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WEEKLY BRIEFING 17TH - 23RD JANUARY 2013

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Editorial
 

IPIS Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

Central African Republic
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC
Uganda

Burundi
Other
 
Justice and Tribunals

Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi

Central African Republic
 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL


While, in the Central African Republic, Nicolas Tiangaye, the prime minister thrust upon President Bozizé by opposition and rebels, is trying to form his transition government, Seleka rebels on the field appear to be dissatisfied with the Libreville accords. Elements of the rebel coalition created havoc in two towns, thus in effect breaching the ceasefire, but their abuses were condemned by the Seleka leaders in Bangui.
In the east of the CAR, the chief bodyguard of Joseph Kony and main logistician of the LRA
 was killed by the Ugandan army.
 
The talks between the DRC Government and the M23 rebels in Kampala seem to have come to a stalemate. M23 insists on discussing political issues and demands the installation of a transition council, which is totally unacceptable for the Government.
 
In North Kivu, various armed groups continue to recruit children. In Katanga, different Mai-Mai groups remain very active, with the Congolese army engaged in an operation against them. Remarkably, refugees from Katanga who arrived in Zambia say they are fleeing the army, not the Mai-Mai.
 
The 2010 EITI report for the DRC was disclosed last week, showing that the State revenues from oil and mining are on par with those from agriculture.
 

 


IPIS Latest Publications



Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.


Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

 
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 


LRA – Kony’s chief bodyguard killed in CAR
UPDF kills LRA leader Kony’s chief bodyguard | 21 January 2013 | New Vision
Ugandan army says it kills top Kony bodyguard | 21 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Joseph Kony’s Bodyguard Killed in CAR | 21 January 2013 | Voice of America
Central African Republic: Troops Kill Rebel Leader’s Bodyguard | 21 January 2013 | The New York Times
Joseph Kony's chief bodyguard killed, Ugandan army says | 21 January 2013 | The Guardian
The Ugandan army (UPDF) has shot and killed Brig. Binani, a member of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebel high command and chief bodyguard of leader Joseph Kony. Army spokesperson Col. Felix Kulayigye said that Binani was also in charge of logistics, movement of food and abductions for the LRA, but he may not have been recently operating close to Kony. He was killed on Friday following a clash with a UPDF squad in the east of Central African Republic, 280 km north of Djema, close to the border with South Sudan.
 
 
Iranian ammunition used in African conflicts
Iranian Ammunition Surfaces in African Conflicts | 21 January 2013 | Voice of America
For years, unmarked ammunition has been turning up in some of Africa's bloodiest conflict zones — Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ivory Coast. After a six-year investigation, independent arms investigators with Britain-based Conflict Armament Research (CAR) say they have figured out where the ammunition is being made: Iran. According to their December 2012 report, “The Distribution of Iranian Ammunition in Africa", CAR researchers say Iranian ammunition is circulating widely in Africa despite a United Nations arms embargo on Iran.
 
 
African Union Summit
AU Summit: Rights Key for Addressing Crises | 21 January 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Sommet de l’UA: Les droits humains sont un élément essentiel de la résolution des crises | 21 January 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Crise dans l’Est de la RDC : Human rights watch plaide pour « une action concertée » | 23 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The African Union (AU) should make human rights central to its discussions about crises situations in Africa at its summit meeting this week in Ethiopia, Human Rights Watch said today in an open letter to the AU chairperson, Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma. The Ordinary Summit begins on January 21, 2013, and AU heads of state are due to meet on January 27 and 28 in Addis Ababa. The AU summit should address the human rights crises in Mali, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and Somalia as well as the human rights challenges around upcoming elections in Kenya and Zimbabwe, Human Rights Watch said.
 
AU Must Combat Impunity for International Crimes | 21 January 2013 | Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) | allAfrica
Analysis. With the African Union (AU) Heads of State Summit getting underway next week in Ethiopia, many people will be eagerly watching how newly elected AU Chairperson, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, oversees proceedings and the stance she adopts on critical issues facing the continent - such as impunity for international crimes. Indeed, 140 civil society organisations have just written a letter to the AU Commission Chair to urge her to ensure that the AU does more to combat impunity for the gravest crimes.
 
African Leaders to Discuss Regional War Crimes Court | 23 January 2013 | Institute for War & Peace Reporting (IWPR)
Ahead of an African Union summit in Addis Ababa this week, legal experts are urging caution over plans to expand the jurisdiction of the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights to allow it to try individuals for mass crimes. The proposal is likely to be on the agenda for the African Union meeting taking place on January 21-28.

 
 

DRC 

MONUSCO weekly press conference
Conférence de presse des Nations Unies du mercredi 23 janvier 2013 | 23 January 2013 | MONUSCO
 
 
M23
Interview with Steve Hege, Former Coordinator, UN Group of Experts on the DRC | 16 January 2013 | Global Observatory
Steve Hege is the former coordinator of the United Nations Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which in November 2012 presented a report to the UN Security Council that contained overwhelming evidence of Rwanda and Uganda's support of the M23 rebel group.
 
M23 Rebels Making Millions through Gold Smuggling from Eastern Congo | 17 January 2013 | The Enough Project
As details about M23-linked gold smuggling from the conflict area underscores, the group maintains an extensive and lucrative network throughout the region, which undermines any hopes that the Kampala process alone will bring about lasting stability. Most recently, Congo’s neighbor, Burundi, has become a transit point for smuggling gold from Congo, according to Enough Project sources.
 
DR Congo Govt Doubts M23 Commitment to Truce | 21 January 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The DRC government has expressed doubt about the M23 rebel commitment to its unilateral ceasefire, saying the rebels have not respected the regional Heads of State directive to withdraw 20 kilometers outside Goma city.
 
M23 rebels impose new leaders - officials | 22 January 2013 | AFP | IOL News
M23 Accused of Imposing New Leaders, Taxes | 23 January 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Officials in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo accuse rebel force M23 of replacing traditional leaders and extorting heavy taxes from the people, while peace talks take place in Uganda under a ceasefire.
 
 
Kampala peace talks
Pourparlers de Kampala: le gouvernement et les rebelles du M23 adoptent l’ordre du jour | 17 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The DRC Governement and the M23 rebels on Wednesday 16 January adopted the agenda of the peace talks they started in Kampala 10 December 2012. Four items will be discussed: review of the agreement of 23 March 2009 between the Government and the former rebel group CNDP, security issues, social, political and economic issues, and the mechanism of implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the Kampala agreement. The review of the agreement of 23 March 2009 has two parts: its evaluation, and the mechanisms for its implementation, as well as related issues.
 
Pourparlers de Kampala - Kinshasa se prépare à répondre aux griefs du M23 | 17 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica

The delegation of the Government of the DR Congo will reply Thursday 17 January to the various grievances expressed Wednesday by the M23 movement regarding the agreement of 23 March 2009, security, political, economic and social issues.
 
RDC: le gouvernement qualifie de « vaste blague » la demande du M23 de mettre en place une transition | 18 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Négociations RDC/M23 à Kampala : pas question d'une nouvelle transition, selon la RDC | 18 January 2013 | Radio des Nations Unies
The head of the Group of experts of the delegation of the DRC Government, the Rev Apollinaire Malu Malu, labelled the claims presented by the M23 during the plenary session on Wednesday 16 January as a "broad joke". The rebellion had demanded the establishment of a national transition council to replace all the institutions of the DRC until the organisation of new elections.
 
DRC Government Rejects 'Unconstitutional' Rebel Demands | 18 January 2013 | Voice of America
The Democratic Republic of Congo’s government has ruled out what it calls ‘unconstitutional’ demands presented by the M23 rebels at talks in Kampala, Uganda. The M23 rebellion started out last April as a mutiny by a few hundred soldiers in Congo’s North Kivu province who were calling for the full implementation of a peace agreement signed on March 23, 2009. This week in Kampala the rebels tabled a much broader list of proposals.
 
Négociations de Kampala: Kinshasa et le M23 tomberont-ils d'accord? | 19 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
For several hours Saturday, the negotiators of the Kinshasa Government and the rebels of the M23 evaluated point by point the implementation of the agreement signed in Goma between Kinshasa and the CNDP on 23 March 2009.
 
Pourparlers de Kampala: l’ONG Pole Institute s’oppose au «partage du pouvoir» | 21 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Pole Institute is opposed to the idea of a power sharing agreement between the Government and the M23 rebels at the negotiations in Kampala.
 
RDC: impasse à Kampala? | 21 January 2013 | RFI
The discussions between the Government delegation and the rebels of the M23 do not seem to make much progress.
 
Kampala : un seul point de l’ordre du jour débattu depuis le début des pourparlers | 22 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The review of the first item on the agenda of the talks between the Government and the M23 rebellion, concerning the evaluation of the agreement of 23 March 2009, started on Wednesday 16 January, is not yet exhausted. The Government and the rebels say the discussions have not come to a deadlock.
 
RDC: le dialogue de Kampala tourne au vinaigre pour le M23 | 22-23 January 2013 | RFI
The Kampala dialogue seems to turn out badly for the M23. The Ugandan mediator refused Tuesday 22 January to extend the negotiation to topics involving the legitimacy of Kabila’s regime. Disagreements appear in the M23 between those who want to continue the dialogue and others who want to slam the door.
 
RDC : le M23 demande au président ougandais de s'impliquer dans les négociations de Kampala | 23 January 2013 | RFI
Still no agreement in sight on the DRC between the M23 rebel movement and Kinshasa. Kinshasa wants to put an end to the talks quickly but the M23 insists on continuing the debate, and asks the Ugandan president to intervene.
 
M23 Rebels Threaten to Pull Out of Congo Talks Even as Negotiations Move Forward | 23 January 2013 | The Enough Project
Despite failing to see eye-to-eye on a range of issues up for discussion in the Kampala peace talks, the Congolese government and the M23 rebels moved ahead over the weekend with a review of the March 23, 2009 agreement that is officially at the crux of the movement’s rebellion. The Saturday session, which lasted well into the night, left both sides satisfied, according to Thomas Muiti, North Kivu civil society president.
 
 
Neutral International Force
Les armées d’ Afrique australe se mobilisent autour du Congo | 17 January 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
Mobilisation à l’ordre du jour des armées des pays de la SADC déterminés à soutenir la RDC | 18 January 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
Six cents militaires tanzaniens en route pour sécuriser Goma dans le cadre du déploiement de la Force internationale neutre ! | 21 January 2013 | Le Palmarès | Digitalcongo.net
Military top-level representatives of the member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have met in Kinshasa behind closed doors to discuss the organisation of the Neutral International Force to be deployed between DRC and Rwanda.
 
Nord-Kivu : Roger Meece à Goma pour étudier les modalités de déploiement de la Force internationale neutre | 18 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Roger Meece, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General in DRC, is in Goma, North Kivu, to study the practical arrangements for the deployment of the future neutral international force.
 
Africa wants command and control of DRC force | 21 January 2013 | New Vision
During a meeting of army and their political heads on Sunday in Kampala, Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) and Southern Africa (SADC) military chiefs, Uganda's minister of defence Dr. Crispus Kiyonga said that African countries should be given command and not be placed under the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo MONUSCO.
 
 
Drones to monitor the East?
UN seeks unmanned aircraft for use in DR Congo | 18 January 2013 | Flightglobal
The United Nations is seeking unmanned air vehicles for operations with peacekeeping forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Officials with the international organisation, which relies on member states to supply military forces, have made requests to at least two UAV-operating nations, France and the USA, to make systems available in support of its long-running stabilisation mission in the country, MONUSCO.
 
RDC: les drones renforceront les capacités de la Monusco et de l’armée, selon Roger Meece | 18 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The use of drones to monitor the border between the DRC and Rwanda will reinforce the capacity of the peacekeepers of the United Nations mission in the DRC (Monusco) and the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) against the security challenges in the East of the country, Roger Meece, the head of Monusco, said.
 
No issue with US drones in DRC: Kagame | 21 January 2013 | Sapa-AP | IOL News
Rwandan President Paul Kagame says he has no problem with a United Nations plan to use surveillance drones in neighboring Congo. Kagame told a news conference Monday that if the U.N. thinks the drones will help achieve peace, then “let them do it.” He added that he doesn't think Rwanda has the power to stop such a U.N. deployment.
 
RDC : des drones pour surveiller la frontière avec le Rwanda ? | 22 January 2013 | Jeune Afrique
The mission of the United Nations in DRC thinks of using drones to monitor the East of the country. Rwandan president Paul Kagame said Tuesday 22 January he doesn’t object.
 
La Monusco salue l’accord du Rwanda pour l’envoi des drones dans l’Est de la RDC | 23 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Monusco is satisfied that Rwanda, after Uganda and DRC, agrees to the use of drones within the borders of the three countries.
 
 
 
Report on PARECO militia, North Kivu
PARECO: Land, Local Strongmen and the Roots of Militia Politics in North Kivu | January 2013 | Rift Valley Institute
The RVI Usalama Project’s third report is an account of the origins and activities of PARECO, the Coalition des patriotes congolais résistants, a faction that emerged out of local grievances about land, grew strong as a response to the CNDP (the subject of the first Usalama Project report), and was then largely co-opted by North Kivu's Hutu elites. ‘While PARECO was integrated into the national army in 2009,’ says the report author, Usalama Project director Jason Stearns, ‘the recent M23 rebellion threatens to give a new impetus to rural militias, including those with roots in the Hutu community, with devastating consequences for the civilian population.’
 
 
Clashes between Mai-Mai and new militia in Rutshuru territory, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : 4 personnes tuées dans les affrontements entre deux milices à Kisharo | 23 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three civilians and one Mai-Mai fighter were killed in clashes between Mai-Mai Shetani and fighters of the People’s Self-defence Movement (Mouvement populaire d’autodéfense, MPA), a new militia consisting mainly of Hutu youth, in Kisharo, more than 90 km to the northeast of Goma, in the territory of Rutshuru (North Kivu).
 
 
Child recruitment by armed groups in Masisi territory, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu : élèves et enseignants désertent les écoles à cause du recrutement des groupes armés à Mpati | 22 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
In the region of Mpati in the territory of Masisi, North Kivu, the M26 militia (ex-Nyatura), the FDLR and a faction of the Mai-Mai Pareco are all reported to forcibly recruit children.
 
 
Mai-Mai in South Kivu
RDC: d’anciens miliciens invitent les combattants Maï-Maï du Sud-Kivu à intégrer l’armée | 22 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The armed groups Mai-Mai Yakutumba and Parti d’action et de la reconstruction du Congo-Force armée Alléluia (PARC-FAAL), who surrendered to the Congolese army, have started to sensitise other Mai-Mai groups operating in South-Kivu, to convince them to join the Congolese army.
 
La Monusco juge « volatile » la situation sécuritaire au Sud-Kivu | 23 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
According to Monusco, the Mai-Mai Mutomboki continue to consolidate their presence and commit violent actions against the population in the territories of Kalehe, Shabunda and Walungu.
 
 
FRPI militia in Ituri, Province Orientale
Bunia: le chef milicien Cobra Matata se dit prêt à réintégrer les FARDC | 17 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The chief of the FRPI militia in Ituri, Matata Banaloki alias Cobra, has said he is ready to rejoin the ranks of the Congolese army with his men.
 
 
Article on militia chief Morgan, Mambasa territory, Ituri, Province Orientale
Rainforest riches a curse for civilians in northeast DRC | 23 January 2013 | IRIN
For the past 10 months, a little-known conflict in a marginalized corner of northeast DR Congo has left a trail of killing, abduction, rape and forced displacement, with few signs of an imminent resolution. The man most frequently associated with the recent violence is Paul Sadala, better known as Morgan.
 
 
Violence in Ango territory, Province Orientale
Province Orientale : des hommes armés tuent une personne et prennent 6 otages à Digba | 19 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Armed men have killed a man and abducted six persons in an ambush in Digba, in the territory of Ango, more than 600 km north of Kisangani, Province Orientale.
 
 
Mai-Mai violence in Katanga
Katanga: Moïse Katumbi appelle les jeunes à quitter les rangs des groupes Maï-Maï | 18 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Katanga Governor Moïse Katumbi made an appeal to the population of the north of the province to sensitise the young people to leave the Mai-Mai groups active in this part of the DRC.
 
Katanga: des Maï-Maï ont tué deux personnes au village de Mandumbwila | 22 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Mai-Mai militiamen have killed two people and destroyed several houses during an attack on the village of Mandumbwila, about 50 km from Bunkeya.
 
Two Hundred DRC Refugees Enter Mwense | 22 January 2013 | Times of Zambia | allAfrica
More than 200 refugees from Kasenga territory in the DR Congo have entered Zambia, Mwense District, through Katabulwe harbour on Luapula River. The Mwense District Commissioner says that, according to them, the refugees are running away from Government soldiers of their country because they are allegedly being accused of harbouring rebels. Recently, about 1,000 refugees entered Zambia through Kilwa Island in Nchelenge and Chiengi districts.
 
Katanga: les combats entre FARDC et Maï-Maï ont fait 13 morts à Kasenga | 23 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
An offensive of the Congolese army (FARDC) launched two weeks ago against the positions of the Mai-Mai group Kata Katanga in the territory of Kasenga has left 13 dead, one of whom a Congolese soldier, military sources said.
On another front, between Kasomeno and Kilwa, Mai-Mai militiamen reportedly looted a military truck.
 
Situation sécuritaire «préoccupante» dans les territoires de Kasenga et Pweto au Katanga | 23 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Interview with Interior Minister Richard Muyej on the worrying security situation in Katanga, especially in the territories of Kasenga and Pweto.
 
 
Study on Congolese army since independence
M. Wondo: “La RDC ne peut devenir une nation forte sans une armée assainie” | 21 January 2013 | Mo | Ingeta
Interview with Jean-Jacques Wondo Omanyundu, author of “Les armées au Congo-Kinshasa. Radioscopie de la Force Publique au FARDC.”



 

Central African Republic

RCA: l'opposant Nicolas Tiangaye nommé Premier ministre | 17 January 2013 | RFI
Bozizé confirme Tiangaye à la primature, les détenus politiques de la Séléka libérés | 17 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Centrafrique : François Bozizé nomme Nicolas Tiangaye Premier ministre | 17 January 2013 | Afrik.com
Thursday 17 January, President François Bozizé appointed Nicolas Tiangaye as prime minister of the Government of national unity decided on in the Libreville peace agreement. Tiangaye was chosen by the democratic opposition and the Seleka rebel coalition. He is a renowned lawyer and ardent human rights advocate, respected by all. He is “a good person”, said Eric Massi, coordinator of Seleka.
 
Touadera sort et Tiangaye entre à la primature | 18 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Centrafrique: Un opposant premier ministre | 18 January 2013 | Africa Info (Douala) | allAfrica
Centrafrique : passation de pouvoir entre Touadéra et Tiangaye | 19 January 2013 | Afrik.com
In a ceremony held on 18 January in the presence of national and international authorities, outgoing prime minister Faustin Archange Touadéra handed over his office to Nicolas Tiangaye, prime minister of the Transition.
 
RCA: après l'accord de Libreville, sur le terrain la guerre s'est assoupie | 19 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
In CAR, with the signing of the Libreville agreement fighting ceased. The opposition member and lawyer Nicolas Tiangaye was appointed Prime Minister. And in Bangui, the formation of the Transitional Government is now awaited.
 
Centrafrique : Idriss Déby prolonge le mandat des forces tchadiennes | 20 January 2013 | Afrik.com
The president of Chad, Idriss Déby, announced that the deployment of Chadian troops in CAR as part of the multinational forces of MICOPAX is prolonged until 2014.
 
UN official disappointed by new reports of child soldiers in Central African Republic | 21 January 2013 | UN News Centre
La Représentante spéciale pour les enfants et les conflits armés condamne l'utilisation d'enfants-soldats en RCA | 21 January 2013 | UN News Centre
A top United Nations official today expressed disappointment after new reports of child recruitment by armed groups in the Central African Republic (CAR) that had previously made commitments to stop this practice.
 
Violation de l’accord de Libreville par la Séléka, la Majorité présidentielle réagit | 22 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Centrafrique : panique à Bangassou, le Séléka reprend son offensive | 23 January 2013 | Afrik.com
Several cases of pillage by Seleka rebels in the towns of Dimbi and Kembe, in the centre-east of CAR, have been reported.
 
Assassinat d’un gendarme à Kémbé, promesse d’une plainte contre Séléka bientôt à la CPI | 23 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
Reportedly a gendarme was killed in Kembe during the capture of the town.
 
CAR Rebels Break Terms of Cease-Fire | 23 January 2013 | Voice of America
In a interview Wednesday with VOA's French to Africa Service, Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye said elements of the Seleka rebel alliance had entered towns and vandalized government buildings, violating the accord between the government and rebels. "I regret these abuses made by some Seleka rebels and, by the way, Seleka itself acknowledged the situation and proposed sanctions for these rebels.   Fortunately, I do not think this will have any consequence on the peace process and the stability of the country," he said.
 
 
Comments, analyses, field reports
Situation in Central African Republic Fragile Even as Rebels, Government Sign Peace Deal | 17 January 2013 | The Enough Project
After a month-long standoff, the Central African Republic government and a rebel alliance agreed upon a peace deal to end an uprising that threatened to spark a humanitarian crisis and un-seat President François Bozizé.
 
Nicolas Tiangaye Premier ministre, un chemin vers la paix semé d'embûches | 18 January 2013 | RFI
 
Bozizé back from the brink | 18 January 2013 | Africa Confidential
The deal to install an interim government belies how close the rebels came to toppling the President before allies – and luck – came to his rescue.
 
With Zuma to Bangui | 18 January 2013 | Africa Confidential
The presence of 400 South African soldiers in Bangui, backed by a group of mercenaries, does not mean that President Jacob Zuma is trying to take over France’s historic strategic role in the region, as many in the media have assumed.
 
RCA: les frustrations des rebelles après l'accord de Libreville | 20 January 2013 | RFI
Central African Republic: CAR Rebels Dissatisfied with Peace Accord | 22 January 2013 | Cameroon Tribune | allAfrica
Seleka rebel field commanders expressed dismay at the terms of the peace accords. According to Col. Hamadine Guidam, a former member of UFDR rebels, his men are not satisfied with the recent agreement because several of such deals had been signed in the past with no apparent results. He said the last agreement allowed President François Bozizé to continue in power for six years, but the people had continued to "live like monkeys with no roads, running water or schools."
 
RCA: qui sont vraiment les combattants de la Seleka? | 21 January 2013 | RFI
We know that the Seleka rebellion is an alliance of previous rebellions. But all in all, it remains rather mysterious. Report.
 
Reprise de vie à Bangui, malgré l’attente de l’équipe Tiangaye | 21 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
 
Formation d'un gouvernement en Centrafrique: le casse-tête de Nicolas Tiangaye | 22 January 2013 | RFI
Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye is now in function. Negotiations have begun to form the Transitional Government, which will be hard, because each camp has already expressed its demands. But it is the President that may present the most difficult challenge to Nicolas Tiangaye.
 
RCA: les forces internationales toujours à Bangui | 23 January 2013 | RFI
Several international forces are still present in the CAR. In addition to the Ugandans who hunt down the LRA in the southeast of the country, French, Central African and South African soldiers remain positioned in the capital. Report from Bangui.
 
Fragile Libreville agreement | 23 January 2013 | West Africa Newsletter
The terms of the Central African Republic peace agreement that was signed in Libreville on January 11 by Jean Willybiro Sako, the opposition and rebel forces hint at power struggles to come. 
 

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

$30.5 million urgently needed to support humanitarian response in North Kivu | 17 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
30,5 millions de dollars nécessaires pour soutenir l’assistance humanitaire au Nord-Kivu | 17 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
UN appeals for $30.5 million to support humanitarian response in eastern DR Congo | 17 January 2013 | UN News Centre
RDC : l'ONU demande 30,5 millions de dollars pour financer l'assistance humanitaire au Nord-Kivu | 17 January 2013 | UN News Centre
 
Democratic Republic of Congo - Sexual Violence Rife in Goma Camps | 17 January 2013 | MSF | allAfrica
 
Humanitarian Action in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Weekly Bulletin, 18 January 2013 | 18 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bukavu/RDC : près de 5.800 ménages fuient les affrontements entre l’armée et des miliciens ; la réponse humanitaire s’organise | 18 January 2013 | Caritas | Reliefweb
35.000 déplacés après des combats entre l'armée et une milice dans l'Est | 22 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Walungu/Sud-Kivu : des humanitaires toujours préoccupés par la situation de 5.800 ménages déplacés | 23 January 2013 | Caritas | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 04/13, 22 janvier 2013 | 22 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Uncertainty for Angolans stripped of refugee status in DRC | 22 January 2013 | IRIN
Some 40,000 former Angolan refugees in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are living in limbo, unwilling to go home but lacking legal status in DRC. 
 
Bulletin d'information Humanitaire - Province du Nord-Kivu - N° 02/13 | 23 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Latest crisis in Congo DRC underlines link between hunger and conflict | 23 January 2013 | The Guardian
War is tipping fragile regions in Congo DRC into disaster and making it difficult for aid agencies to operate.
 
[Video] DR Congo: plight of the displaced | 23 January 2013 | ICRC | Reliefweb
[Video] RD Congo : l'errance des déplacés | 23 January 2013 | ICRC | Reliefweb
 

 

Uganda

Rehabilitation centre for Uganda’s LRA returnees to close | 18 January 2013 | IRIN
One of the only two remaining reception centres in northern Uganda helping reintegrate former members of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) is threatened with closure.


Burundi 

Les personnes affectées par le conflit au cœur du développement du Burundi | 19 January 2013 | PNUD-UNDP Burundi
 

 

Other

Central African Republic
Central African Republic Situation Report No. 3 (as of 17 January 2013) | 17 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Central African Republic: Crisis snapshot (as of 17 Jan. 2013) | 17 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
 
Central African Republic External Situation Report No. 3 | 17 January 2013 | WFP | HDPT CAR | Reliefweb
 
 
Zambia
Two Hundred DRC Refugees Enter Mwense | 22 January 2013 | Times of Zambia | allAfrica
More than 200 refugees from Kasenga territory in the DR Congo have entered Zambia, Mwense District, through Katabulwe harbour on Luapula River. The Mwense District Commissioner says that, according to them, the refugees are running away from Government soldiers of their country because they are allegedly being accused of harbouring rebels. Recently, about 1,000 refugees entered Zambia through Kilwa Island in Nchelenge and Chiengi districts.
 
 

 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

Rwanda 

Genocide trial against Mugesera in Kigali
Trial of Professor Extradited From Canada Finally Starts in Rwanda | 17 January 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Le procès d'un universitaire extradé du Canada s'est ouvert sur le fond à Kigali | 17 January 2013 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
The trial started Thursday in Rwanda of Léon Mugesera, the former Rwandan politician extradited from Canada a year ago. Charges against him include incitement to commit the genocide of 1994. The linguist and former teacher at the University of Rwanda is charged notably in connection with a speech at a big public rally of his MRND party in November 1992.
 
Mugesera Trial Kicks Off | 18 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
 
A Kigali, le procès de Léon Mugesera, ancien homme politique hutu | 19 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
 
Mugesera Supplied Guns ? Prosecution | 21 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The trial of Mugesera in substance opened last Thursday at the Special Chamber of the High Court. He was charged with several counts, including inciting the masses to take part in genocide, planning and preparing the genocide, conspiracy in the crime of genocide, torture as a crime against mankind, and inciting hatred among people.
 
Mugesera Says 'Inyenzi' Did Not Refer to Tutsis | 21 January 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Mugesera Starts His Defence | 22 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Genocide suspect Leon Mugesera yesterday denied the word inyenzi (cockroaches) is derogatory as he begun submitting his defence at the Special Chamber of the High Court.
 
I Was Never Influential, Mugesera Tells Court | 23 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
 
Mugesera Trial Postponed | 23 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The trial of Genocide suspected Leon Mugesera was today postponed until Jan.28 after the defendant claimed sickness.
 
 

 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

DRC 

Gold smuggling
M23 Rebels Making Millions through Gold Smuggling from Eastern Congo | 17 January 2013 | The Enough Project
As details about M23-linked gold smuggling from the conflict area underscores, the group maintains an extensive and lucrative network throughout the region, which undermines any hopes that the Kampala process alone will bring about lasting stability. Most recently, Congo’s neighbor, Burundi, has become a transit point for smuggling gold from Congo, according to Enough Project sources.
 
Tin smuggling
Maniema : 5 tonnes de cassitérite saisies à Lubutu | 21 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Authorities seized five tons of cassiterite in Lubutu territory, more than 300 km north of Kindu, in Maniema province. These ores are extracted in Lubutu and fraudulently transported to Butembo in North Kivu.
 
 
International treaty on mercury in artisanal gold mining
Mercury Treaty Will Help Protect Right to Health | 19 January 2013 | Human Rights Watch
Le traité sur le mercure contribuera à protéger le droit à la santé | 19 January 2013 | Human Rights Watch
The international mercury treaty just agreed sends an important signal that governments must do more to address the threat of mercury to the right to health, Human Rights Watch said today. On January 19, 2013, 140 governments created the treaty after five rounds of intense talks, which began in 2010.
 
Artisanal miners complaining
Katanga : les creuseurs se plaignent de ne pas profiter de l’exploitation minière artisanale | 23 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Katanga numbers about 50 mining cooperatives, each based in an artisanal mining zone created by the Ministry of Mines. More than five years after these mining zones were created, the living conditions of the artisanal miners have not improved.
 


 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

EITI Report 2010
DR Congo discloses sobering figures on revenue from natural resources | 21 January 2013 | EITI
Democratic Republic of the Congo's EITI disclosed last week the most comprehensive report of what their government receives from the country’s natural resources. The 2010 EITI Report reveals sobering figures that will inform the debate about how DRC's extractives are being taxed. The revenues from oil and mining are around US$ 13 per capita, on par with those from agriculture.
 
 
Copper/cobalt
New Independent Resource Estimate More Than Doubles High-Grade Indicated Mineral Resources at Ivanplats' Kamoa Copper Discovery in the Democratic Republic of Congo | 17 January 2013 | Ivanplats Limited | Marketwire
Ivanplats announced that a new, independent review of drilling results has more than doubled the current estimated Indicated Mineral Resources at Ivanplats' Kamoa copper discovery in the Kolwezi district in Katanga province, DR Congo. Kamoa now ranks as Africa's largest high-grade copper discovery and one of the world's largest undeveloped copper deposits.
 
Mukuba Resources Signs Acquisition Agreement to Consolidate the Cominex Copper Project in the DRC | 21 January 2013 | Mukuba Resources Limited | Marketwire
Toronto, Ontario – Mukuba Resources Limited announces that it has signed a definitive acquisition agreement with Benzu Resources Limited dated January 16, 2013. Mukuba will acquire all of the copper assets held by Benzu Resources in the Katanga Copper Belt of the DR Congo. Benzu Resources is Mukuba's joint venture partner at the Cominex Project in the DRC.
 
Lundin Mining Q4 and Full Year 2012 Production Results | 22 January 2013 | Lundin Mining Corporation | Marketwire
Toronto, Ontario – Lundin Mining Corporation reports its production results for the fourth quarter and full year 2012. Lundin Mining holds a 24% equity stake in the world-class Tenke Fungurume copper/cobalt mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
 
Oil & gas
Hydrocarbures : Crispin Atama innove encore, désormais son ministère doté d’un site web | 21 January 2013 | Digitalcongo.net
Hydrocarbures - Crispin Atama dote son ministère d'un site web ! | 22 January 2013 | La Prospérité | allAfrica
The Congolese Ministry of Hydrocarbons has launched a new website: www.hydrocarbures.gouv.cd.
 
 
Hydropower
Rwanda teams up with neighbours on hydropower prospects | 18 January 2013 | Engineering News
Rwanda has announced plans to partner with its neighbours in an effort to accelerate the construction of two hydropower plants as part of a $6-billion energy expansion programme. The East African country intends to partner with Burundi, Tanzania and the DRC in the construction of two hydropower plants with a combined generation capacity of 235 MW. The two projects are the $565-million 145 MW Rusizi III project on the Rusizi river, which will be developed in partnership with Burundi and DRC, and the $400-million 90 MW Rusumo Falls project, to be developed in partnership with Burundi and Tanzania.
 
Bangui to start selling power | 22 January 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The ramshackle state of the grid in the north of DR Congo is forcing donors to think of preparing stations in Central African Republic to supply Equateur province.

 
 

Uganda

Copper
Five Firms Shortlisted for Kilembe Mines | 17 January 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
A short list of five international companies out of nine which expressed interest in investing in Kilembe Mines Limited has been recommended to proceed to the final stage of the privatisation process following a one-month procurement evaluation exercise.
 
 
Oil
More Oil Found, 17 New Wells for Tullow | 19 January 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
While expectations on the sharing of oil revenues continue to build, most Ugandans will be pleased to know of additional discoveries of oil in Nwoya district in the Acholi sub-region by French oil and gas company Total SA.
 
Ex-Minister Suruma Advises On Oil Money for Pensions | 20 January 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
Former minister of finance Dr. Ezra Suruma has advised that Government should consider allocating money from oil revenue, to strengthen the national welfare system with pensions, and universal health insurance to improve the lives of Ugandans.
 
 
Hydropower
Karuma Power Dam Technical Bids Completed | 22 January 2013 | New Vision | allAfrica
The technical re-evaluation process for the bids interested in the construction of the proposed 600 megawatt (MW) Karuma hydropower project has been completed.
 
Govt to Build 10 Mini Hydro Power Plants | 22 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
The project is expected to connect electricity to 340,000 households, 800 SMEs.
 
 
Geothermal energy
Tapping of Geothermal Energy Finalized | 22 January 2013 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
Kampala, Uganda, is looking at the middle of this year as the time when the country will ascertain the geothermal potential and areas to be drilled. Speaking to the East African Business Week in an interview last week, Mr. Vincent Kato, the Principal Geologist at Geological Survey and Mines Department said that they had identified sites and four had been developed.

 
 

Rwanda

Tin-coltan
Solomon Targets Tin-Coltan Mineralization at Gipfizi Ridge in Rurembo Tin Project, Republic of Rwanda; Company Evaluating Placer Potential of Artisanal Mining District | 21 January 2013 | Solomon Resources | Marketwire
Vernon, British Columbia – Solomon Resources Limited reports that its Rwandan exploration crews have started preliminary exploration of the Gipfizi Ridge tin and coltan (niobium-tantalum) target, located 20 kilometers north of the town of Gitarama, Republic of Rwanda. Gipfizi Ridge is one of the five high priority follow-up areas identified in Solomon's analysis of airborne geophysical data and geological mapping in the Rurembo Prospecting Licence area. This target includes a zone of active artisanal minesites identified in the inventory recently completed by the Company's geological contractors.
 
 
Gas
ContourGlobal sees March start-up | 22 January 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The inauguration of the first section of ContourGlobal’s methane gas power plant on Lake Kivu is now scheduled for the end of March. 
 
Gas Extraction Won't Affect Lake Kivu, Experts | 22 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The extraction of the methane gas from the bed of Lake Kivu is not likely to affect the eco-system of the lake and the surrounding areas as had been feared by some experts. A study carried out by a joint Swiss-Rwandan-Congolese research project indicated that the natural stratification of Lake Kivu was unique and would not be affected in a way by the impending methane gas exploitation.
 
 
Hydropower
Rwanda teams up with neighbours on hydropower prospects | 18 January 2013 | Engineering News
Rwanda has announced plans to partner with its neighbours in an effort to accelerate the construction of two hydropower plants as part of a $6-billion energy expansion programme. The East African country intends to partner with Burundi, Tanzania and the DRC in the construction of two hydropower plants with a combined generation capacity of 235 MW. The two projects are the $565-million 145 MW Rusizi III project on the Rusizi river, which will be developed in partnership with Burundi and DRC, and the $400-million 90 MW Rusumo Falls project, to be developed in partnership with Burundi and Tanzania.

 
 

Burundi

Hydropower
Rwanda teams up with neighbours on hydropower prospects | 18 January 2013 | Engineering News
Rwanda has announced plans to partner with its neighbours in an effort to accelerate the construction of two hydropower plants as part of a $6-billion energy expansion programme. The East African country intends to partner with Burundi, Tanzania and the DRC in the construction of two hydropower plants with a combined generation capacity of 235 MW. The two projects are the $565-million 145 MW Rusizi III project on the Rusizi river, which will be developed in partnership with Burundi and DRC, and the $400-million 90 MW Rusumo Falls project, to be developed in partnership with Burundi and Tanzania.

 
 

Central African Republic 

Oil
Seleka also replaces Grynberg | 22 January 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
Just as Central African Republic was about to recover rights on oil prospects in the north of the country they were occupied by rebels from the Seleka movement. 
 
Dig Oil halted in its tracks | 22 January 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
A rebellion by the Seleka coalition is preventing the only two oil companies active in Central African Republic from working. And it’s cooled the ardour of those wanting to invest in CAR.
 
Hydropower
Bangui to start selling power | 22 January 2013 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The ramshackle state of the grid in the north of Democratic Republic of Congo is forcing donors to think of preparing stations in Central African Republic to supply Equateur province.
 
 

 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 


Compliance with Dodd-Frank ‘Conflict minerals’ rules
U.S. Conflict Minerals: Background and Proposed Rule | 19 January 2013 | EHS Journal
This is the first of a multi-part series of EHS Journal articles that provide background and guidance on the final rules for Dodd-Frank Conflict Minerals (DFCM) published by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on August 22, 2012. For most companies, DFCM requirements become effective beginning in calendar year 2013.
 
Conflict Minerals: Compliance Challenges Ahead as Businesses Worry About Penalization | 21 January 2013 | CSRwire
New U.S. reporting requirements on sourcing “conflict minerals” create challenges and opportunities for companies.
 
US industry lawsuit against Dodd-Frank conflict minerals rules
Business Groups Fully Brief “Conflict Minerals” Legal Challenge | 17 January 2013 | The Wall Street Journal
Several business groups challenging new rules that require companies to disclose whether their products contain minerals blamed for fueling violence in Africa said Wednesday regulators hadn’t adequately analyzed the rules’ impact.
The U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers and the Business Roundtable asked the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit to vacate the “conflict-mineral” rules in October. The groups fully explained their arguments for the first time on Wednesday in a 75-page brief.
 
US oil industry lawsuit against Dodd-Frank transparency rules
Congress joins the fight against Big Oil’s anti-transparency lawsuit | 18 January 2013 | Publish What You Pay USA
Prominent members of Congress submitted legal briefs this week to the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit to defend a landmark transparency law against an oil industry lawsuit. The law requires oil and mining companies to publish their payments to the U.S. and foreign governments for resource extraction. 
The lawsuit is led by the American Petroleum Institute (API), the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the International Petroleum Producers Association and others. It seeks to overturn Section 1504 or the Cardin-Lugar Amendment of the Dodd-Frank Financial Reform Act, as well as implementing regulations approved in August 2011 after a 2-year rulemaking process by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 


DRC

EITI Report 2010
DR Congo discloses sobering figures on revenue from natural resources | 21 January 2013 | EITI
Democratic Republic of the Congo's EITI disclosed last week the most comprehensive report of what their government receives from the country’s natural resources. The 2010 EITI Report reveals sobering figures that will inform the debate about how DRC's extractives are being taxed. The revenues from oil and mining are around US$ 13 per capita, on par with those from agriculture.
 
 
Dodd-Frank Conflict minerals & transparency rules
See above.
 
 

 
 

IPIS Recent Publications


 
Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS
US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the linkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead.  
 
 
 
 
 
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