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IPIS’ Latest Publications
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Central African Republic
Refugee and IDP Reports

Central African Republic
Justice and Tribunals

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

IPIS Recent publications


Plans for a UN brokered political accord seeking to bring stability back to eastern DRC were derailed on Monday as SADC's concerns over the details of an intervention force culminated in the breakdown of talks on the sidelines of the African Union summit in Addis Ababa. Ban Ki Moon has recommended the dispatch of reconnaissance drones to monitor the DRC/Rwandan border and the deployment of a 2,500 strong military unit to undertake peace enforcement under the framework of the existing MONUSCO mandate.
Meanwhile, talks between Kinshasa and the M23 resume in Kampala with an assessment of the Congolese government's compliance with the March 2009 agreement by an expert committee. 

This week has seen continued unrest in eastern DRC with clashes between the Congolese authorities and Mai-Mai in North Kivu and Katanga, and the Raia Mutomboki causing instability in South Kivu and Maniema.

In Uganda, tensions are rising surrounding the progress of oil extraction in the country as Tullow's patience wears thin and veiled threats of a military coup from senior officials in response to parliamentary delays in passing Uganda's remaining oil bills prompts demands for  public accountability for the remarks.
This week in the Central African Republic has seen condemnation of violations of the Libreville Peace accord by what has been labelled as “rogue elements” among the Seleka rebels.


IPIS’ Latest Publications


Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.

Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

UN action on conflict in the DRC
UN chief to recommend intervention troops for Congo -official | 25 January 2013 | Reuters
Ban Ki-moon will recommend to the U.N. Security Council that a peace enforcement unit be deployed in eastern DRC to prevent the M23 and other armed groups from expanding territory. The intervention unit is to be contained within the existing U.N. force, known as MONUSCO.
Babacar Gaye: «Nous connaîtrons mieux la situation sur terrain avec le déploiement des drones»  | 26 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Security Council has given the green light to the UN Secretary General to pilot the deployment of drones to monitor movement of armed groups and assist MONUSCO in eastern DRC.  General Babacar Gaye, Military Adviser to Ban Ki-moon has stated that this deployment is expected to give the UN a better understanding of movement on the ground.
RDC: l'ONU veut des troupes et des drones pour relancer le processus de paix | 26 January 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Reliefweb
Alongside diplomatic efforts to revive the Great Lakes peace process in Addis Ababa, the UN seeks to strengthen its mission in the DRC with a 2,500 strong intervention unit of troops from Tanzania and South Africa to prevent armed groups from expanding their territory and neutralise them. The UN Security Council has authorised the deployment of drones to monitor the border between the DRC and Rwanda. UN officials reportedly hope that these measures might be operational within 3 months.
African Union Summit talks on conflict in the DRC
UN 'plans to fight rebels in DRC' | 25 January 2013 | BBC News
UN Seeking Stronger Mandate for Congo Force | 25 January 2013 | Voice of America
L'ONU veut une force d'intervention «musclée» au pays  | 27 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
UN to expand DR Congo peacekeeping mission | 25 January 2013 | AlJazeera
A UN brokered political accord aimed at bringing stability to the Great Lakes is due to be signed on the side lines of the AU summit in Addis Ababa by the DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, Angola, The Republic of Congo and South Africa.
Addis-Abeba: les Etats des Grands Lacs décident de signer ultérieurement l’accord de paix en RDC | 28 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
AU talks break down over DR Congo crisis | 28 January 2013 | AlJazeera
Echec des dirigeants africains à s'entendre sur la RDC | 28 January 2013 | Agence France-Presse | Reliefweb
Dispute over military command holds up Congo peace deal | 28 January 2013 | Reuters
DRC Peace Deal Delayed at AU Summit  | 28 January 2013 | Voice of America
Talks on the DRC crisis are reported to have broken down at the African Union summit in Ethiopia due to objections raised by South Africa and Tanzania over the details of a peace plan, including the establishment of a new special intervention brigade as part of MONUSCO. A South African representative has highlighted that despite SADC work on this crisis for several months the UN appears to have failed to consult with regional powers in drawing up their plans to solve the crisis. SADC members have raised questions over command and control of the intervention force - SADC or MONUSCO, wanting assurances that the brigade could do what is desired.
Nord-Kivu : la société civile regrette le report de la signature de l’accord sur la paix dans l’Est de la RDC | 29 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society response to the breakdown of peace talks in North Kivu.
Kampala talks between M23 and the DRC
Kampala: la partie gouvernementale dit avoir fini avec l’évaluation de l’accord du 23 mars | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The DRC government is reported to have presented evidence of compliance with the March 2009 peace accords with regard to the political and military integration of the CNDP at recent talks in Kampala.
Rights Groups in DRC Want a National Peace Dialogue | 25 January 2013 | Voice of America
A joint declaration by the DRC rights groups The Voice of the Voiceless and ASADHO (The African Association for the Defence of Human Rights) has called for an immediate end to Kampala negotiations and the institution of a national dialogue to replace the talks. This call is seen as another sign that the Kampala talks lack credibility.
Kampala: un accord est «possible» entre le gouvernement de la RDC et le M23, selon Yoweri Museveni | 26 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Despite the strong differences between the parties to the Kampala negotiations, Museveni still insists that an agreement remains possible.
RDC: le M23 espère une issue favorable des pourparlers de Kampala | 28 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Experts to Review 2009 DR Congo Peace Agreement | 28 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The M23 spokesman has said that if dialogue is resumed with the consideration of all the items on the agenda, a favourable outcome is possible. Negotiations between the rebels and the DRC government were suspended last weekend for the African Union summit. Negotiators are now expected to focus on two reports filed by the parties on the evaluation of the agreement of 23 March 2009. These reports are due to be assessed by an expert committee, which is to present the findings of its review of the failed March 23 2009 peace agreement this week.
International Conference of the Great Lakes Region on conflict in the DRC 
Les parlementaires des Grands Lacs condamnent les groupes armés actifs dans l’Est de la RDC | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The 3rd Ordinary Session of the Forum of Parliaments of the member countries of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR-FP), held from 23 to 25 January in Kinshasa, closed with a declaration condemning the M23 and the FDLR as the authors of serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in North Kivu. In their resolutions, the parliamentarians decided organise a special session of the forum to study the "root causes of the use of force by armed groups in the politico-military ICGLR member states." They also agreed to hold regular missions to observe elections in the countries of the sub-region to avoid conflicts post-election violence.
UN sanctions on M23
Les Etats-Unis désignent des leaders du M23 pour avoir exacerbé le conflit au pays | 25 January 2013 | US Department of State | allAfrica
U.S. Designates M23 Leaders for Fomenting Conflict in DRC | 25 January 2013 | US Department of State | allAfrica
The US Treasury Department has designated Eric Badege and Jean-Marie Runiga Rugerero (Runiga) as persons contributing to the DRC conflict pursuant to US Executive Order 13413. The Security Council's Sanctions Committee on the Democratic Republic of Congo Security recently added the M23 group and several of its leaders, including  Runiga and Badege to the list of organizations and individuals sanctioned under a consolidated asset freeze and travel ban.
Belgium and the conflict in the DRC
Matonge: Congo-Rwanda dispute hits heart of Europe | 30 January 2013 | BBC News
Tensions over the conflict in the DRC are being played out in protests and sometimes violence between diaspora Rwandan and Congolese communities in Brussels, Belgium.
Les relations se dégradent entre Bruxelles et Kigali | 29 January 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Braeckman reports that relations between Rwanda and Belgium continue to deteriorate with the departure of the Deputy Belgian military attaché in Kigali, stating that the relationship between these two states has rarely been so poor.
Lord’s Resistance Army
Recent Encounter with the LRA May Provide Hints about Kony’s Whereabouts  | 28 January 2013 | Enough Project
Enough project states that a UDPF encounter with the LRA earlier this month in the CAR could provide the essential clue as to the whereabouts of Joseph Kony. The article suggests that the location of the encounter suggests that Kony may still be hiding in or near the Kafia Kingi enclave on the disputed Sudan-South Sudan border.
Small Arms Trade
Civil Society Calls for Tougher Laws On Small Arms Trade  | 28 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The East Africa Action Network on Small Arms (EAANSA) has called for tougher laws and increased vigilance among member states of the East African community (EAC) to curb illegal movement of small arms and light weapons.


Les réfugiés hutus de 1994 songent au retiur  | 29 January 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Braeckman reports that rumours are widespread in Kivu that thousands of Hutu refugees (2000 fighters, 5000 "dependent" civilians) are intending to return to Rwanda in February with many gathered in South Kivu for an en mass return.
MONUSCO Presents the Action Plan to Combat the Recruitment and Use of Children in Armed Conflict | 25 January 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
December saw MONUSCO’s launch of an action plan to combat the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict and serious human rights violations committed against them by elements of the Congolese defence and security forces.
North Kivu
La société civile accuse les ADF-Nalu de l’exécution de 13 civils à Oïcha  | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Civil society in North Kivu has accused the Ugandan ADF-Nalu of taking thirteen hostages at the beginning of January in the town of Tenambo, about 27 km from Beni (North Kivu), including three young girls. Civil society representatives in Beni report that 48 hostages were taken by the group in 2012.
Nord-Kivu: les FARDC délogent un groupe Maï-Maï de la localité de Nyondo  | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
FARDC have resumed control of Nyondo after three days of fighting with the Mai-Mai. Eight Mai-Mai were killed and a soldier wounded during the clashes. The Mai-Mai group had occupied the town of Nyondo for nearly a month and were allied with inmates who had escaped from Kakwangura Butembo prison. Military sources say that the Mai-Mai have retreated to Kyavirimu in Virunga National Park.
RDC : le maire de Goma accuse le M23 de causer l’insécurité dans la périphérie de sa ville | 27 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Goma city's Mayor has accused the M23 of causing insecurity in several parts of Nyiragongo territory, killing five people in robberies committed by the rebels. He has petitioned the International Conference for the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) to order that the M23 withdraw its troops from Nyiragongo. The security situation has reportedly deteriorated considerably in the Ngangi I and II, Don Bosco, Muja, Majengo and Mugunga neighborhoods, on the outskirts of Goma, with gunfire and several raids on houses on Saturday.

Katanga: retour au calme après un soulèvement des enfants soldats à Kamina | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Calm had returned to Kamina on Thursday after an uprising by child soldiers demanding that that family reunion processes be expedited following the death of one of their number from malaria. A riot took place over the course of three days and saw the attack of center managers at the local orientation and transit center and the destruction of several facilities.
Katanga: 4 morts lors des affrontements entre Maï-Maï et policiers à Kasomena et Bukama | 28 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Clashes between the police and Mai-Mai militiamen in Kikondja, in Bukama territory  on Sunday saw four militiaman killed. Meanwhile, a policeman was injured in a clash between other Bakata Katanga fighters  and elements of the Congolese National Police (PNC) in Kasomeno in the territory of Kasenga. The local population of Kipemba village have reportedly fled into the bush.
Katanga: le Groupe mobile d’intervention de la police déployé à Manono | 28 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
A sixty strong police mobile group intervention of the Congolese National Police (PNC) based in Kalemie was deployed on Monday in Manono, Katanga. This unit will support the FARDC in its struggle against the Mai-Mai activism in this part of the province.
Katanga : deux chefs coutumiers otages du groupe Maï-Maï Gédéon se sont évadés | 30 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Two chiefs from Mitwaba (Katanga), who were taken hostage last December whilst negotiating with the Mai-Mai group Kyungu Mutanga, alias Gideon, have escaped. Chief Tamba Kalenga, the chiefdom Kyona Ngoy, arrived in Lubumbashi on Monday. The other chief has returned directly to Mitwaba. There is still no news of the other eleven chiefs kidnapped by the Gideon militia. Gideon's militia is reported to have created insecurity in Katanga in recent weeks attacking villages and extorting property.

South Kivu
Sud-Kivu : la CNR dénonce des cas d’enlèvements des réfugiés burundais à Uvira | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The National Commission for Refugees has expressed concerns over an abducted Burundian refugee family in Uvira, stating that Burundian refugees were the victim of attacks, threats and kidnapping last year in the Ruzizi plain.
MONUSCO Consolidates Peaceful Coexistence between the Fizi Communities in Sud Kivu | 25 January 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
To encourage the communities of the Fizi territory to live together and develop their region, MONUSCO and the Fizi and Itombwe frameworks for inter-community dialogue (CCI) have jointly organized a sensitization workshop for local chiefs and leaders on safeguarding peace, security and peaceful coexistence.
Sud-Kivu: accalmie après des combats entre FARDC et Raïa Mutomboki à Mwenga | 28 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
An uneasy calm was observed on Monday in Ngando in Mwenga, after two days of clashes between the FARDC and the Raia Mutomboki. Independent sources report eight dead (two rebels, four FARDC soldiers and two women).
Province Oriental
La MONUSCO et l'OIM ensemble pour combattre les violences sexuelles en province Orientale | 24 January 2013 | MONUSCO | Reliefweb
The territory of Banalia, 128 km north of Kisangani, will soon have a territorial office of special police for child protection and the fight against sexual violence, a joint project between IOM and MONUSCO.
Province Orientale: regain d’insécurité à Bunia | 26 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The security situation in Bunia for the last two weeks has seen four deaths and ten armed robberies prompting calls for security services to take action.
Bunia: 9 policiers et 3 militaires comparaissent pour pillage des biens de l’Onu | 28 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nine police officers and three soldiers have appeared before a garrison military court in Kisangani, charged with violently stealing seven motorcycles, seven computers and more than thirty-eight thousand tons of food from the UN’s World Food Programme  facilities in Bunia.
Maniema: psychose à Kasese face à l’avancée de la milice Raia Mutomboki | 30 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Panic has taken hold in Punia since Monday as locals fear the advance of the Raia Mutomboki from Kasese, 125 km from Punia, as well as harassment from FARDC. Civil society has urged the authorities to take steps to halt the advance though local authorities state that they lack the ability to do so. 



Concerns about threats of a military coup
Why Kiyonga, Museveni Say Army Can Take Over  | 25 January 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
The President, while addressing an NRM caucus retreat at the National Leadership Institute at Kyankwazi is reported to have said the military would not allow it if the 'confusion' in parliament continues regarding proposed oil legislation. This has led to widespread criticisms over the veiled threat of a military coup.
MPs to Summon Aronda, Kiyonga Over Coup Talk | 27 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Uganda Parliament to Summon Officials for Coup Rhetoric | 29 January 2013 | Voice of America
The Ugandan Parliament’s Defence and Internal Affairs Committee have asked Defence Minister Chrispus Kiyonga and Chief of Defence Forces Aronda Nyakairima to appear before Parliament regarding remarks insinuating a possible coup during discussions of Uganda’s controversial “clause 9” of the oil Bill. Army officials state that these comments have been taken out of context by the media but the committee believes that the remarks (also made by President Museveni) nevertheless require explanation.
'Military Coup Costly for Uganda' - Muntu | 27 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Army Officers Blast Coup Talk  | 30 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
A petition has been filed demanding the arraignment of Chief of Defence Forces, Gen Aronda Nyakairima, to answer charges of treason following the remarks he made appearing to threaten a possible army takeover. At least seven senior military officials have criticized the statements saying that there is no cause for such intervention and they have received widespread criticism from MPs and opposition members.
U.S. Envoy Tells Military to Back Democracy | 29 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The US envoy to Uganda, Ambassador Scott Delisi, has urged regional armies to support democratic institutions, warning that the recent strides towards peace can easily unravel if the military threatens such institutions.


 Stability in Burundi
In Security Council, Top UN Envoy Praises Burundi’s Progress in Consolidating Peace, Stability, but Cautions Need for Sustained International Engagement Remains | 24 January 2013 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Secretary-General’s report says that Burundi continued to make progress in consolidating peace | 24 January 2013 | UN Office in Burundi | Reliefweb
In a briefing to the Security Council, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the United Nations Office in Burundi, praised the Burundi's continued progress in consolidating peace and stability, but cautioned that, with critical elections on the horizon, sustained international political engagement would be required to effectively remedy the two-year standoff between the Government and opposition parties, and ease the lingering economic hardships facing the Burundian people.


Central African Republic

Security in the CAR
CAR: Security Council extends mandate of UN office, calls on parties to abide by ceasefire pact 24 January 2013 | UN News Centre
The UN Security Council has extended the mandate of the UN peacebuilding office in CAR until 31 January 2014.  The UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the CAR (BINUCA), has been mandated to work with all parties to facilitate the full implementation of the Libreville agreement as part of efforts to help consolidate peace in the CAR, including support for security reform and reintegration of ex-combatants.

République Centrafricaine Rapport de situation No. 4 (au 25 janvier 2013) | 25 January 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
CAR situation report highlighting appointment of President Bozizé, that rapid assessment missions are underway across the country, and that IDPs are reluctant to return home because of the fear associated with the presence of armed elements in Kabo, Kaga-Bandoro and Damara.
Seleka violations of the Libreville aagreement
Le Séléka condamne le non-respect des accords de paix | 25 January 2013 |
Séléka fait porter la responsabilité de la conquête de Dimbi et Kémbé à ses éléments incontrôlés | 24 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
A spokesman for the Seleka rebellion has said that attacks on the cities of Kembe and Djimbi in south eastern CAR were the work of rogue elements in the rebellion and has confirmed its commitment to the Libreville peace accords.
Nicolas Tiangaye fait le point sur la situation politique et militaire | 26 January 2013 | RFI | Reliefweb
In his first media address Prime Minister Nicholas Tiangaye has condemned attacks and looting by Seleka rebels and stated that a mission seeking to reassert the peace process has been deployed.
Séléka continue de violer l’accord de Libreville | 28 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
The Deputy of Satema (Southeast) has denounced attacks in his constituency by Seleka rebels who have reportedly arrested civilians, looted, caused damage and led many to flee.
Les leaders de Séléka rendus responsables des troubles en Centrafrique | 29 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Reactions to Seleka abuses in Bangui.


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region
CAR refugees
Equateur: des réfugiés centrafricains vivent dans des conditions difficiles à Zongo | 25 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Refugees fleeing the Seleka rebellion in the CAR are reported to be living in difficult conditions in Zongo.
Angola/DRC repatriation
Over 70 Illegal DRC Citizens Detained in Uije Province | 28 January 2013 | Angola Press | allAfrica
At least 76 citizens were repatriated on Sunday from Angola to the DRC, through Quimbata bordering station, in Maquela do Zombo municipality, northern Uije province, by the Migration and Foreigner Services. 


Thousands of displaced civilians at risk in 'Triangle of Death', Democratic Republic of Congo | 25 January 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
Fighting between the Mai-Mai and government forces has led thousands to flee to the bush with most of the villages along the 115km road from Shamwana to Dubie empty, as are villages along the 70km stretch between Shamwana and Mpiana. MSF has removed non-essential staff from its project in Shamwana (about 300 km from provincial capital Lubumbashi) this week, leaving a skilled core team with surgical capacity able to respond to an expected increase in war-wounded.
Humanitarian updates
Préparation & Réponse aux Urgences, Rapport de situation - 29 janvier 2013  | 29 January 2013 | WHO | Reliefweb
WHO emergency preparation and response report for the DRC for 29 January 2013.
Bulletin d'information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu - N° 03/13, 29 janvier 2013 | 29 January 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
Humanitarian Bulletin for North Kivu of 29 January 2013.
Humanitarian Action in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Weekly Bulletin, 25 January 2013  | 29 January 2013 | OCHA | Reliefweb
OCHA | Reliefweb
Humanitarian Bulletin for the DRC.


Central African Republic

IDPs in the CAR
UNICEF scales up response in Central African Republic to conflict-affected children  | 29 January 2013 | UN News Centre
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is scaling up operations in the CAR to help thousands of children who have been affected by the recent violence and are in urgent need of assistance. Some of the hardest hit areas, include N’dele, Bria, Bombari, and Kaga Bandoro, where children are living in extremely precarious conditions.


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region


Rwandan genocide prosecution
France to Conduct First Genocide Trial  | 29 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
France has indicated intent to try its first Genocide suspect. Pascal Simbikangwa, a Captain who headed Rwanda's intelligence agency in 1994, is set to stand trial in France later this year or early in 2014.


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

Methane extraction from Lake Kivu
Lac Kivu: des scientifiques invitent la RDC et le Rwanda à exploiter ensemble le gaz méthane | 24 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Swiss scientists have urged the Rwandan and Congolese governments to act in a coordinated manner in exploiting methan under Lake Kivu. Rwanda has already commenced exploitation but the DRC’s progress has been slow. Scientists have reminded the parties that the horizontal balance of the lake shows that if one side exploits the methane then there will be effects for the other side. Thus both countries should exploit the reserve simultaneously.
DRC/Angola oil
Sonangol, Congo’s Cohydro in Talks to Develop Shared Oil Block  | 29 January 2013 | Bloomberg
Congolese Oil Minister Crispin Atama has said that Sonangol EP, Angola’s state-owned oil company, and the DRC’s Cohydro, plan to develop a shared offshore oil block. Angola and Congo each control half the block in the zone of common interest in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the neighbouring countries and which is linked to Dan Gertler.


Copper exports
Basic network in place for North-South copper corridor - Transnet | 28 January 2013 | Mining Weekly
State-owned utility Transnet Freight Rail says the railways infrastructure is already in place to facilitate the export of copper arising from the DRC through the Durban harbour, in South Africa.
Artisanal mining
Katanga: plus 4 000 creuseurs artisanaux envahissent le site à explosifs de la Gécamines/Kambove | 26 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
For over 2 weeks, more than four thousand artisanal miners have been mining copper from a quarry located in the perimeter of the site where Gecamines stores its explosives in Kambove, Katanga. The director of the site says that the site is extremely dangerous and has requested the authorities to prevent the miners from accessing the site for safety reasons.
The poverty of the DRC's gold miners | 29 January 2013 | IRIN
Article outlining the living and working conditions for artisanal gold miners in Ituri, including the adequacy of schemes to provide them assistance and links to smuggling and conflict.
Mining transparency
Joseph Kabila veut lutter contre la corruption et la fraude dans le secteur minier  | 30 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
At a Lubumbashi conference on good governance and transparency Joseph Kabila has advocated the need to fight corruption and fraud in the mining sector calling on companies to consider their social responsibilities to the Congolese population. The conference intends to develop recommendations for improving management in the mining sector, though concerns have been expressed about the implementation of such recommendations.



Uganda: Citizens Demand Bigger Role in Oil Value Chain  | 25 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Prof Charles Kwesigwa, the chairman of the Association of Uganda Oil and Gas Service Providers, has said Uganda should adopt best practices from other countries and investigate the causes of the resource curse to allow it to direct resources to the oil value chain to ensure it benefits the country. Emmanuel Baluti, the association's lawyer has said that although the recent  legislation on oil and gas will go some way to addressing local content issues the rejection of a 51% cap on local content does not secure sufficient benefits to Ugandan nationals in terms of their involvement in the value chain.
Uganda: Oil - Nebbi Puts Total Officials On the Spot | 27 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Part 1 of a three part reproduction of an article on the Oil in Uganda website, owned by Action Aid and funded by the Ford Foundation, on the impact of Oil in Nebbi, with a focus on Total’s relationship with the people of Nebbi. The piece highlights that the people of Nebbi are suffering from deteriorated health due to local pollution, feel disappointed by a failure to keep promises made regarding access to water and regional ambitions for an administrative split of the Jonam area comprising the sub-counties of Pakwach, Panyimur and Alwi, from Nebbi.
Politics Key to Successful Oil Sector  | 27 January 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
Article outlining the risk of corruption and the need for robust laws in managing resource exploitation for making oil work for Uganda as a nation. It also highlights that the Ugandan government is planning to auction at least 13 oil blocks in the Albertine Rift Basin this year as soon as it lifts a ban on the licensing of new acreage. This will allow international oil companies to bid for exploration acreage in the basin, where existing companies have discovered deposits of as much as 3.5 billion barrels of crude oil. Companies such as Italy's Eni SpA, Russia's Lukoil Holdings and India's Essar Oil Ltd. have expressed interest in acquiring oil licenses in the country.



Oil and Gas
Rwanda to Exhibit Oil Potential in Arusha | 28 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda will join four other regional countries to exhibit her oil and gas potential during the 6th East African Petroleum Conference and Exhibition in Arusha, Tanzania. EAX Rwanda is said to be the first part of a regional exchange that aims to increase the transparency of commodity markets of the Great Lakes region.
Commodities exchange
Création à Kigali d'une bourse des matières premières - Kagame blanchit le pillage des ressources de la RDC | 28 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le Potentiel reports the announcement of plans to establish an East African commodities exchange (EAX) in Kigali by President Kagame at the World Economic Forum in Davos. 


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

Oil pipeline investment
Kenya, Uganda seek private investment partner for oil pipeline  | 28 January 2013 | Reuters
Kenya and Uganda have said that they are looking for a strategic private investment partner to build and operate a pipeline to transport
refined petroleum products from the Kenyan coast to Kampala.


Extractive companies
Alphamin Resources Corp.: Stage 1 Drilling Completed on Bisie Tin Project, DRC | 24 January 2013 | Alphamin Resources Corp. | Marketwire
Alphamin Resources Corp. has received all results for its Stage 1 drilling programme on its wholly owned Bisie Tin Project in east central DRC. A total of 19 holes, including 1 re-drill, were completed for 2,406m. Drilling has confirmed significant tin mineralisation over a minimum of 250m at Gecomines and 500m at Golgotha target areas.
GCM completes Deziwa and Ecaille C buy | 29 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Gecamines finally completed its acquisition of a 68% holding of Societe Miniere de Deziwa and Ecaille C (Somidec sprl) at the end of 2012. Full article requires subscription.
Mining Bank of Congo wound up  | 29 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Russian firm Mikhail Slipenchuk Investment Financing Company Metropol (IFC Metropol), which had big mining plans in the DRC and enjoyed the backing of the Russian ambassador to Kinshasa, Anatoly Klimenko, has been effected by the Banque Centrale du Congo’s decision to cancel the operating license of Mining Bank Congo Sarl and order it to be wound up on account of it having remained inactive throughout its seven years of licensing. Full article requires subscription.



Oil extraction impasse
Tullow Calls on Government to Break Impasse over Uganda's Oil Development | 24 January 2013 | Fox Business News
When Will Nation Start Producing Oil? | 29 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Tullow Oil Uganda has called on the government of Uganda to break the impasse between it and its corporate partners over the development of the country's oil fields in the Lake Albertine rift basin in which the government has witheld permission to proceed pending the resolution of a number of issues including the construction of an oil refinery in the country.
Phosphate mining
Sukulu Phosphate Mines to Get Sh535 Billion Boost  | 26 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
A memorandum of understanding has been signed between India's Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited (GSFC) and Nilefos minerals to develop the Sukulu phosphate mines in Tororo.



Tin and coltan
Solomon Receives Assay Results from Gipfizi Ridge in the Rurembo Tin Project, Republic of Rwanda | 28 January 2013 | Solomon Resources | Marketwire
Solomon Resources Limited has received assay results from the preliminary geological reconnaissance of the Gipfizi Ridge tin and coltan (niobium-tantalum) target, located 20 kilometers north of the town of Gitarama, Republic of Rwanda.
Oil and Gas
Vanoil Extends Technical Evaluation Agreement With Ministry of Natural Resources of Rwanda | 29 January 2013 | CBS Money Watch
Vanoil Energy Ltd. has announced that it has executed a two month extension to its Technical Evaluation Agreement with the Rwandan Ministry of Natural Resources, providing Vanoil with the exclusive right to negotiate a Production Sharing Contract covering approximately 1,631 square kilometres of the East Kivu Graben, located beneath Lake Kivu, Rwanda.



Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Conflict minerals due diligence
MetalMiner Releases Manufacturers' Guide to Conflict Minerals Compliance | 29 January 2013 | Marketwire
MetalMine, an industry-leading website, has launched a white paper, The Definitive Guide to Conflict Minerals Compliance for Manufacturers. The paper covers the primary approaches companies have taken to address conflict minerals compliance. In addition, the guide examines underlying technologies and resources that can help support conflict minerals compliance efforts, along with an A-Z listing of conflict minerals and semi-finished metals. With link to report.


La RDC, « pays proche de la conformité » grâce à son rapport ITIE 2010  | 25 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
National Committee of the Initiative for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in the DRC has released its third EITI report (2010) on Friday finding the DRC close to compliance.
Land Law Reform
Analysis: Small steps to land reform in eastern DRC | 29 January 2013 | IRIN
Article discussing the reasons for land shortage in the DRC and outlining its relation to conflict and attempts to mediate land disputes. It highlights advocacy for the reform of land law, which fails to define customary land rights, and recent statements of political will to address the issue on a national scale by the Congolese government. It also highlights the major hurdles to securing determination of land ownership.


Ugandan oil legislation
What’s at stake in Uganda’s oil bills? | 24 January 2013 | Open Oil
Comment piece outlining that the two remaining Ugandan oil bills are likely to continue to prolong the progress of oil exploitation in Uganda, stating that aside from the size of the refinery sought by the government in the downstream bill, points of contention will remain over the fact that whilst appearing to yield to calls for best practice and transparency, provisions ensuring accountability for control over oil revenues remain conspicuously lacking.
Poaching penalties
Poachers to Get Tougher Fines in New Tourism Law  | 29 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Uganda is considering amending its 1996 Wildlife Act to impose tougher monetary and custodial penalties on poachers and traders of wildlife products, including elephants. The review also seeks to address the challenges posed by oil and gas exploration in sensitive areas of wildlife conservation through the imposition of environmental impact assessments.



Mining bill
Thumbs down from miners for draft bill  | 29 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
A draft bill on mining in Rwanda came under fire from operators at a meeting in Kigali in mid-January. Many feel the future of a booming industry is at stake. Mining companies are worried about several measures in the new legislation. Subscription required.


IPIS Recent Publications

Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS
US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the linkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead. 
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