It expresses concern that the voice of experts might be drowned out in favour of political actors.
All eyes turn to new gold prospects | 12 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
A conflict zone until quite recently, north east Uganda is now a new frontier for hardy miners. Article discusses the prospects of gold mining in the area, referring to Jan Mangal Exploration Company Ltd, who have held an exploration license since last year in Moroto district in the Karamoja region. Subscription required.



Cadastre system
Rwanda installing computerised mining cadastre system | 8 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
An 18 month project has begun to implement a computerised mining cadastre system, FlexiCadastre, for the Rwandan Geology and Mines Department. The system is expected to attract investment into the sector and enable the government to monitor compliance beyond licence fees, to include work commitments, social and labour plans, environmental permitting, royalty and tax payments and extractive industry transparency-initiative reporting. It is also expected to provide security of tenure for artisanal miners, allowing them to seek capital funding to further their projects.


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region


Forrest demolition compensation campaign
Démolition des maisons à Kawama: EGMF refuse d’indemniser les victimes, selon une ONG | 8 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
NGO, Action Against Impunity for Human Rights, has accused Malta Forrest of refusing to indemnify the owners of 500 houses in Kawma village, whose homes were demolished in 2009, by Luswishi Mining Company of South Katanga (of which Forrest in the major shareholder). The demolitions were reportedly carried out in a bid to prevent illegal mining at a nearby mine. The company has offered to take some social measures such as building a well and a health centre for the community, stating that the police were responsible for the destruction not the company. These overtures have been rejected by the communities affected with victims stating that Malta Forrest should have applied the Mining Code and international treaties relating thereto and must compensate the local population.
Gold mining
Kibali gold project providing DRA with opportunity to showcase its competence  | 8 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
Article outlining the background and operations undertaken at the Kibali Gold Project.
Diamond mining
La Miba demande à la police de mieux sécuriser ses mines à Mbuji-Mayi | 11 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
In a letter to the governor of Kasai-Oriental, Mining Bakwanga has accused police of complacency in guarding against illegal mining at exposed mining sites. The police have stated that they have insufficient resources to police the 35km square diamond mining area, though last week the provincial minister pledged two new vehicles and a committal of further personnel.
GCM’s financial needs for this year | 12 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Article stating that Gecamines has two financial mountains to climb this year, namely continuing to wrestling down its debt and finding fresh money to underpin its resurrection as a going concern. Subscription required.
Cobalt production
Katanga Mining announces 2012 year end operational highlights, outlook and date for release of 2012 year end financial results | 11 February 2013 | Cobalt Investing News
Katanga Mining’s DRC Production Drops Due to Power Outages  | 12 February 2013 | Cobalt Investing News
Katanga Mining Limited has announced its 2012 year end production results and date for release of 2012 year end results. Its DRC production has been seriously hampered by a series of power outages.
Copper production
Glencore full-year coal, copper output up | 12 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
Glencore has reported on its copper and cobalt output for Katanga, stating that its total copper output increased by 4% to 376 700 t for the year, compared with 362 600 t in 2011. Glencore’s 75.2%-owned copper/cobalt mining company Katanga Mining produced 93 000 t of copper from own sources from its copper/cobalt mining complex, a 2% increase on that of 2011.
Government ban lifted
Chinese trading agencies back in business | 12 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
The government is to lift a suspension on the operations of two Chinese trading agencies dealing in cassiterite, coltan and tungsten, namely Congo Minerals and Metals (CMM) and Huaying Sprl, later this month. Requires subscription.


Tullow CEO Says Focus on Exploration Over Developing Finds | 13 February 2013 | Bloomberg
Tullow Oil Plc, the worst-performing oil stock in the UK’s benchmark index, has stated that it will maintain its focus on exploration rather than developing existing discoveries, stating that it will farm down developments as appropriate.


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

ACA supports NAM lawsuit against conflict minerals ruling | 6 February 2013 |
The American Coatings Association has drafted an amicus brief supporting a lawsuit filed by the National Association of Manufacturers, the US Chamber of Commerce, and the Business Roundtable against the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requesting the SEC’s Conflict Minerals Rule to be set aside on the basis that the SEC failed to meet its statutory obligation to consider the effects of the rule by failing to determine if the rule would benefit the DRC, and by underestimating the rule’s costs. The SEC is expected to respond by 1 March 2013.
IPC’s Conflict Minerals Due Diligence Guide Now Available   | 10 February 2013 | IPC
Global electronics trade association, the IPC, has published its own Conflict Minerals Due Diligence Guide to help companies establish and execute an effective conflict minerals program.


Emery Mukendi Wafwana  | 12 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Profile of the best known mining lawyer in the DRC, Emery Mukendi Wafwana of Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associates.
EITI: KPMG’s intriguing report | 12 February 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
In principle, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) ought to announce its decision on March 1 that Democratic Republic of Congo fulfils criteria for membership. Article discusses KPMG report on this issue. Requires subscription.



Rwanda to expedite enactment of new minerals law | 8 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
Rwanda has announced it will expedite the enactment of a new mining law to have it passed by June. The new law is aimed at strengthening the legal, regulatory and institutional environment for the sector to make it a major contributor to the economy by improving knowledge and skills, raising productivity and establishing new mines, and increasing value. However, some of the new proposals are raising concerns among mining companies, with investors calling for the amendment of a proposal that requires them to spend a stipulated minimum amount on exploration.

IPIS Recent Publications

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS
US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the linkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead.

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