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WEEKLY BRIEFING 31ST JANUARY - 6TH FEBRUARY 2013

Content

Editorial
 

IPIS’ Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

CAR
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

 
Justice and Tribunals
Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC

Rwanda

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL


Having addressed the DRC’s implementation of the March 2009 agreement, talks in Kampala appear to have entered a new phase with Congolese delegates calling for a reduction in the number of participants engaged. Meanwhile, as US sanctions come into force for leading members of the M23, Germany has reportedly lifted its aid suspension on Rwanda.
 
Instability continues to affect North Kivu with the M23 reportedly strengthening their positions around Goma and alleged attacks by the group on civilian cargoes in the surrounding area. Human Rights Watch released a report this week highlighting abuses, including rapes and killings, committed by both the M23 and the FARDC during the former’s occupation of Goma. Meanwhile, in Province Orientale Morgan deserters have engaged in clashes with the FARDC, whilst Cobra Matata and his men have had their prosecutions for rape, murder and insurrection suspended on the grounds that they are willing to reintegrate into the Congolese army. The discovery of numerous bodies in the Luvua River in Katanga has prompted a joint MONUSCO mission to discern stability in the region and comes amid concerns about an increase in armed groups in the north of the province.
 
In Uganda the previous weeks’ threats of a coup continue to elicit responses from senior officials, and there appears to be concern among national stakeholders about the extent to which Ugandan business will be enfranchised in servicing the oil sector.
 
In the Central African Republic the announcement of the composition of the new Unity government has received a mixed response.

 

IPIS’ Latest Publications


 

Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.


Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

Kampala Talks
 
Congo's M23 rebels say peace deal possible by end-February | 1 February 2013 | Reuters-Alert Net | Reliefweb
Congolese rebels said they expected to sign a peace deal with the government by the end of February that would end their ten-month revolt, but Kinshasa said "capricious" demands from the rebels could cause delays.
 
A Kampala, les pourparlers entre Kinshasa et le M23 piétinent, la facture s'alourdit | 5 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Pourparlers de Kampala : le gouvernement veut réduire le nombre des délégués | 6 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese delegation in Kampala has reportedly requested a reduction in the number of participants in Kampala talks due to the increasing expense incurred by the DRC in hosting both the M23 and its own delegates. Concerns are being aired about the length of time these negotiations are taking. The DRC has stated that the majority of work required at the Kampala talks has now been undertaken and requested a reduction in the number of delegates from 30 on each side to 12.
 
Kinshasa relies on mediation Ugandan synthesis negotiations with the M23 | 6 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
The DRC government has stated that it is not expecting to sign an agreement with the M23 and that it has heard the M23’s claims and responded. The M23 has responded that it does not feel it has been heard and is reported to have threatened a resumption of hostilities unless the legitimacy of their claims are recognised.
 
DR Congo, rebels complete review of 2009 peace deal | 6 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Global Post
Ugandan Defense Minister Crispus Kiyonga is reported to have said that both the Congolese government and the M23 have agreed that 20 of the March 2009 accord's 35 original provisions were either only partially implemented or not implemented, but that the pact remained "relevant". The two sides are now reported to be going on to discuss security issues in eastern Congo.
 
Sanctions on Rwanda
 
Germany Unblocks U.S.$26 Million Suspended Aid to Rwanda | 1 February 2013 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
Germany has reportedly removed US$26 million of sanctions upon Rwanda, originally imposed due to accusations surrounding its involvement in the crisis in eastern DRC, due to Rwanda’s engagement in trying to find a permanent solution to the crisis.
 
Sanctions on the M23
 
Financial Net Closes Around M23: U.S. Further Bans Business With Congo Rebels | 4 February 2013 | Enough Project
The recent addition of Eric Badege and Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero, a list of US government sanctioned persons, will cut them off from trading with any US persons or entities, potentially circumscribing their operations financed by the minerals trade. 
 
DRC Intervention Force
 
RDC : la force d’intervention rapide ne proviendra pas de la Monusco | 31 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
MONUSCO spokesman, Lt. Col. Felix Bass has confirmed that the rapid reaction intervention force will not be taken from MONUSCO troops but with be composed of stand by troops from SADC.
 
UN Expert Group on the DRC: Steve Hege Interview
 
Au nom des experts de l’ONU, Steve Hege se défend | 30 January 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Interview with Steve Hege as undertaken for Le Soir. Covers questions such as the qualifications of the UN expert group, the methodology used to investigate foreign involvement in the DRC conflict, his response to accusations that he is an FDLR sympathiser, how the M23 prepared for conflict and the involvement of Rwanda, the difference between the involvement of Rwanda and Uganda in the conflict in the DRC, the impact of the Group of Experts’ reports on the UN Sanctions Committee and the impact of Rwanda’s accession to the UN Security Council.
 
Peacekeeping in the DRC
 
Problematic Peacekeeping in the DRC - From Monuc to Monusco | 4 February 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress | allAfrica
Analysis piece assessing why large-scale international efforts to end the violence in the DRC have repeatedly failed. Among the author's conclusions are that misunderstanding the DRC as a stabilised post-conflict environment has led to equally mistaken conclusions regarding adequate strategies for intervention, and that MONUSCO is in dire need of a new operational framework for the intricate process of peacebuilding. The author also highlights that African Union, SADC and ECOWAS troops may no longer be the best suited to intervention in the DRC due to a prevailing distrust of African peacekeeping forces.
 
Conflict Trends (No. 10): Real-time Analysis of African Political Violence, January 2013 | 1 February 2013 | Human Security Report Project
This month's Conflict Trends Report providing an overview of developments in 2012 and recent trends in historical perspective, including continental trends and a focused review of conflict in the past year in the top ten most conflict-affected countries including the DRC.
 
Lord’s Resistance Army
 
Defections from LRA Gaining Momentum  | 31 January 2013 | Enough Project
Efforts to establish “safe reporting sites,” where rebels with the LRA can surrender peacefully, are starting to pay off with 5 individuals attending the first established site citing demobilisation fliers as a trigger for their defection. Safe reporting sites across areas affected by the LRA in the CAR and South Sudan have been established following lessons learned from MONUSCO efforts to develop such sites in the DRC. This article reports further on the utility of such initiatives.
 
Report: LRA Rebel Defections on the Rise  | 5 February 2013 | Voice of America
The LRA: Security and conflict trends in 2012   | 31 January 2013 2013 | Conciliation Resources | Reliefweb
Recorded LRA activity paints a picture of continued attacks and movements across affected areas. In the last year 202 people were attacked resulting in around 80 people killed. Most concerning is the resulting numbers of displaced communities and associated human flows into camps for internally displaced people, across borders or further into the bush. Over 5,700 people have been displaced in the last year and only 176 people returned.


DRC 

National Dialogue
 
RDC : les Forces acquises au changement veulent un dialogue national d’ici le 16 février | 31 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Calls are being made by the Congolese opposition, Forces Acquises au Changement (FAC), for a national dialogue on how to stop the war in the east of the country.
 
EU advisory and assistance mission to the DRC
 
Newsletter EUSEC RD Congo n°1 | 1 February 2013 | European Union | Reliefweb
EUSEC Newsletter from the DRC. EUSEC is the EU advisory and assistance mission for security reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo and extends its assistance to all military regions in the DRC to improve the uniformity of reforms.
 
Defence Budget
 
RDC: le président Kabila promulgue le budget 2013 | 5 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Joseph Kabila issued the budget for fiscal year 2013 on Monday. In December, Kabila had denied that the allocation to defense was insufficient, though after parliamentary revision this share increased by about 90 million U.S. dollars.  The defence sector will now ultimately benefit from 228 billion Congolese francs (about $ 247 million).
 
North Kivu
 
Nord-Kivu - Le M23 persiste dans ses exactions contre les civils | 31 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The M23 are reportedly continuing to commit abuses against civilians in areas under their control, according to MONUSCO. This article recounts parts of MONUSCO’s security briefing.
 
Nord-Kivu: les FDLR ont violé 28 femmes en un mois à Lubero, selon la société civile | 31 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in North Kivu has accused the FDLR of raping twenty-eight women during the month of January in several localities in Lubero. The FDLR are also accused of looting the crops, beating farm workers and imposing taxes, to the extent that the local population can no longer meet their basic needs.
 
Lubero: l’installation d’une milice près d’une école crée la panique | 1 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Local spokespeople from Lubero have stated that the Mai-Mai rebels have installed themselves close to a school in the village of Mapera Kinyondo and that over 400 school children fear attending the school. The presence of these militia has seen locals being subjected to forced labor to build the Mai-Mai's headquarters. It has been suggested that the group's incorporation into the FARDC could resolve these problems.
 
Nord-Kivu: les pêcheurs appellent les FARDC à déloger les Mai-Mai sur le lac Edouard | 1 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Committee of Vitshumbi fishermen, has asked the FARDC commander of the 8th military region to dislodge Patriotic Resistance Mai-Mai, who are disrupting the activities of its members on Lake Edward. The fishermen state that the Mai-Mai have taken positions in Kibahari, Birwa, Chondo Kabale and along the east coast of Lake Edward, where they impose taxes on fishermen, affecting around 400 of the Committee's affiliates.
 
Nord-Kivu: 3 morts et plusieurs blessés lors des attaques contre des véhicules à Rutshuru | 3 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three people were killed and four others wounded on Thursday during attacks against four vehicles moving from Goma to Kibirizi through Vitshumbi in Rutshuru territory. The attackers were reported to be the M23. Passengers were reportedly robbed of their money and goods and three persons kidnapped. FARDC appeared at the scene during one assault resulting in an exchange of gunfire wounding 6 militiamen. Sources indicate that an attack on another truck killed three passengers and injured four others. Civil society has called for government intervention to secure the area, which is still largely occupied by M23 rebels since their withdrawal from Goma.
 
Nord-Kivu: la société civile accuse le M23 de renforcer ses positions autour de Goma | 4 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A civil society spokesperson has said that the M23 has strengthened its positions around the town of Goma, in particular settling in Munigi, Kibati Kanyaruchinya and Buhimba. Some rebels associated with Rwandan soldiers are reported to have moved 1 km from the provincial capital - information confirmed by independent sources. Moreover, the presence of two Rwandan army battalions in Nyiragongo territory has also been alleged.
 
Rutshuru : la société civile dénonce des cas d’insécurité dans plusieurs localités | 5 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in North Kivu has denounced several cases of violence and insecurity  in several localities in Rutshuru since Sunday, recording one death, four injuries and two hostage takings over two days alone.
 
DR Congo: War Crimes by M23, Congolese Army | 5 February 2013| Human Rights Watch
Des crimes de guerre ont été perpétrés par le M23 et par l'armée congolaise | 5 February 2013| Human Rights Watch | Reliefweb
Human Rights Watched has issued a report outlining abuses committed by both the M23 and the FARDC around Goma during the rebels’ occupation of the North Kivu capital, including rapes and killings. The NGO has called upon all parties to peace talks to ensure that any agreements include holding those responsible for war crimes to account and that rebel commanders with abusive records do not serve in the Congolese army.
 
South Kivu
 
Sud-Kivu : les Raia Mutomboki brûlent plusieurs habitations à Luntukulu | 2 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Raia Mutomboki loyal to commander Maheshe are reported to have burned down several houses in the town of Luntukulu in Walungu on Sunday night. The attackers are said to have come from Busolo and also attacked FARDC positions, displacing residents in the locality.
 
New rebel group forms in DR Congo | 3 February 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Reliefweb
There are reports of the formation of a new anti-Kabila rebel group called the Union of Revolutionary Forces of Congo (UFRC) in Bukavu.
 
Province Orientale
 
Province Orientale : la milice Raia Mutomboki réclame un dialogue avec le gouvernement | 31 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
In a letter to the DRC government, the Raia Mutomboki have demanded that the authorities enter into a dialogue with them to disarm. The letter was sent to the administrator of Punia via a military nurse who had been held hostage by the militia for several months. The militia have also requested that the army to stop harassing the people of Kasese.
 
Bunia : les activités communes entre militaires et civils ont amélioré leurs relations, selon une ONG | 2 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Relations between civilians and the military have improved in the last six months in Bunia and its environs, according to the international organization Search for Common Ground, initiator of the project "Lobi mokolo ya sika".
 
Province Orientale: les habitants de Bokere fuient en forêt les perquisitions des policiers | 4 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Residents of Bokere village, over 300 km south-west of Kisangani, were in a state of panic last week after raids conducted by the Congolese National Police, leading some to flee into the forest. Police are reported to have extorted and plundered people's property under the pretext of searching for illegal elephant ivory and meat. The administrator of the territory accuses those targeted of poaching and trying to derail investigations through allegations of police misconduct. The authorities believe local chiefs have been supporting the ivory traffickers behind the recent slaughter of 5 elephants.
 
Bunia : l’auditorat militaire interrompt les poursuites judiciaires contre Cobra Matata | 4 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
The military prosecutor of the Bunia garrison has ruled to suspend lawsuits against militia leader Matata Banaloki alias "Cobra Matata" and his men. According to the Military Prosecutor in Bunia, Major Kumbu Ngoma, the decision was made "in favor of peace in the province" as the militia leader expressed on 17 January a willingness to rejoin the ranks of the Congolese army.  Cobra Matata and his men had been due to stand charges for murder, rape and creation of an insurrectional movement.
 
Ituri : des dissidents Maï-Maï du groupe de Morgan occupent Bafwabango | 5 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Militiamen who have abandoned Morgan's Mai-Mai, reportedly after taking heavy weapons after accusing the militia leader of failure to pay them, have been occupying the trading centre of Bafwabango city, 241 km northeast of Mambasa, on the road from Niania Wamba and Ituri. Local sources indicate that the dissidents attacked FARDC positions in the city early on Tuesday morning and that heavy fighting continues. Witnesses say that the militiamen had threatened last week to attack the city to plunder the mining company Kilo Gold.
 
Les FARDC poursuivent la traque du chef milicien Morgan | 5 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
FARDC commanders have stated that they are continuing to hunt for Paul Sadala, alias Morgan, in the town of Mambasa.
 
Katanga
 
Le Nord-Katanga en proie aux groupes armés | 1 February 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Northen Katanga is reported to be increasingly affected by the presence of armed groups such as the Mai-Mai Gideon Group and the Kata-Katanga secessionist movement, who are causing civilians to flee due to abuses and looting.
 
Katanga: plusieurs corps sans vie retrouvés sur la rivière Luvua | 3 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
A number of bodies have been discovered in a river in Luvua Kitumbi town. The exact number of the bodies is unclear with local estimates ranging between 14 and 30, though the victims appear to be predominantly women and children. A joint MONUSCO/Lake Tanganyika authority mission was dispatched on Monday to clarify the security situation in the area and discern the circumstances surrounding the deaths.
 
Maniema
 
Maniema: les FARDC tentent de déloger les miliciens Raïa Mutomboki de Kasese  | 3 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
Friday saw the start of a FARDC offensive against the Raia Mutomboki in Punia territory in Maniema. FARDC's goal is to dislodge the Mai-Mai from the mining town of Kasese where they have been holed up for ten days now. Civilians have fled the fighting and taken refuge in the forest. 
 

Uganda

Military coup threats
 
'Bad Politics' - Museveni, the Military and an Assertive Parliament | 1 February 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress | allAfrica
Analysis piece discussing the strong clashes between the executive and the Parliament in Uganda, triggering recent comments regarding a military coup. The piece goes on to discuss Museveni’s management of conflict issues in parliament and among his own party members and states that recent threats of a coup indicate the fragility of the National Resistance Movement’s (Museveni’s political party) political stability. The article suggests that foreign states have contributed to Museveni’s military strength through foreign military aid contributions awarded due to Uganda’s role in Somalia.
 
Brigadier Kankiriho Says Coup Talk Is Empty Talk | 3 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
The UPDF Second division commander, Brigadier Patrick Kankiriho, has described the UPDF as a people's army that cannot stage a coup, despite warnings from President Museveni that soldiers may throw politicians out of power.
 
EU - Army Should Never Grab Power  | 3 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
The EU Delegate in Uganda, Ambassador Roberto Ridolfi warned against the overthrow of an elected government by the military at a parade of 551 Somali soldiers, refering to the "positive role of the defence forces which is to defend the constitution and the people and never to overthrow a democratically elected government".  Ridolfi also announced the European Council's decision to prolong and expand the EU Training Mission mandate for another two years.
 
Magistrate Declines to Issue Summons for Army Chief | 5 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Court Throws Out Aronda Coup Talk Case | 5 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Nakawa Chief Magistrate, Joy Kabaje has declined to issue a criminal summons for the Chief of Defence Forces, General Aronda Nyakairima, on charges of treason, on grounds that the complaint was not accompanied by a letter from a local council chairperson or chief of the area where the accused is alleged to have committed the offense and that, in any case, the Magistrates court lacks jurisdiction to hear such cases which are the purview of the High Court. The complainant has contested these grounds.
 
UDPF
 
UPDF Through the Years - Is It Professional Now? | 5 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Article canvassing 32 years of the evolution of the UDPF from an army founded largely on a peasantry guerilla structure to one of the largest armies in the Great Lakes region. It questions the extent to which the UDPF has professionalised and states that critics question its ethnic composition and involvement in the country’s politics.
 
Ssemujju Nganda - How Museveni Has Personalized the Army | 5 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Opinion piece opiniong that Museveni has personalised the career progression in his army in accordance with personal loyalty.


Central African Republic

Unity Government announced

Central African Republic Unveils Unity Government  | 3 February 2013 | Voice of America
UN chief welcomes formation of unity government in Central African Republic | 5 February 2013 | UN News Centre
Leaders in the Central African Republic have unveiled a new national unity government as part of a power-sharing agreement with the Seleka rebels. Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye will take control of the finance ministry with the head of the rebel coalition, Michel Djotodia, becoming deputy prime minister in charge of defense.
 
RCA: le nouveau gouvernement contesté | 4 February 2013 | BBC News
The CAR’s new minister for communication has responded to the recent announcement of the composition of the Unity Government stating that the Seleka rebels are concerned to ensure that the distribution of influence in their allocation of government positions allows them to adequately represent their vision of national development and that whilst the government is not contested there may need to be some amendments.
 
Nouvelle équipe Tiangaye déjà contestée | 4 February 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
The list of government appointments in the new Unity Government for the CAR has sparked unrest regarding the balance of political representation.

French non-intervention in CAR
 
Why Didn't France Intervene in the Central African Republic? | 4 February 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress | allAfrica
Analysis piece exploring why France appears to have broken with its usual intervention practices in former colonies in the case of the CAR, and its implications for the country. 

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

Congolese refugees in Rwanda complain of insufficient food, water  | 4 February 2013 | IRIN
New waves of civilians fleeing the DRC for Rwanda have added to the challenge of providing refugees with adequate food supplies. The World Food Programme is facing logistical challenges and does not currently have adequate food rations to distribute to all refugees. 


DRC 

IDPs
 
Nord-Kivu : plus de 6000 personnes se font passer pour des déplacés à Mugunga 3 | 6 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
6,333 women and children who are not IDPs have been identified by a local NGO as residing in the Mugunga 3 IDP camp under the pretence of having IDP status in order to access support from humanitarian agencies.
 
Aid Providers’ Neglect Sparks Riots in Congo  | 4 February 2013 | Refugees International | Reliefweb
Refugees International have warned the UNHCR and other aid agencies that the failure to supply aid to spontaneous settlement camps is leading to such levels of desperation that it is sparking violent riots in some camps, including in Bulengo.
 
Humanitarian Reports
 
Rapport de situation humanitaire sur la République Démocratique du Congo - 1er février 2013 | 1 February 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
 
Humanitarian Action in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Weekly Bulletin, 1 February 2013 | 1 February 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
Including: villages empty out in North Katanga as fighting between FARDC and Mai-Mai intensifies and escalating population movements in Maniema amid fighting over control of mining sites in Punia Territory. 

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

International Criminal Court
 
Bemba's Defense Wants Trial to Resume Immediately | 4 February 2013 | The Bemba Trial Website
Jean-Pierre Bemba's lawyers have asked International Criminal Court (ICC) judges to order an immediate resumption of hearings in his trial, stating that they would not recall any prosecution witnesses or present any evidence in response to the envisaged changes. Article outlines proceedings leading up to the suspension of the trial.
 
ICC Detention Centre - a Guantanamo to 3 DRC Witnesses?  | 4 February 2013 | Radio Netherlands Worldwide
Three witnesses testifying against Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui in the ICC trial that eventually led to his acquittal last month have remained in the ICC’s detention unit after the failure of their claims for international protection from the Netherlands on war crimes grounds. The witnesses are former politicians alleged to have been involved in the murder of nine UN troops. This is an interview with these individuals’ lawyer outlining their position.
 
South African prosecutions of DRC rebels
 
South Africa police arrest 19 Congolese 'rebels' | 5 February 2013 | BBC News
Arrestations en Afrique du Sud | 5 February 2013 | BBC News
DRC 'rebels' came to SA for military training | 6 February 2013 | Eye Witness
South Africa's counter terrorism unit has arrested 19 suspected Congolese rebels in northern Limpopo province. The alleged rebels are due to be charged in court in the capital Pretoria later on Tuesday under South Africa's Foreign Military Assistance Act. The M23 have stated that these persons do not form part of their membership. They are alleged to have been plotting a coup and were present on South African territory for military training.


Rwanda 

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
 
TPIR : Deux anciens ministres rwandais acquittés en appel | 4 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | Fondation Hirondelle
Rwanda Shocked By ICTR Acquittals | 5 February 2013 | The New Times
ICTR Acquits Two Ex-Ministers | 4 February 2013 | The New Times
Rwanda 'Extremely Disappointed' By Acquittals  | 5 February 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | Fondation Hirondelle
Rwanda genocide convictions overturned | 5 February 2013 | Al Jazeera
The overturning of the genocide convictions of former ministers, Justin Mugenzi and Prosper Mugiraneza, in government at the time of the 1994 Genocide has been met with criticism in Rwanda. 

 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.


DRC 

DR Congo Wants Better Deal From Miners | 30 January 2013 | Voice of America
Joseph Kabila has stated that the DRC must tighten controls on granting mining licences and fighting corruption so that the country can benefit fully from rising copper production.


Uganda

Oil and Development
 
Oil in Uganda: International Lessons for Success | February 2013 | Chatham House
Executive Summary: Oil in Uganda: International Lessons for Success | February 2013 | Chatham House
Report by Ben Shepherd outlining that a well-informed, inclusive national conversation about the management options available to Uganda is vital in generating broad-based political consensus robust enough to stand up to the pressures that oil will inevitably bring. It suggests that delays in the extraction stage may be a benefit as well as a frustration.
 
Expert Cautions On Oil Expectations  | 5 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
A Norwegian petroleum expert has cautioned Uganda not to pin its economic development hopes on oil revenues, predicting that in future the world oil prices are likely to decline.
 
Oil Pipeline
 
Nation to Use Kenya Pipeline for Oil Exports | 2 February 2013 | East Africa Business Week
Uganda will use the impending pipeline from western Kenya to export its oil and gas products to the world market once extraction begins. Article recounts the position in respect of oil exploration for the two countries.
 
Who’ll take over from Tamoil? | 5 February 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The Kenyan and Ugandan governments have issued a joint invitation to tender for a company to develop an oil pipeline linking the Kenyan city of Eldoret to Kampala. Subscription required.
 
Kawempe Residents Petition Parliament Over Oil Pipeline | 6 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Angry residents of Namere, Sekati and Kwata zones in Kawempe division want the government to degazette their land and compensate them for financial loss occasioned by failure to use the land over the last four years. This land, belonging to over 140 families, had been earmarked in 2009 for the extension of the Mombasa -Eldoret Oil Pipeline to Kampala. The families have petitioned the Ugandan Committee for Natural Resources.
 
Oil refinery
 
Beijing & Moscow in refinery game | 5 February 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
A refusal by Tullow Oil and Total to consider building a regional refinery has prompted Kampala to seek partners in Russia and China.
 
Copper mining
 
Kilembe Mines - New Owners to Be Named  | 5 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The Ugandan Privatisation Unit expects to announce the winning firm to take over the almost $1 billion valued Kilembe Copper Mines by late April. Five bids have been shortlisted and evaluation of the bids will be undertaken once due diligence is complete.

 

Rwanda

Wolfram mining
 
Rutsiro Mining Ban Bites As Illegal Miners Call for Govt Help | 5 February 2013 | The New Times
Article outlining how the revocation of licences for the mining of Wolfram in the Western Province due to environmental degradation and poor working conditions has led to some companies struggling to have their licences reissued leaving unworked concessions being targeted by illegal artisanal mining in extremely unsafe conditions.


Burundi 

Nickel mining
 
MINING INDABA 2013: Koncar’s Burundi nickel project gets approval to build hydropower plant | 5 February 2013 | Metal Bulletin
Kermas company, Burundi Mining Metallurgy (BMM), has received a concession to start building a hydropower plant that will provide electricity to its planned Musongati nickel project. The Burundi government is yet to formally grant BMM the mining licence to start construction of the nickel plant, but the company has approval to start construction of its 75kW power plant.
 
Gold mining
 
8 die of asphyxiation in gold mine in Burundi’s Muyinga province | 7 February 2013 | NZWeek
Six persons died on the spot and two others succumbed in hospital on Tuesday after suffering lack of oxygen when extracting gold at Kamaramagambo in the commune of Butihinda in Burundi’s northeastern province of Muyinga.


 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Gold miners
 
The multiplier impact of Randgold’s big Kibali gold mine in DRC | 31 January 2013 | Mineweb
Kibali to create economic value for entire DRC – Bristow | 31 January 2013 | Mineweb
Randgold CEO, Mark Bristow, has stated that the Kibali Gold Project shows the multiplier impact mining could have on emerging economies in terms of revenue generation for the state and the provision of goods and services. Randgold is currently building one of Africa’s largest gold mines in the north east of the DRC, owning 45% of the project, with 45% ownership by AngloGold Ashanti and the balance owned by DRC parastatal Sokimo. Article relays Bristow's account of the economic benefits of the project.
 
Further Significant Gold Mineralisation at Maniema Project  | 1 February 2013 | Mineweb
Erongo Energy Limited has announced the latest significant results from three diamond drill holes completed on its Kabotshome Prospect, at the Maniema Gold Project (“Maniema Project’) in the DRC.
 
Randgold reports higher profit, expands DRC presence  | 4 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
The verification of Randgold’s potential new gold exploration project in north-east DRC is expected to start soon. The company aims to explore and develop a 2 056 km2 area on the Northern Ngayu and Isiro greenstone belts through a new joint venture with TSX-listed Kilo Goldmines.
 
Investissements miniers : Randgold Resources met en garde les États africains | 5 February 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Randgold CEO, Bristow, has stated that current mining codes in countries like the DRC represent a substantial portion of the net proceeds of mining going to states, despite the fact that Randgold fully funded the costs of discovery and development and supported all risks. Bristow has warned against  the growing trend among mining nations in sub-Sahara wanting more without giving anything in return, as even moderate increases their current codes will reduce the ability of these countries to compete for foreign direct investment in fixed capital or encourage reinvestment.
 
Copper miners
 
Gecamines May Seek Partner to Develop Congo Copper Sites | 1 February 2013 | Bloomberg
Gecamines, the DRC’s state-owned mining company, is considering seeking a partner to develop two copper sites that may contain 5 million metric tons. Gecamines completed its takeover of the Deziwa and Ecaille C copper-cobalt projects in the southern Katanga province on 11 January 2013 after buying out Copperbelt Minerals Ltd.’s indirect 68 percent stake. The sites may eventually produce a combined 200,000 tons of copper a year, making them one of Congo’s biggest.
 
Glencore’s CEO seen gunning for Anglo after Xstrata | 4 February 2013 | Mineweb
Having completed his takeover of Xsrata, speculation mounts about the possibility of Glencore CEO Ivan Glasenberg attempting to acquire ENRC to complement Glencore’s other mining assets in the DRC.
 
Tiger Resources Announces High-Grade Copper Results at Judeira  | 6 February 2013 | Canadian Mining Journal
Tiger Resources Limited has announced high-grade copper results from a diamond drilling (DD) programme at Judeira South, which lies within the boundaries of the Company's Kipoi Copper Project mining licence in Katanga.
 
Congo Targeting 1.5 Million Tons of Copper Output in 2015 - Gecamines  | 6 February 2013 | Fox Business News
The CEO of Gecamines has announced that copper miners in the DRC are forecast to produce 1.5 million tons of copper in 2015, up from about 600,000 tons in 2012. He also told Dow Jones Newswires that Gecamines produced 35,000 tons of copper in 2012, but that the copper output target can only be reached if more investments are made in energy and transport infrastructure.
 
Mwana signs JV agreement with Zhejiang | 6 February 2013 | Mining Weekly
Diversified resources company Mwana Africa has signed a joint venture agreement with China’s Zhejiang Hailiang Company, covering 28 licences held by Mwana in the Katanga copper belt region in south-eastern DRC.
 
Ivanplats CEO Friedland Studying Stock Listing in Johannesburg | 6 February 2013 | Bloomberg
Ivanplats is studying the reopening a mothballed copper-and-zinc mine in the DRC as well as the Kamoa copper project in the country.
 
Oil
 
Tim O'Hanlon | 5 February 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
Tim O'Hanlon, vice president of Tullow Oil in charge of the country’s business in Africa, is pushing ahead with his efforts regarding the DRC. Subscription required. 

 

Uganda

Oil Investment
 
Oil - Uganda Still Has Chance to Avoid Curse  | 4 February 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Opinion piece discussing the position of Uganda’s ‘National Social Security Fund’ in investing in the country’s oil economy and the Chatham House publication on Uganda’s avoidance of the resource curse.
 
Tullow Oil
 
Tullow Oil Trains Citizens in Production Operations | 4 February 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
In preparation for the development and production phase, Tullow Oil has undertaken Production Training Programs for 10 talented Ugandans who will become the future experts in production operations in Uganda.
 
Oil Companies Sideline Local Businesses | 5 February 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
A New Vision investigation reports that Ugandan service providers are losing out on deals they had initially won from Tullow Oil in favour of foreign firms, implying that Uganda will pay more in recoverable costs since more money now goes to foreign firms. The report highlights that Tullow Oil officials prefer foreign firms to local ones, although they give no justification; that companies like Bemuga and Three Ways had originally won contracts to supply trucks, but that volumes were reduced in favour of foreign contractors; that confidential contracts with local firms have been used to bar them from sharing information with third parties; and that the losses sustained by local firms has led them to form the Alliance of Indigenous Oil Services Companies, to voice their concerns, as individual firs are reluctant to not go on record, fearing victimisation. The report cites other examples of local workers being let go by the company in favour of expatriates.
 
Rallying Call for Regional Partnerships in Oil Sector | 5 February 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Article outlining the views of Jimmy Mugerwa, the General Manager Tullow Oil regarding the regions needs in terms of oil infrastructure.

 

Rwanda

Oil
 
Vanoil, Govt Close to Oil Deal | 1 February 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Article discussing Vanoil’s recent extension of its technical evaluation agreement with the government, which now reportedly puts the oil prospector at a stage at which it can negotiate a product sharing deal with the government.

 
 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Transparency in the Oil Sector
 
EA countries urged to ensure transparency in oil sector  | 3 February 2013 | East African News Agency
East African countries with rich oil deposits have been urged to strictly implement legal frameworks that will ensure transparency so as to benefit from expected production. Thorbjorn Gaustadsaether, the Norwegian ambassador accredited to Rwanda but based in Uganda, made the remarks while closing the East African Oil and Gas Forum in Kampala.
 
Conflict Minerals

Many Industry Sectors Unprepared for Conflict Minerals Rule | 1 February 2013 | Social Funds
A report from the Responsible Sourcing Network finds that leading companies in the information and communications industry have undertaken initiatives to ensure that their supply chains are free of conflict minerals, but few other industry sectors have done so. 

DRC

Oil and Gas Regulation
 
Congo aims to pass hydrocarbons law requiring tenders by April  | 30 January 2013 | London South East
A law regulating the DRC's nascent oil and gas sector will be adopted by April, requiring all potential investors to go through a tender process. It will be the first time that the DRC has passed legislation specifically to control its oil production, which is currently only 26,000 barrels a day although there are oil rich areas in both the east and west of the country.
 
Mining Revenues Oversight
 
Fraude minière : le gouvernement veut centraliser les recettes générées par l’exploitation minière | 1 February 2013 | Radio Okapi
At a Lubumbashi conference on good governance and transparency in the mining sector, the Minister of Mines, Martin Kabwelulu, has announced his intention to create a commission to collect all revenue generated by mining and in order to prevent fraud in the mining sector. The Minister states that fraud is the reason for the discrepancy between the increase in mining output and the low revenues generated by the state in this area.
 
Cohydro | 5 February 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The latest report of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), drafted by the KPMG auditing concern, has shed light on a number of discrepancies in the accounts for 2010. Subscription required.
 
Environmental Governance
 
Environmental governance for sustainable development in the mining sector  | 5 February 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Analysis piece outlining the significance of the DRC's harmonisation of legal environmental matters through Law n ° 11/009 of 09 July 2011 by laying down principles relating to the protection of the environment and how this relates to the mining sector.
 
OECD Forced Evictions case
 
Maisons détruites au Katanga: les Belges donnent raison à Forrest, les ONG s’indignent s | 4 February 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Illegal Demolitions in DRC - George Forrest International Refuses Compensation for Dispossessed Villagers | 5 February 2013 | FIDH
NGOs have expressed disappointment that the attempt by the Belgian National Contact Point for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises to negotiate compensation for about 500 families, who were forcibly evicted from their homes three years ago, has ended in failure. The Compagnie Minière du Sud Katanga (CMSK), which operates the Luiswishi mine in DRC, supported and participated in the demolition of 500 homes in the villages of Kawama, in the vicinity of the mine. Entreprise Générale Malta Forrest, a subsidiary of the Belgian group, George Forrest International, had a 60 per cent shareholding in the CMSK joint venture. In September 2012, just before the mediation was due to start, GFI announced that it had sold back its shares in CMSK to Gecamines. NGO's state that in concluding this case the National Contact Point has not conducted itself in an impartial and transparent manner and refused to share all relevant documents.

 

Rwanda

Land Bill
 
Lawmakers Demand Clarity On Land Bill | 30 January 2013| The New Times | allAfrica
Scrutiny of the new Land Use Draft Bill has been plagued by lack of consensus  regarding the definition of a swamp, considered to frequently cause confusion because the law designated such lands as belonging to the state, though their physical make up can vary.

 
  

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS
US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the linkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead. 
 
 
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