International Peace Information ServiceNL | EN
Wekelijkse briefings Download PDF

WEEKLY BRIEFING 10TH - 16TH JANUARY 2013

Content

Editorial
 

IPIS Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

Burundi
Central African Republic
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

Rwanda
Central African Republic
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

Central African Republic
 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL


The Government of the Central African Republic (CAR) and the Seleka rebel alliance signed a peace agreement last week in Libreville, Gabon. CAR President Bozizé will remain in power until 2016, but a transitional unity government will be formed and legislative elections held in 12 months. The opposition, and the rebels, chose the renowned lawyer and human rights defender Nicolas Tiangaye as the new prime minister.
 
The restart of the talks between the DR Congo Government and the M23 rebel movement in Kampala, Uganda, were delayed by the sanctions the UN Security Council brought at the end of last year against M23 and two of its leaders. The two parties finally adopted the agenda of the peace talks, which goes quite beyond the only issue the Government had wanted to discuss, i.e. the implementation of the peace agreement of 23 March 2009.
At a meeting of ministers and heads of State of the Great Lake countries in Addis-Ababa, it was decided that the International Neutral Force, to be deployed along the border between DRC and Rwanda, will be integrated into MONUSCO, the UN peacekeeping mission in the DRC. Unlike the current UN mission, this integrated force is expected to have a peace enforcing mandate.
 
In Butembo, North Kivu, Mai-Mai fighters attacked the local prison and liberated 372 prisoners, many of whom Mai-Mai rebels or FARDC. Mai-Mai or other armed groups committed violence in South Kivu, Maniema, Province Orientale, and particularly in Katanga.
 
 

 

IPIS Latest Publications



Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
À la lumière de la récente occupation de Goma par le M23 et eu égard à la recrudescence du risque de conflit armé à grande échelle en RDC, IPIS publie une brève mise à jour de sa série de rapports « Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits » (2007-2010), en se focalisant spécifiquement sur les intentions du M23.
Ces rebelles affichent clairement une ambition politique et s’orientent vers l’instauration d’un contrôle politique sur le territoire, en contestant l’autorité de Kinshasa – intérêts stratégiques qu’ils pourraient partager avec le Rwanda.


Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.

 
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 


Elephant poaching in Central Africa finances armed groups
The Ivory Wars: How Poaching in Central Africa Fuels the LRA and Janjaweed | 14 January 2013 | African Arguments
There are no final or totally verifiable figures for the numbers of elephants slaughtered for their ivory in 2012. However, reports from Cameroon, DR Congo, South Sudan and the Central African Republic suggest a massive and continuing rise in killings and, ominously, the involvement of military and criminal groups such as the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), the Sudanese Janjaweed militia, Chadian poaching gangs and a ring of well-established Darfurian smugglers.
 
 
Obama signs Rewards for Justice law
Obama Signs Law That Places Cash Reward for Kony Arrest | 16 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
US President Barack Obama has assented to an amended law which places a cash reward for whoever arrests the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) leader Joseph Kony and his top commanders.
President Obama Signs Rewards for Justice Bill into Law | 16 January 2013 | The Enough Project
President Obama signed legislation into law yesterday that will expand the scope of the Rewards for Justice Program. "By signing this bill in the presence of leaders of the human rights community, the President has demonstrated his continuing personal commitment to bringing Joseph Kony and other internationally-wanted human rights abusers to justice," said Enough Project Executive Director John C. Bradshaw. "This law is also an important step by the U.S. towards a more positive relationship with the International Criminal Court."
 
 
DDR in Africa
The Lessons and Limits of DDR in Africa | 15 January 2013 | Africa Center for Strategic Studies | Reliefweb
Notwithstanding laudable successes, incomplete or poorly conceived disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) initiatives have been key factors to high rates of conflict relapse in Africa. The decision to integrate former militias into the national army is typically a political expediency that impedes military professionalism and increases the likelihood of human rights abuses and instability.
 

 

DRC 

M23
Cartographie des motivations derrière les conflits : le M23 | 10 January 2013 | International Peace Information Service (IPIS)
French translation of the report on the M23 rebel movement ‘Mapping Conflict Motives: M23’, published end November 2012.
 
ISS Seminar Report: The fall of Goma - what is next for the DRC? | 30 November 2012 | Institute for Security Studies
 
Le gouvernement menace de poursuites "tous ceux" qui soutiendront le M23 | 11 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Le gouvernement rappelle le caractère criminel du M23 | 12 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Talking about Roger Lumbala, the opposition parliamentarian who joined M23 last week, Lambert Mende, spokesperson of the Congolese Governement, said that the M23 is a criminal organization, and all those supporting it will be prosecuted
 
Hotel Rwanda's Rusesabagina Asks Tony Blair to Denounce Paul Kagame's Activities in the Congo | 14 January 2013 | PRLog
Hotel Rwanda Rusesabagina Foundation President Paul Rusesabagina today made public a letter that he sent to Tony Blair regarding Blair’s involvement with Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame.
 
Otunnu Blames Museveni Regime On DR Congo | 16 January 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Opposition Uganda People's Congress president Olara Otunnu believes that president Museveni and his regime have a role in the rebellion between the rebels of M23 and government forces in DRC. Otunnu said that the reports coming out from the United Nations are credible and should not be rejected because independent experts compile them.
 
 
Kampala peace talks
Pourparlers de Kampala: Roger Lumbala et 4 nouveaux membres de la délégation du M23 accrédités | 10 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Pourparlers de Kampala: pour le Mwami Paul Ndeze de la délégation du M23, « l’essentiel est le retour de la paix » | 13 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Five new members of the delegation of the M23, among which opposition member Roger Lumbala, received Thursday 10 January in Kampala their accreditation in the negotiations with the Congolese Government. Among them also Eugénie Mubake, from a platform of women in Goma and Ndeze Paul from Bwisha, in Rutshuru territory.
 
Le CNDP face au M23 aux pourparlers de Kampala | 10 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The ongoing talks in Kampala (Uganda) on the evaluation of the peace agreement of 23 March 2009 in Goma (North Kivu) present the peculiarity of opposing the CNDP, signatory of the document whose execution is disputed, and the M23, who is claiming its full implementation.
 
DRC government, M23 rebels resume Uganda peace talks | 11 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Peace Talks Restart in Congolese Dispute | 11 January 2013 | Voice of America
Pourparlers de Kampala: le gouvernement et le M23 adoptent quatre points de l’ordre du jour | 12 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Peace talks between the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the
M23 rebel group have officially resumed.  The restart came days after the rebels announced they would proceed with the dialogue even if the government did not agree to a ceasefire in the disputed area of eastern Congo.
Organizers said the restart of the talks, originally scheduled for last week, was delayed by sanctions the UN Security Council brought against the rebel group at the end of last year.  The U.N. imposed an arms embargo on the group and banned travel and froze the assets of two of M23’s leaders.
 
Kampala: le ministre ougandais de la Défense regrette les sanctions contre les dirigeants du M23 | 12 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
L'Ouganda, le facilitateur pyromane, se dévoile | 14 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The mediator of the Kampala dialogue, Ugandan Minister of Defence Crypsus Walter Kiyonga, does not appreciate the timing of the UN sanctions against some of M23’s leaders.
 
L'opposition confirme sa volonté de participer aux négociations de Kampala | 13 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Pourparlers de Kampala: l’opposition réclame sa participation en tant que composante | 13 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Kampala : la participation de l’opposition risque de banaliser les crimes du M23, selon Lambert Mende | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The four opposition groups in the parliament demand to participate in the discussions in Kampala as a constituent, not as part of the Government delegation. The Government is opposed to their participation.
 
UN Security Council Gives Go-Ahead for M23 Talks | 13 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
Kiyonga Consults UN On M23 Sanctions | 14 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The UN Security Council and US Government have given a go-ahead to the peace talks in Kampala between the M23 rebels and DRC Government despite sanctions imposed against some of the rebel leaders.
 
Devant la méfiance du M23, les négociations n'ont toujours pas repris | 14 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Kampala: des divergences persistent sur l’ordre du jour des pourparlers entre le Gouvernement et le M23 | 15 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Negotiations in Kampala still haven’t resumed. The plenary session planned on Monday 14 January was cancelled at the last moment.
 
RDC : Kinshasa et les rebelles du M23 fixent le programme des négociations | 16 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
The DRC Governement and the M23 rebels on Wednesday have adopted and signed the agenda of their peace talks in Kampala. Four items will be discussed: evaluation of the peace agreement of 23 March 2009 between the Government and the former rebel group CNDP, security issues, socio-political and economic issues, and the mechanism of implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the eventual Kampala agreement.
RDC: Kinshasa et le M23 entrent enfin dans le vif des négociations | 16 January 2013 | RFI
The negotations between Kinshasa and the M23 in Kampala have really started Wednesday 16 January. During a plenary session, the M23 delegation has exposed all its grievances. Kinshasa has to reply this Thursday. After that, they will enter into the debate itself.
DR Congo Talks Delegates to Discuss Amnesty | 16 January 2013 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The ongoing dialogue in Kampala to end fighting in Eastern DR Congo is set to discuss a proposal to offer general amnesty for war and insurgency acts.
DRC, M23 Adopt Agenda of Peace Talks | 17 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
 
Kampala - La société civile du Nord-Kivu « pas d'accord » avec l'ordre du jour | 16 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The civil society of North Kivu denounces the fact that the particpants in the Kampala peace talks “have gone beyond what they were supposed to do: evaluate the Agreement of 23 March 2009”.
 
 
International Neutral Force to be integrated into MONUSCO
Plans to Merge Congo Neutral Force, Monusco Underway - AU | 11 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Ministers from African Great Lake states are considering having the UN peacekeeping mission in DR Congo's troubled east merge with a future neutral force, an African Union official said Tuesday.
 
SADC Urged to Commit to DRC Force | 12 January 2013 | Tanzania Daily News | allAfrica
SADC Meets On DRC, Zim | 14 January 2013 | New Era | allAfrica
The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Troika organ on politics, defence and security has urged member states that have not committed to deploying troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo mission to do so as a matter of urgency.
In a communiqué that was released on Friday after the Troika meeting in Dar es Salaam, SADC welcomed pledges made by Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Tanzania for committing to the deployment of the Neutral International Force (NIF).
 
RDC : la force internationale neutre sera intégrée dans la Monusco | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
La force internationale neutre à la frontière entre la RDC et le Rwanda sera intégrée à la MONUSCO | 14 January 2013 | MONUSCO

MONUSCO - Vers un mandat d'imposition de la paix | 15 January 2013 | La Prospérité | allAfrica
The international neutral force to be deployed on the border between the DRC and Rwanda will be integrated into MONUSCO, the Military Advisor to the UN Secretary-General, general Babacar Gaye, told Radio Okapi on Sunday 13 January. He said the integration of this force into the United Nations mission in the DRC will allow to answer the question of its funding.
 

Drones to monitor eastern borders?
RDC: le Gouvernement favorable à l’envoi des drones onusiens dans l’Est du pays | 11 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu: Julien Paluku salue le projet des drones pour surveiller l’Est de la RDC | 11 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese Government, and the Governor of North Kivu province, are favourably disposed to the use of surveillance drones in eastern DRC, as proposed last week by the head of the UN peacekeeping operations.
 
Kinshasa, Kampala back U.N. plan for eastern Congo drones | 11 January 2013 | Reuters | AlertNet
Kampala, which is hosting talks between Congolese authorities and the rebels despite charges it is backing the insurgency, gave cautious support for the plan to deploy drones on the condition they are not used for combat purposes.
 
Rwanda Prime Minister Challenges UN's Drones Use in DRC | 11 January 2013 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
Invest in Peace, Not Gadgets to Solve DRC Conflict | 11 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda Remains Cautious On Drones in DRC - Mushikiwabo | 14 January 2013 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Rwanda, which holds a seat on the Security Council, said it opposed the drones until their use was fully assessed.
 

 
MONUSCO rescues European tourists from FDLR in North Kivu
Euro Tourists Rescued From FDLR Captors | 16 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
A German and an Austrian who had been kidnapped by the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) militia group in Rutshuru territory, North Kivu, have been rescued by the UN peace keeping mission, MONUSCO.
 
 
Mai-Mai cause massive prison break in Butembo, North Kivu
Nord-Kivu: des miliciens Pareco occasionnent l’évasion de 372 prisonniers à Butembo | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Evasion massive à la prison de Butembo | 16 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
A Butembo, 12 Maï-Maï ayant occasionné l'évasion de 370 prisonniers sont aux arrêts | 16 January 2013 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The Mai-Mai Pareco of chief la Fontaine on Sunday 13 January brought about the breakout of 372 out of 399 prisoners in Butembo, North Kivu. 12 of the Mai-Mai and 23 of the escapees were captured a day later.
 
 
ADF-Nalu in Beni territory, North Kivu
Rebels Pose New Threat As Video Leaks | 10 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
A highly-spirited video featuring the rank and file of the Allied Democratic Forces in training provides a rare glimpse into the behaviour of its chief ideologue, Jamil Mukulu, and the strength of the rebel outfit.
 
Beni: la société civile dénonce les attaques de l’ADF-Nalu malgré la présence des FARDC | 13 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The civil society of Beni in North Kivu is exasperated with the attacks on the population by ADF-Nalu. They ask for an evaluation of the Rwenzori operations conducted by the army against this Ugandan rebel group since three years.
 
 
Mai-Mai Raia Mutomboki active in South Kivu and Maniema
Sud-Kivu: la cité de Shabunda paralysée par la présence de Raïa Mutomboki | 10 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Mai-Mai rebels of Raia Mutomboki have threatened to attack the town of Shabunda in South Kivu. 
 
Maniema: nouveaux combats entre FARDC et Maï-Maï Raïa Mutomboki à Kasese | 11 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese army clashed with Raia Mutomboki militiamen in Kasese, an important mining town in the north of Maniema province.
 
 
Mai-Mai FPLC ready to integrate into FARDC in Uvira, South Kivu
Uvira: des Maï-Maï FPLC se disent prêts à intégrer les FARDC | 15 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The militiamen of the FPLC, active in the territory of Fizi, expressed on Monday 14 January in Uvira (South Kivu) their wish to integrate into the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC).
 
 
After the attack on Mambasa (Ituri), Province Orientale
Ituri : FARDC et Monusco renforcent la sécurité à Mambasa après des attaques de miliciens | 10 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese army and the MONUSCO peacekeepers have reinforced their presence in the town of Mambasa, which was attacked and briefly taken last week by several militias, among which that of Paul Sadala, alias Morgan.
 
Mambasa : les commerçants ont perdu 5 millions USD à la suite des pillages, selon la Fec | 11 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
According to the Ituri section of FEC (Federation of Enterprises of Congo), the economic operators of Mambasa town have suffered losses for a total amount of about 5 million USD in the attack on their town.
 
Ituri: 22 miliciens capturés par les FARDC, selon leur commandant | 15 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The army claims 22 militiamen of Paul Sadala alias Morgan were captured.
 
 
FRPI militia attacks market in Ituri, Province Orientale
Ituri: 10 personnes blessées dans l’attaque du marché Kagaba par des miliciens FRPI | 12 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Ten people were injured by bullets, Friday 11 January, when a group of militiamen of the FRPI attacked the market of Kagaba, south of Bunia.
 
 
Mbororo breeders and other armed men in Ango territory, Province Orientale
Province Orientale: la société civile d’Ango réclame le rapatriement des éleveurs Mbororo | 11 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The civil society of Ango, a territory located more than 600 km north of Kisangani (Orientale Province), asked the Government to repatriate the Mbororo breeders to their countries of origin. These armed nomadic herdsmen come from the Central African Republic, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea.
 
Province Orientale: l’administrateur du territoire d’Ango appelle au redéploiement des FARDC | 12 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The administrator of the territory of Ango (Province Orientale), Jean Pierre Mulenge, called for the redeployment of the army to his region, which is plagued by unidentified armed men.
 
 
Mai-Mai violence in Katanga
Katanga : 6 morts dans des affrontements entre Maï-Maï et FARDC | 11 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Three soldiers and three civilians were killed Wednesday 9 January in clashes between a Mai-Mai militia and the Congolese army near the road from Bunkeya to Mitwaba, Katanga.
 
Katanga : les groupes Maï-Maï de Gédéon et de Tanda Imena insécurisent le nord de la province | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The Mai-Mai group of Gédéon Kyungu and the Bakata Katanga of chief Tanda Imena are causing more and more insecurity and deaths in the north of Katanga province.
 
Katanga: la population fuit les incursions de miliciens à Mukebo | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
The population of the village of Mukebo, in Manono territory, has fled because of frequent incursions by Mai-Mai.
 
Richard Muyej juge préoccupante la situation sécuritaire dans certaines localités du Katanga | 15 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
Richard Muyej, Minister of the Interior, says the security situation in Katanga is calm, except for the axis Pweto-Mitwaba-Manono, where the Mai-Mai of Gédéon and others perpetrate acts of terrorism, murder, plunder and destruction.
 
Mai Mai group guilty of violence in DR Congo: NGO | 15 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : les Maï Maï Gédéon commettent toujours des exactions dans le Sud-Est (ONG) | 15 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
A militia group from the DR Congo has committed nearly daily acts of violence against civilians since its leader Gedeon Kyungu Mutanga escaped prison in 2011, a human rights group said on Tuesday.
 
Katanga: des miliciens Maï-Maï occupent la localité de Kadia | 16 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
According to civil society, Mai-Mai fighters of the independence movement Kata Katanga occupies the village of Kadia, in Bukama territory, since Friday 11 January.
 
 
 
Stepping up army reform in 2013
RDC : la réforme, promise, de l'armée se fait attendre | 15 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
The Minister of Defence, Alexandre Luba Ntambo, has promised that in 2013 the reform of the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) will "move up a gear" to combat the armed groups and rebellions in the country, some of them active since almost 20 years.
 

 
 

Uganda

ADF-Nalu rebels threatening Uganda from DRC
Rebels Pose New Threat As Video Leaks | 10 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
A highly-spirited video featuring the rank and file of the Allied Democratic Forces in training provides a rare glimpse into the behaviour of its chief ideologue, Jamil Mukulu, and the strength of the rebel outfit.
 


 

Burundi

FNL - Agathon Rwasa deposed
Burundi: Agathon Rwasa destitué de la tête des FNL | 15 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
According to a press release of the FNL (‘Forces nationales de libération’) signed by the Chief of Staff and the new president of this party, Agathon Rwasa, historic leader of the Burundian ex-rebels was deposed Monday 14 January by the political bureau and the staff of his movement.
 
 
Analysis
No More Talking of Rebels in Burundi | 11 January 2013 | Global Observatory
This week an appeals judge in Burundi reduced the sentence of RFI radio journalist Hassan Ruvakuki to three years in prison; he was originally sentenced to life. After two trials, the court ultimately found him guilty of working with a criminal group, but he continues to claim he was arrested for investigating reports that a new rebel group had emerged along Burundi's border with Tanzania.
It is not good to talk of rebels in Burundi these days.
 

 
 

Central African Republic

Ceasefire and peace agreement signed in Libreville, Gabon
Central African Republic ceasefire signed | 11 January 2013 | BBC Africa
Rebel Coalition in Central African Republic Agrees to a Short Cease-Fire | 11 January 2013 | The New York Times
Centrafrique : le pouvoir et les rebelles signent un accord de cessez-le-feu | 11 January 2013 | Le Monde
Signature d'un accord de sortie de crise à Libreville | 11 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Un accord de cessez-le-feu a été signé et un accord prévoit que Bozizé reste au pouvoir jusqu'en 2016 | 11 January 2013 | Info Plus Gabon (Libreville) | allAfrica
CAR Rebels Agree to Ceasefire During Peace Talks | 11 January 2013 | Voice of America
Central African Republic Government Signs Peace Deal With Rebels | 11 January 2013 | Bloomberg
The Seleka rebel alliance fighting the government in the Central African Republic (CAR) has signed a formal ceasefire following three days of talks in Gabon's capital Libreville. Under the agreement, President François Bozizé will not cede power, but a unity government of transition will be formed, the country’s National Assembly dissolved, and a prime minister from the opposition bloc appointed ahead of legislative elections that would be held in 12 months.
 
UN envoy calls on international community to engage more with Central African Republic | 11 January 2013 | UN News Centre
In the wake of agreements reached today to end a rebellion in the Central African Republic (CAR), the United Nations envoy for the country today said that the international community now needs to engage more forcefully, both diplomatically and financially, to pull the CAR from the brink.
 
Bangui Begins Move Toward Unity Government | 12 January 2013 | Voice of America
Central African PM dismissed after ceasefire deal | 12 January 2013 | Africa Daily
The Central African Republic's president has begun implementing a peace agreement with rebels that calls for a unity government in Bangui. President Francois Bozize said he has dissolved the current government, effective immediately, and that a new prime minister will be nominated by the political opposition.
 
Centrafrique: Le pays attend la désignation de son nouveau premier ministre | 13 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Centrafrique: Nicolas Tiangaye pressenti pour le poste de premier ministre | 13 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
 
RCA: l'opposition désigne son candidat | 13 January 2013 | BBC Afrique
In the Central African Republic opposition unanimously nominated lawyer Nicolas Tiangaye as future Prime Minister of the Government of national unity to be formed as in the peace accords of Libreville.
 
La MICOPAX I désormais en charge du suivi de l’accord de Libreville | 14 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
A follow-up mission of the application of the ceasefire and of the decisions of the political agreement of Libreville of 11 January has been made public. It specifically concerns the MICOPAX I regional peace consolidation mission (‘Mission de consolidation de la Paix en Afrique centrale’) during the coming period of political transition in Central African Republic.
 
Central African Republic – Signing of a peace and ceasefire agreement in Libreville | 14 January 2013 | France Diplomatie
France welcomes the successful conclusion of the negotiations in Libreville between the parties in the Central African Republic, under the auspices of the Economic Community of Central African States. The three documents signed (ceasefire, statement of principle, political agreement) are the first steps toward a settlement likely to bring long-term stability to the Central African Republic.
 
Centrafrique : Bozizé hésite à nommer l’opposant Tiangaï à la primature | 14 January 2013 | Afrik.com
 
Centrafrique: Nicolas Tiangaye rencontre le médiateur Denis Sassou Nguesso à Brazzaville | 15 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
Nicolas Tiangaye, who was selected by the CAR’s political opposition for the position of Prime Minister, arrived in Brazzaville Monday evening in the company of a delegation from the Seleka Alliance. He will meet with Congolese president Denis Sassou Nguesso.
 
Centrafrique: choix du PM | 15 January 2013 | BBC Afrique
The Seleka rebellion has confirmed the choice of lawyer Nicolas Tiangaye as future Prime Minister of the Government of national unity of the Central African Republic. This choice opens the way to Tiangaye’s nomination by president François Bozizé.
 
Ban urges Central African parties to abide by agreements forged to end crisis | 15 January 2013 | UN News Centre
République centrafricaine : Ban salue les accords de Libreville et appelle à leur mise en œuvre | 15 January 2013 | UN News Centre
Welcoming the signing of a ceasefire and other agreements that halted a rebel advance on the capital of the Central African Republic (CAR), Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today called for all parties in the country to fulfil their commitments, with international assistance.
 
The Presidency Did Inform Parliament On the Employment of Troops | 15 January 2013 | South African Government | allAfrica
Presidency Confirms It Informed Parly On Employment of Troops | 15 January 2013 | SAnews.gov.za | allAfrica
The South African Presidency points out that President Jacob Zuma did in fact inform Parliament of his decision to authorise the employment of 400 South African National Defence Force (SANDF) personnel to the Central African Republic (CAR), and therefore did not violate the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa.
 
RCA: Nicolas Tiangaye arrive à Bangui avec la Seleka | 16 January 2013 | RFI
Séléka enfin à Bangui, bientôt un nouveau gouvernement ! | 16 January 2013 | Radio Ndeke Luka | Fondation Hirondelle
A delegation of Seleka arrived late this afternoon in Bangui, coming from Brazzaville. Nicolas Tiangaye, among others, was on the same flight.
 
 
Analysis & comments
What's At Stake in the CAR? | 10 January 2013 | Pambazuka News | allAfrica
ANALYSIS
African states must resolve the conflict inside the Central African Republic in order to avoid further French and US military involvement argues Abayomi Azikiwe.
 
Central African Republic: Community Radio Stations Ransacked, Woman Journalist Killed | 10 January 2013 | Reporters Without Borders | allAfrica
Centrafrique: Une journaliste tuée, radios communautaires saccagées | 10 January 2013 | International Freedom of Expression Exchange Clearing House | allAfrica
Reporters Without Borders is deeply disturbed by acts of violence against news media and journalists in connection with a month-old armed uprising in the Central African Republic against President François Bozizé's government.
 
CAR: Where Now for the Seleka Rebel Insurgency? 14 January 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
Exclusive Analysis explores the potential directions the Seleka rebel insurgency in the Central African Republic might take in the coming weeks.
 
Central African Republic: The Collapse Of The Bozize Regime | 15 January 2013 | African Arguments
One month after launching a blitz offensive which brought them close to the capital, the Seleka rebel coalition has forced President François Bozize to share power. The challenge for the new government of national unity is to stabilize the country.
 

 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Plus de 7.900 Rwandais ont été rapatriés vers le Rwanda en 2012 via le HCR | 10 January 2013 | ACP | Digitalcongo.net
 
Rapport de Situation Humanitaire sur la République Démocratique du Congo - 11 janvier 2013 | 11 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Nord-Kivu: 54 400 déplacés en détresse à Mwesso | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 03/13, 15 janvier 2013 | 15 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo, Note d’information à la presse, 16 janvier 2013 | 16 January 2013 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
RDC: Ocha lance un plan d’action humanitaire de 30 millions de dollars pour le Nord-Kivu | 16 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
Sexual violence omnipresent in, around displaced persons’ camps | 16 January 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
Violence sexuelle omniprésente dans des camps de déplacés à Goma et autour | 16 January 2013 | MSF | Reliefweb
 
 
Refugees from Central African Republic
Province Orientale : plus de 400 ménages centrafricains réfugiés à Bondo, sans assistance | 13 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Dr. Mukwege back in Bukavu
Threatened rape clinic doctor due back in DR Congo: hospital | 11 January 2013 | AFP | Reliefweb
Denis Mukwege, founder of a pioneering rape victims' hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo who was forced into exile after a bid on his life, will return home on Monday, his clinic announced Friday.
 
Malgré les risques, le docteur Mukwege retourne auprès de ses patientes | 11 January 2013 | RFI | allAfrica
 
Le Docteur Mukwege va rentrer à Bukavu | 11 January 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
RDC: le gynécologue Denis Mukwege rentre à Bukavu ce lundi | 12 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
RDC: le gynécologue Denis Mukwege est rentré lundi à Bukavu | 14 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
 
MONUSCO Supports the Safe Return of Dr. Mukwege | 14 January 2013 | MONUSCO
La MONUSCO concourt à sécuriser le retour Dr. Denis Mukwege à Bukavu | 14 January 2013 | MONUSCO
UN mission welcomes return of renowned doctor to eastern DR Congo following attack | 14 January 2013 | UN News Centre
The head of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has welcomed the return to Bukavu of Denis Mukwege, a physician internationally known for his work with rape victims who was attacked at his residence last October. Dr. Mukwege, the founder and Director-General of the Panzi Hospital in Bukavu in South Kivu province, was attacked in his home by armed men who shot and killed his security guard. He and his family were not hurt in the attack.
 
Doctor Returns to Congo and Is Hailed as a Hero | 14 January 2013 | The New York Times
 
Bukavu: le docteur Denis Mukwege demande à la population de « dire non à la violence » | 15 January 2013 | Radio Okapi
 

 

Rwanda

UNHCR Operation In Rwanda Fact Sheet 30 November - 31 December 2012 | 31 December 2012 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
Plus de 7.900 Rwandais ont été rapatriés vers le Rwanda en 2012 via le HCR | 10 January 2013 | ACP | Digitalcongo.net
 

 

 

Central African Republic

War and Hunger in the Central African Republic | 10 January 2013 | ThinkAfricaPress
Conflict in the Central African Republic has made food distribution efforts difficult and may have caused further humanitarian problems.
 
UNHCR seeks immediate access to refugees and displaced civilians in Central African Republic | 11 January 2013 | UNHCR
Le HCR cherche à accéder immédiatement aux réfugiés et aux civils déplacés en République centrafricaine | 11 January 2013 | UNHCR

UNHCR: No Access to CAR Refugees | 11 January 2013 | Voice of America
The United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR) says it is very concerned about its inability to gain access to tens of thousands of refugees and displaced civilians caught in the fighting in the Central African Republic.  The UNHCR says it is critical to provide humanitarian, potentially life-saving help to these people.
 
Situation Still Cause for Concern | 11 January 2013 | ICRC | allAfrica
 
 

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

Prosecutor Asks ICC Judges to Raise Lubanga's Jail Term | 14 January 2013 | Lubanga Trial Website | allAfrica
In a December 3, 2012 application, International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecutor Fatou Bensouda asked appeals judges to raise the 14- year jail sentence for Thomas Lubanga, who last March became the first person to be convicted by the court. On March 14, 2012, Lubanga was found guilty as a co-perpetrator of recruiting, conscripting, and using child soldiers in the armed wing of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC). The judges found that these children were actively used in an armed conflict during 2002 and 2003 in the Ituri region of the DR Congo.

 
 

Rwanda 

New revelations on the role of France at the start of the genocide
Rwanda : révélations autour de l'assassinat de deux gendarmes français en avril 1994 | 10 January 2013 | Jeune Afrique
Rwanda : de nouvelles révélations de «Libération» sur le rôle de la France au début du génocide | 10 January 2013 | RFI
French Media Point Finger At Paris Over Habyarimana Plane Crush | 10 January 2013 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
An unpublished testimony published Thursday 10 January by newspaper ‘Libération’ raises issues related to the role played by the French authorities in the days that followed the attack on the plane of Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana on 6 April 1994, which marked the outbreak of the genocide against the Tutsi.
 
Kigali 1994: le faux certificat de décès du gendarme Maïer | 11 January 2013 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
French newspaper tries to unravel the secret behind Rwandan deaths | 15 January 2013 | The Guardian
 
 

 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region


Artisanal mining
Mercury poisoning and the gold curse | 10 January 2013 | Reuters, AFP, Human Rights Watch | Mines and Communities
High gold prices are driving up the use of toxic mercury in small-scale mining in developing nations, spreading a poison that can cause brain damage in children thousands of miles away, a UN study showed on Thursday.
 
Being frank about conflict minerals | 14 January 2013 | This is Africa | allAfrica
There are grounds for optimism that the Dodd Frank Act will contribute to the Congressional objective of promoting peace and security in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
Section 1502 of the 2010 US Dodd-Frank Act is lauded by its advocates as a progressive regulatory framework which will help prevent company complicity in a vicious cycle of mineral-fuelled conflict in eastern DRC. Critics have derided Section 1502 as an unworkable burden on business and claimed that it will harm local livelihoods in one of the world’s most underdeveloped regions.
 
 
Poaching finances armed groups
The Ivory Wars: How Poaching in Central Africa Fuels the LRA and Janjaweed | 14 January 2013 | African Arguments
There are no final or totally verifiable figures for the numbers of elephants slaughtered for their ivory in 2012. However, reports from Cameroon, DR Congo, South Sudan and the Central African Republic suggest a massive and continuing rise in killings and, ominously, the involvement of military and criminal groups such as the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), the Sudanese Janjaweed militia, Chadian poaching gangs and a ring of well-established Darfurian smugglers.

 


DRC 

Gold mining in Congo | 16 January 2013 | Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA)
Photo essay on dangers of gold mining in eastern DR Congo.
Almost all the gold mined in the east of the DRC is dug up by artisanal and small-scale miners. Working in very dangerous conditions, the miners struggle to make a living in the face of exploitation by goverment bureaucrats and security officials as well as racketeers, who underpay them for their gold and overcharge them for the goods they need.
 

 

Central African Republic

Diamonds exportable - but under scrutiny | 15 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Coveted by armed rebels from the Seleka movement, Central African Republic’s diamonds, much prized by jewellers, risk being blacklisted as “conflict diamonds” and to no longer be certified by the Kimberley Process. A prospect Bangui is determined to avoid at any cost. 
 

 
 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region


Canadian backing for African Mineral Development Centre | 15 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Working through its Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Ottawa has emerged as the leading donor of the African Mineral Development Centre (AMDC) that was founded at the initiative of the African Union in 2011. 
 


DRC

Copper, cobalt and silver
Mawson West Limited: Dikulushi Production Update | 11 January 2013 | Mawson West Ltd. | Marketwire
Perth, Australia - Mawson West Limited announces a production update from the Company's Dikulushi copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) operation located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). During the fourth quarter 2012, production at Dikulushi exceeded internal forecasts for both copper and silver concentrate with 2,766 tonnes Cu and 218,789 oz Ag produced as the Company continues to ramp up production.
 
Congo's Gecamines aims to build 200 000 t copper plant | 15 January 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Congo's Gecamines plans to build a $1.5-billion plant to process the output from two copper mines with an estimated five-million tons of ore, the state miner said on Monday, after completing the buyout of a joint venture partner on the projects. Gecamines concluded a deal on January 11 to purchase British Virgin Islands-registered Copperbelt Minerals Limited's 68% stake in the Deziwa and Ecaille C projects in Congo's mineral-rich Katanga province.
 
Copper & Cobalt: Bazano smelter semi idle | 15 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
Inaugurated in 2004, the smelter at Likasi, Katanga, stood down over half of its 450-strong work force for a six month period - potentially renewable - just before the New Year. 
 
 
Gold
Banro Provides Q4 2012 Production Update for its Twangiza Gold Mine, DRC | 14 January 2013 | Banro Corporation | Marketwire
Toronto, Ontario – Banro Corporation provides a gold production update for its Twangiza Gold Mine in South Kivu province, DR Congo. Twangiza produced 19,750 ounces of gold for the final quarter of 2012, the best quarterly performance since start-up.
 
Panex Enters into Agreement to Acquire Highly Prospective Gold Project in the Moto Gold Belt, Democratic Republic of Congo | 14 January 2013 | Panex Resources Inc. | Marketwire
Zug, Switzerland - Panex Resources Incorporated announces that it has entered into an agreement with Amani Consulting SPRL to acquire a 65% interest in a group of two tenements (Exploitation Licences 5046 and 5049) which cover 610sq km of prospective ground in the territory of Watsa, Oriental Province, northeast DR Congo (the Giro Project).
 
Kilo Intersects 4.07 m Grading 17.25 g/t Gold at Manzako Prospect, Somituri Project, DRC | 14 January 2013 | Kilo Goldmines Ltd. | Marketwire
Toronto, Ontario – Kilo Goldmines Ltd. announces significant results from six additional diamond drill holes at the Manzako Prospect, which is on the Company's Somituri Project in Province Orientale, northeastern DR Congo.

 
 

Uganda

Tullow Oil
Tullow drilling in spotlight after mixed 2012 | 11 January 2013 | Reuters | Engineering News
Tullow Targets 40 Oil Wells in 2013 | 14 January 2013 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Tullow Oil has a record 49 wells planned this year, and drilling engineers due to deliver news by February are under pressure after a disappointing trading update from the Africa-focused company on Friday.
 
Tullow Hits Three Dry Wells | 13 January 2013 | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Tullow Oil ended its 2013 exploration activities in western Uganda on a dour note, hitting three dry wildcat oil wells in December. The firm, however, encountered hydrocarbon in a fourth well, Lyec-1, according to a statement released on Friday. All the wells were drilled in Block One in the Albertine graben, where Total is the main operator.
 
 

 

Rwanda

Mining
Solomon Conducts Inventory of Artisanal Tin and Coltan Minesites in Rurembo Tin Project, Republic of Rwanda | 14 January 2013 | Solomon Resources | Marketwire
Vernon, British Columbia - Solomon Resources Limited reports that it has received a preliminary inventory of artisanal tin and coltan (niobium-tantalum) minesites within the Rurembo Prospecting Licence area in the Republic of Rwanda.
Solomon Resources bets on Rurembo’s tin | 15 January 2013 | Africa Mining Intelligence
A junior listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, Solomon Resources Ltd is working out its exploration strategy for the Rurembo tin project that lies near the old Belgian cassiterite and colombo-tantalum mine at Gatumba in Rwanda.
 
Investors Call for Review of Mining Draft Law | 16 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The government should amend part of the mining draft law that requires investors to spend a certain minimum amount of monies on exploration activities, mining firms have urged. The miners said if the article is not revised, it will discourage investments into the sector.
 
 
Hydropower
Nyamagabe Power Project Delayed | 16 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The construction of Rukarara II hydropower plant in Nyamagabe district has been halted, leaving bitter taste in the mouths of government officials. According to sources, the German company contracted to build the plant decided to stop the construction early this month.
 


 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

DRC

Dodd-Frank Act on Conflict minerals
Being frank about conflict minerals | 14 January 2013 | This is Africa | allAfrica
There are grounds for optimism that the Dodd Frank Act will contribute to the Congressional objective of promoting peace and security in eastern DR Congo.
Section 1502 of the 2010 US Dodd-Frank Act is lauded by its advocates as a progressive regulatory framework which will help prevent company complicity in a vicious cycle of mineral-fuelled conflict in eastern DRC. Critics have derided Section 1502 as an unworkable burden on business and claimed that it will harm local livelihoods in one of the world’s most underdeveloped regions.
 
Addressing New Conflict Minerals Requirements: Key Success Factors for Processes and Reporting | 14 January 2013 | Ethisphere
As companies spent the recent year-end holidays closing their fiscal books and creating program budgets for new products and services into 2013, a small and seemingly obscure clause in one of the widest reaching financial reform acts in modern history has added concern and challenge to product manufacturers across industry segments.
 
US business groups challenge SEC rule on Congo minerals | 17 January 2013 | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Washington - Business groups on Wednesday filed their most expansive case yet attacking a new US securities rule that requires companies to determine if their products contain minerals from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

 

Uganda

Shaping Corporate Social Responsibility in sub-Saharan Africa. Guidance Notes from a Mapping Survey | December 2012 | GIZ
Profiles for 12 selected countries, among which Uganda, with respect to their levels of CSR awakening, understanding and implementation.
 

 
 

Rwanda

Investors Call for Review of Mining Draft Law | 16 January 2013 | The New Times | allAfrica
The government should amend part of the mining draft law that requires investors to spend a certain minimum amount of monies on exploration activities, mining firms have urged. The miners said if the article is not revised, it will discourage investments into the sector.
 
 

 
 

IPIS Recent Publications



Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS
US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the linkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
To see the sources of IPIS' briefings, please click here.
To subscribe/unsubscribe, please click here



©2018 IPIS vzw - Italiëlei 98a - Antwerpen

contactRSStwitterfacebook