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WEEKLY BRIEFING 12TH - 18TH DECEMBER 2012

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Editorial
 
IPIS News
 
IPIS' Latest Publications
 
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
DRC
Uganda

Central African Republic
 
Refugee and IDP Reports
DRC

Burundi
Other
 
Justice and Tribunals
DRC
Rwanda
 
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
DRC

 
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
DRC
Uganda
Rwanda

Central African Republic
 
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility
DRC

IPIS Recent publications
 

EDITORIAL


In Kampala, the only progress in the talks between the DR Congo Government and the M23 rebels was the agreement signed yesterday, 18 December, on the rules of procedure of the discussions to come.
On the ground, the residents of Goma live in fear of a new attack on the city. The M23 rebels are still close, and Rwandan soldiers have crossed the border; the Rwandans claim they want to chase the FDLR, who are reported to mass troops in Masisi territory.
In his annual State of the Nation before parliament, President Kabila called the crisis a “war of aggression by Rwanda”. US President Obama urged his Rwandan counterpart Kagame to end all assistance for rebel groups in the DRC.
 
While in the north of North Kivu province over 100 Mai-Mai surrendered to the Congolese army, in the neighbouring territory of Mambasa in Ituri in one week’s time the army recaptured the gold-rich Pangoy area from Morgan’s Mai-Mai and were chased again by 200 heavily armed FARDC deserters from North Kivu.
 
In the Central African Republic, the new rebel coalition moved up and also took the northeastern towns of Bamingui and Bria, a diamond-mining hub. Chadian troops crossed the border to fight them.
 
The International Criminal Court in The Hague acquitted former Congolese militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo of war crimes and crimes against humanity, saying prosecutors failed to prove his commanding role in the murder of 200 villagers in a 2003 attack in Ituri.
 
A Belgian court opened the way for a trial against Belgians accused of complicity in the 1961 killing of Congo’s first Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba.
 
 



IPIS News

There will be no IPIS Briefing in the following two weeks.

IPIS’ Latest Publications


Mapping Conflict Motives: M23 | November 2012 | IPIS
In light of the recent occupation of Goma by M23 and the renewed risk of large-scale armed conflict in the DRC, IPIS publishes an update to its 2007-2010 ‘mapping conflict motives’ report series focusing specifically on the intentions of M23.

The M23 rebels show a clear political ambition and a tendency to establish political control over territory and challenge Kinshasa’s authority – strategic interests they might share with Rwanda.

A Code of Conduct for Arms Transport by Air. Transport Services under an Arms Trade Treaty Series | August 2012 | IPIS
This report is a discussion of some key considerations for the development of a Cargo Industry Voluntary Code of Conduct relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment (ACI Code). The purpose of such a Code is to encourage as many aviation companies and other actors as possible in the air cargo industry to adhere to existing and new standards relating to the transport of arms, ammunition and other military equipment
 
Rough Seas. Maritime Transport and Arms Shipments | July 2012 | IPIS
As stated by the authors in their report “Transparency and Accountability” (February 2012), the Chairman’s Draft Paper (14 July 2011) presented by the Arms Trade Treaty's Preparatory Committee (ATT PrepCom), included within the ATT’s scope certain “services”, such as transport and brokering. However, no provision has been envisaged for the monitoring or ATT-related regulation of arms transport services. Monitoring transport services may be key to implementing and enforcing the Arms Trade Treaty. This report will demonstrate how arms shipments may be monitored and reported where there is a substantial risk that the shipments could contribute to fuelling conflict, repressive state practices, and other human rights abuses. The report provides examples of the monitoring of actual conventional arms shipments to Egypt and Syria in 2011 and 2012, and of suspected conventional arms shipments to Syria in 2012.  It also shows that where there is an open society, or at least a fair degree of access to government activities, arms transfers can be monitored and discussed without jeopardizing legitimate security policies.


 
 
 

Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 


UN Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA) on strategy against LRA
UN and African Union to seek increased funding for strategy against the Lord’s Resistance Army | 18th December 2012 | UN News Centre
Mobiliser des ressources à l'appui du programme relatif à la LRA, tâche la plus urgente du BRENUAC | 18th December 2012 | UN News Centre
 
Activities of Lord’s Resistance Army Top Concerns as Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Central Africa Briefs Security Council | 18th December 2012 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Conseil de sécurité : le Représentant spécial du Secrétaire général pour l'Afrique centrale constate une amélioration de la situation malgré des défis persistants | 18th December 2012 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
 
The United Nations and African Union (AU) will seek increased funding early next year for a strategy against the armed group known as the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and its impact on communities in Central Africa, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of the UN Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA), Abou Moussa, told the Security Council.
 
Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa and on areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army [S/2012/923] | 13th December 2012 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Rapport du Secrétaire général sur les activités du Bureau régional des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique centrale et les zones où sévit l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur (S/2012/923) | 13th December 2012 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
UNOCA report covering the period June-December 2012.

 


DRC 

M23 crisis in North Kivu
 
Kampala peace talks
Des concertations mais toujours pas de négociation directe entre Kinshasa et le M23 | 12th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
 
Kinshasa évite de « mélanger les interlocuteurs », le M23 discute de « gouvernance » | 13th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Pourparlers de Kampala - Le M23 veut imposer sa loi à Kinshasa | 13th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
 
DR Congo officials and M23 rebels locked in talks | 14th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : rebelles du M23 et gouvernement congolais tentent de fixer l'agenda de négociations de paix | 14th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
DRC Govt, M23 in Closed-Door Talks | 14th December 2012 | The New Times | allAfrica
DR Congo's M23 rebels and government delegates are locked in negotiations to agree an agenda for peace talks, a Ugandan official said Friday.
"They have been meeting behind closed doors to agree on rules of procedure and the agenda," said Paddy Ankunda, a spokesman for the Ugandan defence ministry, which is mediating the talks in Kampala.
 
Kampala : report de la plénière aux pourparlers entre le Gouvernement et le M23 | 15th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
 
Ebauche de négociations à Kampala entre le gouvernement congolais et le M23 | 17th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
Talks in Kampala between the DRC government and the M23 rebels have been extended until 31 December. Discussions concern both the agenda and the rules of procedure. The agenda will set out two points: the evaluation of the March 23 agreements signed in 2009 with the rebels of the CNDP, and the second item is called "All elements relating to the security and the socio-economic management of the country". The Ugandan mediators suggest the Government to accept the second point, demanded by the rebels, in exchange for a rule saying that any solution must respect the Constitution.
 
Les pourparlers intercongolais piétinent | 17th December 2012 | BBC Afrique
 
La fin des négociations Kinshasa - Le M23 annoncée pour le 31 décembre | 17th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
DRC, M23 Talks Extended Till End of Year | 18th December 2012 | The New Times | allAfrica
 
M23-Kinshasa Talks Get $500,000 Financial Boost | 17th December 2012 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
The Howard G. Buffett Foundation, linked to American billionaire Warren Buffett, has pledged US$500,000 to facilitate ongoing negotiations between the DRC government and M23 rebels in Uganda, it was announced on Monday.
 
Congolese Govt, M23 Rebels Hold Closed-Door Talks | 18th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
 
Le M23 réclame désormais l'administration de Goma - L'ombre de l'échec continue à planer sur les discussions de Kampala | 18th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Kampala : le gouvernement et le M23 ont adopté le règlement intérieur du dialogue | 18th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese Government and the rebels of the movement of March 23 (M23) adopted and signed the rules of procedure of the negotiations in Kampala, Uganda Tuesday 18 December. The document includes twenty-two articles laying down the rules of the game and the terms of the discussions for the duration of the dialog. These rules, signed by Raymond Tshibanda on behalf of the Congolese Governement and by François Rucogoza for M23, insist that the dialogue do not prejudice the constitution of the DRC, while finding solutions to the conflict in the East.
 
 
Kabila’s State of the Nation
Joseph Kabila : « La guerre dans l’Est a pour objectif de justifier la balkanisation de la RDC » | 15th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
The President of the DRC, Joseph Kabila, Saturday 15 December gave his annual address on the State of the Nation to a joint session of parliament in Kinshasa. He dedicated most of it to the security situation in North Kivu. He said that the objective of the war currently raging in the East of the DRC is to "create hotbeds of tension to create chaos and thus justify the Balkanization of the country”.
 
Congo President Kabila Wants Stronger UN Force to Fight Rebels | 15th December 2012 | Bloomberg
DR Congo’s president, Joseph Kabila, called for a stronger mandate for the United Nations peacekeepers in the country. “The current crisis has proven, one more time, the limits of the approach of its actions in our country to the deep frustration of the government and the Congolese population,” president Kabila told a joint session of parliament in Kinshasa. “We have requested a reorganization of its mandate to bring it in line with the reality on the ground.”
 
Congo's Kabila says plans initiative to unite country | 15th December 2012 | Reuters | AlertNet
DRC President Joseph Kabila said on Saturday he was planning an initiative aimed at uniting the central African nation, torn by an eastern rebellion and a furious political opposition. "National cohesion must not be conditional, it must be open for all," Kabila said in an address to parliament. "An initiative will be taken shortly, the details to be decided in due course. There should not be a Congo for the majority and a separate one for the opposition."
 
DR Congo leader says defence top priority after rebel takeover | 15th December 2012 | Africa Daily
DR Congo President Joseph Kabila on Saturday vowed that defence would be a top priority for his government after the recent brief rebel takeover of Goma. "Defence, nothing but defence, with a dissuasive, apolitical and professional army. "I call on our youth to massively enlist," he said, adding that "any new attempt at aggression will be suicidal."
Kabila also accused neighbouring Rwanda of backing the push by the M23 rebels, echoing accusations by the United Nations that Rwanda has denied. "An unjust war has been imposed on us one more time. Everything has already been said about this war of aggression by Rwanda," he said to whistles and cheers from lawmakers.
 
Les députés de la majorité estime que l’appel à la cohésion du Chef de l’Etat est opportun, ceux de l’opposition insistent sur des préalables | 15th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
 
L'option militaire prend désormais le dessus | 16th December 2012 | Le Potentiel
Etat de la nation devant le congrès
 
 
MONUSCO / UN statements
Conférence de presse des Nations Unies du mercredi 12 décembre 2012 | 12th December 2012 | MONUSCO
 
Situation in Kivu provinces of eastern DR Congo remains ‘tense and fragile’ – UN spokesperson | 17th December 2012 | UN News Centre
RDC : situation sécuritaire toujours « tendue et fragile » dans les Kivu, confirme l'ONU | 17th December 2012 | UN News Centre
The situation on the ground in the Kivus remains “tense and fragile,” a United Nations spokesperson said today. The spokesperson for the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Kieran Dwyer, also said that ‘blue helmets’ from the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) have received reports of fighters with the 23 March Movement (M23) armed group around the city of Goma, the capital of North Kivu province.
 
DR Congo: initial findings by UN confirm human rights violations amid recent violence | 18th December 2012 | UN News Centre
UN says more than 125 rapes during DR Congo army retreat | 18th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDCongo: 126 viols près de Goma, neuf soldats gouvernementaux arrêtés (ONU) | 18th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
Neufs soldats arrêtés en RDC pour au moins 126 viols près de Goma | 18th December 2012 | Le Monde
Preliminary findings by United Nations investigators have documented at least 126 rapes and the killing of two civilians – one a minor – during a probe into human rights violations in and around the town of Minova between November 20 and 30, as the army retreated from advancing M23 rebels. A parallel investigation by the armed forces of DRC (FARDC), has led to the arrest of nine FARDC soldiers, two in connection with the rapes, and seven in connection with lootings, a UN spokesperson, Martin Nesirky, told at UN Headquarters in New York.
 
Les Casques bleus en alerte en RDCongo, l'ONU "prête à envoyer" des renforts | 19th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
The head of the United Nations peace-keeping operations, Hervé Ladsous, said the UN is "ready to send reinforcements" to DR Congo, in response to the movements of the M23 rebels in the region of Goma. Mr. Ladsous told the Security Council and then the press that hundreds of rebels had been identified within a cease-fire zone some 20 km from the provincial capital of North Kivu. "Reinforcements can be transported very very fast to Goma if the circumstances required it", he said.
 
 
Tension in and around Goma
Nord-Kivu : le M23 ne s’est pas retiré de Goma de 20 km, selon la société civile | 12th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
Contrary to the resolution of the heads of State of the Great Lakes that called on the M23 to withdraw beyond 20 miles from Goma, the rebel movement has installed its outpost at Munigi in the territory of Nyirangongo, pnly 10 km away from the provincial capital of North Kivu, civil society sources report.
 
Goma: le M23 se retire progressivement, selon une structure de la CIRGL | 12th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
The Deputy Coordinator of the joint border verification mechanism, colonel Léon Mahoungo, said Wednesday 12 December the M23 rebels will withdraw 20 km from Goma, in accordance with the resolutions of the Summit of the Heads of State of the ICGLR. He thus responded to the population of Goma who feared a possible attack from M23, installed at Munigi, 10 km from the provincial capital of North Kivu.
 
Nord-Kivu: des troupes rwandaises signalées à Nyiragongo occupé par le M23 | 13th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
Soldiers of the Rwandan Army (Rwanda Defence Forces) are reported to have entered the DRC Wednesday 12 December via the border posts of Kasizi and Kanyanja, north of Goma, in Nyiragongo territory (North Kivu). This territory is currently occupied by the rebels of the M23. According to local sources, the Rwandans were first seen Tuesday 11 December in the morning. They arrived in a dozen of trucks with ammunition and other war effects of war from the border post of Kasizi.
 
Le M23 accusé de préparer une nouvelle guerre | 14th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
Several sources claim that the M23 rebels, still on the outskirts of Goma, have recently received "Rwandan" battalions to strengthen their ranks in the event of failure of the talks with Kinshasa. The Rwandan soldiers themselves said they are there to hunt for the rebels of the FDLR.
 
Troops Mass in Fought-Over City, Raising Fear of New Violence in Congo | 16th December 2012 | The New York Times
Hundreds of troops from opposing sides have been moving into new positions around Goma, a strategic, contested city in the DR Congo, aid organizations said Sunday, raising worries of yet another explosion of violence. Witnesses reported that truckloads of Rwandan soldiers recently crossed the border and were camped within 20 miles of Goma. United Nations officials confirmed a sudden military buildup around Goma but said that they did not know the identities of the various groups of soldiers.
 
Le porte-parole des FARDC au Nord-Kivu placé en détention | 18th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
Lieutenant-Colonel Olivier Hamuli, military spokesman of the FARDC in North Kivu, was placed in detention on Monday 17 December. According to provincial military sources, he is accused of serious breaches in the exercise of its functions within the army, without specifying them.
 
RD Congo : "Ce n'est pas seulement le M23" qui est autour de Goma (gouvernement) | 18th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
Military sources, residents and human rights activists say that Rwandan troops entered the Congolese territory several times since early December. When questioned by AFP on the allegations, Government spokesman Lambert Mende said: "the information we have allows us to say (...) and I will say no more: it is not only the M23 which is around Goma. That's all I can say".
 
DR Congo accuses M23 rebels of breaching ceasefire | 18th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
The DR Congo on Tuesday accused the M23 rebels of never fully withdrawing from the key eastern city of Goma, despite pledging to do so in a ceasefire brokered by East African nations to end the long-running conflict. "They never completely withdrew, they never carried out the terms of the statement by the heads of state" of the Great Lake region, government spokesman Lambert Mende said. "These are people who go from provocation to provocation. We expect everything, absolutely everything from our attackers."
 
Psychose et compte à rebours à Goma | 18th December 2012 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman
 
 
International troops for neutral force
No Nam Troops to DRC | 13th December 2012 | The Namibian | allAfrica
Namibia will not contribute any troops to the SADC Standby Force for the Democratic Republic of Congo, but will assist the mission in other ways. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) last weekend pledged to send 4 000 troops to form a neutral force in eastern Congo, where rebels have waged an eight-month siege.
 
Zimbabwe: Nation to Deploy in DRC. . . Kinshasa to Meet Costs, Operation to Last One Year, SADC Okays Move | 13th December 2012 | The Herald | allAfrica
Zimbabwe will deploy troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a neutral Sadc force pledged by the regional bloc to resolve the armed conflict in the eastern part of that country.
Zimbabwe: Troops Heading to DRC, Again | 13th December 2012 | SW Radio Africa (London) | allAfrica
An official within ZANU PF has confirmed that troops from Zimbabwe will once again be heading to the war ravaged Democratic Republic of Congo, this time as part of a peacekeeping force under the regional Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Zimbabwe: DRC Deployment - Mugabe Did Not Consult Cabinet | 14th December 2012 | Zimbabwe Independent | allAfrica
Cabinet and parliament as well as Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai were not consulted by President Robert Mugabe when he decided to deploy Zimbabwean troops to the DRC as part of a Sadc peacekeeping force.
'We Have Not Deployed in DRC' . . . President Says SADC Standby Brigade Will Help Kinshasa, Tanzania Is Commander of the Regional Force | 17th December 2012 | The Herald | allAfrica
Zimbabwe has not deployed troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo, but will only contribute soldiers to a Sadc Standby Brigade for a peacekeeping mission in that country, President Mugabe has said.
Kudos to SADC for DRC Force | 17th December 2012 | The Herald | allAfrica
News that Sadc has finally moved to deploy its standby force in the Democratic Republic of Congo is providential and shows that the regional group is carrying on the legacy of the Front Line States that preceded it. As we report elsewhere in this issue, we are contributing troops to the Standby Force and we are not going in as Zimbabwe but as part of a Sadc force.
 
Petit à petit se signalent les armées de la Force neutre de sécurisation de la frontière entre la RDc et le Rwanda | 14th December 2012 | Digitalcongo.net
 
 
US on Rwanda and M23
Obama Warns Rwanda’s President Against Backing Congo M23 Rebels | 19th December 2012 | Bloomberg
U.S. President Barack Obama urged Rwandan President Paul Kagame to end all assistance for rebel groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, calling such support “inconsistent” with regional stability. During a phone call yesterday with Kagame, Obama pressed the importance of “reaching a transparent and credible political agreement that includes an end to impunity” by commanders of rebels, including the M23 group, linked to human rights abuses, according to a White House statement.
 
Congo: Two Rebel Leaders Hit With Financial Sanctions | 18th December 2012 | The New York Times
The United States blacklisted two senior leaders of the M23 movement, Col. Baudoin Ngaruye and Col. Innocent Kaina, accusing them of recruiting child soldiers and obstructing peaceful resolution of the chronic conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
 
Rep. Karen Bass, Ranking Member of the House Subcommittee On Africa, Global Health and Human Rights Joins House Colleagues in Asking for Congo Envoys | 12th December 2012 | United States Congress | allAfrica
Washington, D.C — Congresswoman Karen Bass (D-CA), Ranking Member of the House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health and Human Rights joined 12 members of the U.S. House of Representatives asking the Obama Administration to appoint a U.S. envoy as well as the appointment of a U.N. envoy to help in diffusing the crisis engulfing eastern Congo.
 
Susan Rice renounces State Dpt
Congo: Susan Rice dans le collimateur | 13th December 2012 | Le carnet de Colette Braeckman

Susan Rice and Africa’s unholy trinity | 13th December 2012 | Pambazuka News
 
Susan Rice renonce au département d'état | 14th December 2012 | BBC Afrique

Susan Rice rattrapée par son soutien à Kigali | 15th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
 

Comments, analyses, interviews
Rwanda's genocide and the bloody legacy of Anglo-American guilt | 12th December 2012 | The Guardian
Failure to intervene in 1994's horror means the US and UK have refused to rein in President Paul Kagame's excesses in Congo.
 
The M23 Funhouse, Where Congolese Youth Get in Free | 12th December 2012 | Radio Netherlands Worldwide | allAfrica
Le M23, une opportunité pour les jeunes ? | 12th December 2012 | Radio Netherlands Worldwide | allAfrica
The M23 movement presents a conundrum to youth in North Kivu. Promised bright, lucrative futures, some young Congolese citizens have joined in the ranks of these rebels.
 
Policy Brief: Issues That Must Be On the Table at Eastern Congo's Peace Talks | 13th December 2012 | The Enough Project
As Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast argued at this week's House Foreign Affairs Committee hearing on the crisis in the Congo, the current approach is "already making all of the same mistakes as its predecessor processes, and will likely result in the same kind of short-term deal" that has left Congo in an state of war for almost two decades.
 
Africa's Wealth and Western Poverty of Thought | 13th December 2012 | Pambazuka News | allAfrica
A response to J. Peter Pham's New York Times' article on the Congo, November 30, 2012.
 
RDC: Les Banyamulenge se dissocient des rebelles du M23 | 14th December 2012 | BurundiVision
What if the Kivu war harmed the Congolese Tutsis more that it benefits them? Interview with Enock Ruberangabo, National President a.i. of the Banyamulenge community.
 
Negotiating With the DRC Rebels - First As Tragedy, Then As Farce? | 14th December 2012 | ThinkAfricaPress | allAfrica
If talks with M23 are not responsibly managed and we see a repeat of the 2009 CNDP talks, we could also see another identikit conflict a few years down the line.
 
The World’s Worst War | 15th December 2012 | The New York Times
Analysis
 
Bring Women into DRC Peace Talks - Diop | 16th December 2012 | allAfrica
Last month Bineta Diop - named by Time magazine as one of the world's most influential women - responded to appeals from local women and visited the conflict-ravaged eastern region of the DRC. She almost didn't make it out.
 
Governor accuses rebels of terrorising DR Congo city | 17th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
RD Congo: le M23 veut "maintenir Goma dans la psychose" (gouverneur) | 17th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
The governor of the unstable DR Congo province of North Kivu on Monday accused rebels of the M23 movement of seeking to terrorise people in the eastern city of Goma, which they had left after a brief occupation. Julien Paluku argued that the rebels were maintaining "pressure to show that at any moment, if this or that isn't done in Kampala, they will take Goma."
 
Meanwhile in Goma - Withdrawal of M23 and Kampala 'Negotiations' | 17th December 2012 | African Arguments
The day Goma fell to the M23 I was on my way there, having planned to take a boat to Eastern Congo's largest city on November 20th from Bukavu. Eventually I had to travel to Kinshasa through Bujumbura and Nairobi. Three weeks later, the flights from the capital to the east have become normalised again.
 
Analysis: Seeking civilian and military solutions in the DRC | 18th December 2012 | IRIN
Even as they continue to work toward a negotiated solution to the crisis in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the leaders of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) are planning to deploy a 4,000-strong "neutral force" to the region to improve its security. Yet regional analysts and stakeholders are at odds over the force’s composition and mandate.
 
Hazy motives fuel Congo conflict | 18th December 2012 | Financial Times
Minerals are only one factor behind the most extensive rebellion in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo in years.
 

 
 
FDLR allegedly massing troops in Masisi territory, North Kivu
6,000 Rebels Preparing Offensive | 18th December 2012 | News of Rwanda | allAfrica
According to News of Rwanda, a classified United Nations document says the FDLR militia is amassing troops - with some from Zambia and Congo Brazzaville in preparation for an attack on Rwanda. The document with reference number CLA-MP-94/12-12 dated December 17 was prepared by MONUSCO for internal consumption. It reads in part: "Reliable sources (humanitarian workers) has reported to MONUSCO's component on 16th Dec 12 about the presence of 4000 FDLR cadres at Kazibake..., Groupement of Bashali Mokoto, Localité Lukweti/Ndurumo."
 
 
Mai-Mai surrender in Lubero territory, North Kivu
Lubero: plus de 100 miliciens Maï-Maï se rendent aux FARDC | 14th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
Over 100 Mai-Mai militiamen of general Kikuli la Fontaine and of colonel la Tempête began surrendering to the FARDC on 13 December in Lubero territory, North Kivu.
 
 
Heavy fighting over gold mines in Mambasa territory, Ituri, Province Orientale
Province Orientale : les FARDC récupèrent plusieurs localités occupées par les hommes de Morgan | 13th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
Ituri: 3 militaires tués dans des affrontements entre les FARDC et des déserteurs | 18th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
Reportedly about 200 army deserters from North Kivu lead by a certain colonel Hilaire attacked and chased the FARDC from several villages in the gold-rich Pangoy area in Mambasa territory, Ituri. Only a week ago, the Congolese army had succeeded in chasing the militiamen of rebel chief Paul Sadala alias Morgan from the same villages, after four months of occupation.
 
 
LRA activity in Province Orientale
Faradje: des rebelles LRA ont enlevé 5 personnes à Lidjo, selon la Société civile | 14th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
According to the civil society of Watsa, armed men identified as Ugandan rebels of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) kidnapped five people in the village of Lidjo in Faradje territory, Province Orientale.
 
Province orientale - Des groupes armés actifs à Duru-Kpaika-Nambia | 13th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
MONUSCO says elements of the LRA are still present in certain parts of Province Orientale.
 
 
Violence in central Katanga
Mitwaba : des hommes armés tuent le conservateur du parc de l’Upemba | 18th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
The curator of the Upemba national park was killed by armed men last Saturday, 15 December, in the territory of Mitwaba (Katanga).
The same day, in the same territory, Congolese soldiers fell into an ambush by Mai-Mai militiamen.
 
 

Human Rights Risk Atlas 2013 – DRC second
Crackdown on political dissent spurs rise in human rights abuses in growth economies – Maplecroft Risk Atlas | 13th December 2012 | Maplecroft news
The risk of complicity in human rights violations by security forces is especially high in fragile, resource rich countries such as DR Congo (2), Myanmar (6), Iraq (7), Nigeria (12) and Indonesia (32).
 

 
 
 

Uganda

Ugandan Defence Chief on ADF and M23 rebels
UPDF Will Only Enter Congo to Fight ADF- Aronda | 15th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The chief of defence forces, Gen. Aronda Nyakairima, recently revealed that the Allied Democratic Front (ADF) rebels in the eastern DR Congo are re-organising and recruiting to attack Uganda. Joshua Kato talked to him about the threat.
 
 

 
 

Central African Republic

Rebels also take Bamingui and Bria
RCA : les rebelles menacent Bozizé | 18th December 2012 | BBC Afrique
Centrafrique: Les attaques dans le nord-est revendiquées par une alliance de groupes armés | 18th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
 
Central African Republic rebels take diamond-mine town | 18th December 2012 | BBC Africa
Centrafrique: Les rebelles entrent dans la ville minière de Bria | 18th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
Centrafrique : des villes du Nord-Est entre les mains des rebelles | 18th December 2012 | Afrik.com
Chad deploys troops to help fight CAR rebels | 19th December 2012 | BBC Africa
 
Rebel forces in the Central African Republic (CAR) have captured Bria, a key mining town in a diamond-rich region. The new rebel coalition, “Seleka”, says it now controls at least four towns and has threatened to overthrow the government. Chad has sent troops to fight them.
 
 
Sexual violence in conflict
Central African Republic: UN envoy signs agreements on conflict-related sexual violence | 12th December 2012 | UN News Centre
République centrafricaine: deux accords conclus par l'ONU pour mieux protéger les victimes de violences sexuelles | 12th December 2012 | UN News Centre
The UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Zainab Hawa Bangura, today concluded a visit to the Central African Republic (CAR) with the announcement of two agreements on conflict-related sexual violence with stakeholders in the country’s peace process. In addition to focussing greater international attention on the situation in the CAR, the aim of the envoy’s visit was to gain first-hand knowledge of the challenges involved in addressing conflict-related sexual violence there.
 

 
 
 
 

Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region

DRC 

Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo: Note d’information à la presse, 12 décembre 2012 | 12th December 2012 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
Bulletin d'Information Humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu N° 50/12, 12 décembre 2012 | 12th December 2012 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
More than 900,000 displaced in east DR Congo: UN | 13th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
RDC : Plus de 900.000 personnes déplacées comptabilisées au Nord Kivu (HCR) | 13th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
More than 900,000 people have been displaced by violence in the strife-ridden eastern DR Congo region of North Kivu, up about 500,000 on the figure made public in April, a UN official said Thursday. The steep rise was due to intense fighting between the army and rebel group M23 around the regional capital Goma, said Gert Weskereen of UN refugee agency UNHCR.
 
RD Congo : les déplacés du Nord-Kivu à nouveau dans la tourmente | 13th December 2012 | MSF | Reliefweb
 
Rapport de Situation Humanitaire sur la République Démocratique du Congo - 14 décembre 2012 | 14th December 2012 | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
 
RDC : CARE recueille les témoignages des déplacés | 14th December 2012 | CARE | Reliefweb
 
Nord-Kivu - Banro vole au secours des déplacés de Mugunga | 14th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
DR Congo fighting 'sees refugee numbers rise' | 15th December 2012 | BBC Africa
Humanitarian workers have warned of a sharp rise in refugees in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo as a result of recent fighting.
 
Shattered Families, Raped Lives in DR Congo | 16th December 2012 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
Refugees recount M23's invasion, rapes and murder.
 
Displaced People in North Kivu Are Facing Renewed Turmoil | 17th December 2012 | MSF | allAfrica
 
UNHCR still concerned about security situation in camps near Goma | 18th December 2012 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Le HCR reste préoccupé par la situation de sécurité dans les camps près de Goma | 18th December 2012 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
Les personnes déplacées dans l'est de la RDC toujours sous la menace des groupes armés rebelles, selon le HCR | 18th December 2012 | UN News Centre
 
Millions Left At the Mercy of Militias and Armed Forces Across Eastern Congo | 18th December 2012 | Oxfam International | allAfrica
Des millions de personnes sous la menace des milices et forces armées dans l’Est de la RDC | 18th December 2012 | Oxfam | Reliefweb
 
EU Nobel Prize Money Granted to Save the Children and Norwegian Refugee Council | 18th December 2012 | Marketwire
13,000 children who have fled from conflict in Somalia and DR Congo will benefit from EU Nobel prize money, granted to Save the Children and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC).

 
 
 

Burundi 

UNHCR Burundi Bulletin spécial sur Mtabila No. 10 | 14th December 2012 | UNHCR | Reliefweb
 
 
 
 

Other

South Sudan – Congolese refugees
Over 3,000 refugees in Morobo County | 17th December 2012 | Miraya FM | Reliefweb
Over three thousand six hundred refugees fleeing conflict in the DR Congo have crossed into Moro County in Central Equatoria State. The Refugees are fleeing conflict between DR Congo government forces and M23 rebels in the eastern part of the country.
 
Zambia – Congolese refugees
Zambia: Housing the DRC refugees | 13th December 2012 | IRIN
Over the past five weeks, almost 1,000 people have fled into Zambia to escape fighting in the DR Congo, forcing the Zambian government to consider re-opening a refugee camp it closed two years ago. The refugees are pouring into Kilwa Island, on Lake Mweru, from villages in DRC’s Katanga Province. Many refugees have told the Zambians that they fled an onslaught by the Mai-Mai militia groups, while others said they had been forced to leave because of fighting between the government’s forces, FARDC, and the rebel group M23 in eastern DRC.
 
 
Central African Republic - IDPs
Central African Republic - Help for People Fleeing Violence in Ndélé | 14th December 2012 | ICRC | allAfrica
Several hundred people have fled their homes since armed men attacked Ndélé, a town of 20,000 inhabitants in northern Central African Republic, on 10 December.
 
 

 
 

Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region

 DRC

ICC acquits Mathieu Ngudjolo
In its second ever verdict, the International Criminal Court (ICC) of The Hague acquitted former Congolese militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui and ordered his immediate release. He had been charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in 2003 during an attack against the village of Bogoro in Ituri (Province Orientale), a massacre that claimed almost 200 lives. Judges said that the prosecution had not proved “beyond reasonable doubt” that Ngudjolo was the leader of the Lendu fighters who took part in the attack, but they emphasised that Ngudjolo's acquittal did not mean no crimes occurred in the village.
 
La CPI prononcera son deuxieme verdict mardi | 16th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
ICC to Hand Down Second Verdict Tuesday | 17th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Procès Ngudjolo à la CPI : le verdict sera rendu ce mardi | 17th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
La CPI va prononcer son premier verdict pour meurtre, contre Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui | 18th December 2012 | Le Monde
 
 
RDC : la CPI acquitte Mathieu Ngudjolo | 18th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
 
ICC acquits Congolese ex-militia boss of war crimes | 18th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
 
Congo militia boss Ngudjolo acquitted of war crimes at Hague | 18th December 2012 | BBC Africa
CPI: un ex-chef de milice congolais acquitté | 18th December 2012 | BBC Afrique
 
Congolese militia leader acquitted of rape and murder charges | 18th December 2012 | The Guardian
ICC acquits Congolese militia leader over atrocities | 18th December 2012 | The Guardian
 
ICC Acquits Congolese Militia Leader of War Crimes | 18th December 2012 | Voice of America
Congo Warlord's ICC Acquittal Raises Questions | 18th December 2012 | Voice of America
 
ICC Acquits Mathieu Ngudjolo in Second Verdict | 18th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Mathieu Ngudjolo acquitté pour les crimes de Bogoro | 18th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
 
International Criminal Court acquits former Congolese rebel leader of war crimes | 18th December 2012 | UN News Centre
La CPI acquitte un ancien chef rebelle congolais de crimes contre l'humanité | 18th December 2012 | UN News Centre
 
Congolese Rebel Leader Is Acquitted of War Crimes | 18th December 2012 | The New York Times
 
Le milicien congolais Mathieu Ngudjolo acquitté par la Cour pénale internationale | 18th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
 
ICC acquits DR Congo 'warlord' Ngudjolo | 18th December 2012 | Al Jazeera
 
Congo war crimes trial ends in acquittal | 18th December 2012 | CNN
 
Disappointment, fear after ex-DR Congo militia boss freed | 18th December 2012 | AFP | Reliefweb
 
ICC: Congolese Rebel Leader Acquitted in Court’s Second Case | 18th December 2012 | Human Rights Watch
 
ICC acquits Congolese armed group leader | 18th December 2012 | Amnesty International
 
Warlord verdict casts doubt on Hague court | 18th December 2012 | Financial Times
 
 
La CPI ordonne la libération de Ngudjolo | 18th December 2012 | BBC Afrique
La CPI rejette la demande de maintien en détention de Mathieu Ngudjolo | 19th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
 
 
ICC Bemba trial suspended until March 2013
Le procès Bemba suspendu jusqu'au 4 mars 2013 | 14th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Procès Bemba: les audiences sont suspendues jusqu’au 4 mars 2013 | 14th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
 
 
Belgian judicial inquiry into death Lumumba
Ouverture d’une enquête sur la mort de Patrice Lumumba | 12th December 2012 | Le Soir / AFP
A court in Brussels authorised a judicial inquiry into the death of the former Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, murdered in 1961. The Lumumba family had lodged a complaint against several Belgians in 2011.
 
Compétence universelle pour Lumumba ? | 13th December 2012 | Le Soir
Is the killing of Patrice Lumumba to be considered murder or a war crime?
 
Assassinat de Patrice Lumumba - vers un procès en Belgique? | 13th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
Assassinat de Patrice Lumumba - La justice belge va rouvrir le dossier 50 ans après | 13th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
 
La Belgique ouvre le dossier Lumumba | 13th December 2012 | BBC Afrique
 
Affaire Lumumba: la famille du héros national sollicite l’appui du gouvernement congolais | 13th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
 
Assassinat de Lumumba - La justice belge veut identifier les commanditaires | 13th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
 
Comment les belges ont fait disparaître Lumumba | 14th December 2012 | RFI | allAfrica
 
 

 
 

Rwanda 

ICTR – terms of judges extended
Security Council extends terms of judges serving on UN Rwanda genocide tribunal | 12th December 2012 | UN News Centre
Security Council extends term of office of five appeals judges for Rwanda criminal tribunal until 31 December 2014 - resolution 2080 (2012) adopted unanimously | 13th December 2012 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Le Conseil de sécurité proroge de deux ans le mandat des juges du Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda (TPIR) - résolution 2080 (2012) | 12th December 2012 | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
The UN Security Council extended the term of office of five judges serving with the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha, Tanzania, to facilitate the completion of the court’s work. The Council has urged both the ICTR and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to conclude their work by the end of 2014.
 
Two ICTR convicts released
Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals Grants Bisengimana, Serushago Early Release | 13th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Rwanda: Libération anticipée pour deux condamnés du TPIR ayant plaidé coupables | 13th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
The Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT) granted early release to ex-Rwandan mayor, Paul Bisengimana, and former Interahamwe militiaman Omar Serushago, both detained in Mali.
 
 
Kigali High Court - Mugesera trial
Mugesera Trial Resumes Today | 17th December 2012 | The New Times | allAfrica
Rwanda/Justice - Mugesera Trial Opens With Defence Challenge | 17th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency | allAfrica
Rwanda/Justice : La défense de Mugesera conteste la compétence temporelle de la cour | 17th December 2012 | Hirondelle News Agency
Mugesera, who was extradited from Canada last January, is charged in connection with a 1992 speech. The five charges against him include planning and publicly inciting genocide.
 

 
 

Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.

DRC 

Belgian resolution to protect Virunga National Park
Georges Dallemagne | 18th December 2012 | Africa Energy Intelligence
Georges Dallemagne, a Belgian MP, succeeded on Dec. 13 in getting Parliament to adopt a resolution calling on the government to turn up heat on Kinshasa to ensure that all oil exploration permits (operated by Soco and Total) inside the Virunga national park in the eastern part of Congo-K be cancelled. 
 
 
‘Conflict minerals’
Central Africa: The quest for clean hands | 18th December 2012 | Financial Times
Analysis. A Dodd-Frank act provision on stemming ‘conflict minerals’ trade has failed to rein in Congo militias.
 

 
 
 

Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

DRC

Mining
DRC miner draws down $515.5m loan to expand operations | 14th December 2012 | Mining Weekly
DRC-focused copper/cobalt miner Katanga Mining says it has met all conditions precedent to draw down its $515.5-million senior secured facility provided by commodity trader Glencore. The facility funds part of the Phase 4 expansion of Katanga's copper/cobalt mine, in the Kolwezi district of the DRC.
 
Alphamin Resources Corp.: Update on Bisie Tin Project, DRC | 18th December 2012 | Aphamin Resources Corp. | Marketwire
Alphamin Resources Corp. has received results for a further 5 holes drilled on its wholly owned Bisie Tin Project in Walikale territory, North Kivu Province, DRC. Tin mineralisation at Bisie is unique due to the high grades of tin exploited historically by artisanal miners and confirmed with drilling.
 
Concordia Announces the Start of Drilling on Its Ebende Project in the Democratic Republic of Congo | 18th December 2012 | Concordia Resource Corp | Marketwire
Concordia Resource Corp. announced that its joint venture partner, High Power Exploration Inc., has commenced an initial drill program and will begin an airborne magnetics survey this month over the southern licences of Concordia's Ebende Project in the DR Congo, Kasai Oriental province. The exploration program is targeting nickel-copper and platinum group elements.
 
 
Oil
Le ministre des Hydrocarbures déplore la sous-exploitation des 31 blocs pétroliers du pays | 15th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The Congolese Minister of Hydrocarbons deplores the under-exploitation of the rich petroleum resources in 31 identified blocks in the DR Congo.
 
Georges Dallemagne | 18th December 2012 | Africa Energy Intelligence
Georges Dallemagne, a Belgian MP, succeeded on Dec. 13 in getting Parliament to adopt a resolution calling on the government to turn up heat on Kinshasa to ensure that all oil exploration permits (operated by Soco and Total) inside the Virunga national park in the eastern part of Congo-K be cancelled.
 

 
 

Uganda

Oil
Museveni, Putin agree on oil, arms | 12th December 2012 | Daily Monitor
Kampala
Russia’s largest private crude producer, LUKoil, has expressed interest in the exploration, production and refining of Uganda’s waxy oil, according to reports in the Russian media. The development came a day before President Museveni met his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin in Moscow, where they discussed prospects of bilateral cooperation on energy and mining.
Ernest Rubondo | 18th December 2012 | Africa Energy Intelligence
The powerful boss of the petroleum exploration and production department at Uganda’s energy ministry, Ernst Rubondo, accompanied the country’s president when he travelled to Russia last week. (...) 
 
Oil Officials Should Declare Wealth - DP | 12th November 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
The Democratic Party (DP), has demanded that all public officials involved in the oil industry declare their assets and subject their declaration to verification.
 
Analysis: New law fails to ease oil concerns in Uganda | 13th December 2012 | IRIN
Uganda's parliament recently passed a law to govern the exploration, development and production of the country's estimated three billion barrels of oil, a resource whose extraction will directly affect the livelihoods of tens of thousands of people. While the law streamlines the burgeoning industry, analysts have raised concerns over transparency and over who controls the sector. 
 
 
President Museveni's Speech to Parliament in Full | 16th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni Thursday afternoon addressed Parliament on various issues, top of the agenda being oil.
 
Uganda President Says Foreigners Sabotaging Oil Sector | 13th December 2012 | Voice of America
Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni, facing donor aid cuts over graft, on Thursday accused unnamed "foreign interests" of sabotaging the oil sector to prevent the country from attaining financial freedom.
MPs Were Bribed to Fail Oil Bill - Museveni | 14th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has asked the Inspector General of Government to investigate circumstances under which some Members of Parliament were paid huge sums of money during debate on the Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill 2012. Museveni suspects that the MPs were generously funded by foreign interests bent on frustrating development of Uganda's oil sector.
Uganda: President Warns Lawmakers Over Oil Sabotage | 17th December 2012 | East African Business Week | allAfrica
Members of parliament who were bribed to sabotage government from passing of the oil Exploration Development and Production Bill 2012 may end up in courts of law if the, Ombudsman, the Inspector General of Government implement what the president has ordered.
 
NGOs Hit Back At President Museveni Over Oil | 15th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
NGOs which President Yoweri Museveni accused of funding MPs to oppose the Oil Bill have shot back. The heads of the NGOs say they will not be intimidated or gagged.
Civil Society Coalition On Oil Hits Back At Museveni Jibes | 15th December 2012 | The Independent (Kampala) | allAfrica
The Civil Society Coalition on Oil (CSCO), a group of Ugandan NGOs following the oil and gas sector have labeled President Museveni's accusations that the NGOs and some MPs were representing 'foreign interests' during the just concluded debate on the Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill, 2012 as diversionary politics.
 
Uganda to Build Oil Refinery | 14th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
President Yoweri Museveni has emphasized the need for Uganda to refine its oil instead of exporting it in crude form.
Oil Refinery Survey Starts Next Year | 18th December 2012 | The New Vision | allAfrica
An environmental baseline survey on the proposed land for the establishment of an oil refinery at Kabaale in Buseruka sub-county, Hoima district will start in January.
 
 
Oil bill squeezes through | 18th December 2012 | Africa Energy Intelligence
Uganda’s oil industry has come under new legislation since Dec. 7.
 

 
 

Rwanda

Tungsten mining
Wolfram Mining and Processing Secures Tungsten Mining Concession | 13th December 2012 | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
Five Year Mining Deal | 16th December 2012 | The New Times | allAfrica
Mining Day Celebrated in Kayonza | 17th December 2012 | The New Times | allAfrica
The government has signed a five year mining concession extension with Wolfram Mining and Processing Limited for wolfram also known as tungsten exploitation. The concession area comprises a mine in Gifurwe, Burera District in the Northern Province. 
 
 


Central African Republic 

Hydropower
La BAD et la Centrafrique signent un Accord de don de 23 milliards de FCFA pour financer un projet d'interconnexion des réseaux électriques avec la RDC | 18th December 2012 | Africa Development Bank Group
The Africa Development Bank and the Central African Republic (CAR) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding relating to the first phase of the project of interconnection of the power networks of the CAR and the DRC, from the hydropower system of Boali.
 
 

 
 

Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

DRC

EITI – Katanga provincial office opened
Kabwelulu installe une antenne de l'ITIE au Katanga pour aider à la collecte des données | 14th December 2012 | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The Congolese Minister of Mines Martin Kabwelulu installed in Lubumbashi (Katanga) on Friday 14 December, the first provincial office of the Technical Secretariat of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
 
 
Dodd-Frank Act on ‘conflict minerals’
Central Africa: The quest for clean hands | 18th December 2012 | Financial Times
Analysis. A Dodd-Frank act provision on stemming ‘conflict minerals’ trade has failed to rein in Congo militias.
 
 
IMF loan suspension
Les risques de corruption montrent que le FMI a eu raison d’arrêter son programme de prêts au Congo | 12th December 2012 | Global Witness
(Translation in French of a statement originally published in English on 5 December 2012)
Bloomberg and Reuters news agencies have reported that the International Monetary Fund has halted its loan programme with the DR Congo because of concerns over transparency in the country's mining sector. While Congo is clearly in desperate need of funds, Global Witness believes that concerns over possible corruption in the country's mining sector were so serious that the IMF was justified in stopping its lending.
 
RDC: le ministre des Mines juge « démesurée » la suspension des prêts du FMI | 18th December 2012 | Radio Okapi
The Congolese Minister of Mines Martin Kabwelulu, judges "disproportionate" the decision by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to suspend $240 million of loans to the DRC because of the failed publication of some mining contracts.
 

 
 
 
 

IPIS Recent Publications



Upstream Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Cycle 2 Interim Progress Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | May 2012 | OECD – IPIS
The following report is the second in a cycle of three on upstream companies’ implementation of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten to the OECD’s Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The objective is to report on progress made by upstream companies in their implementation of due diligence, with a focus on current practices and experiences in developing systems and processes for the implementation of the Five-Step OECD Framework. 
 
Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.
 
Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification. 

Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.
 
Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS
IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.
 
Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS
Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.
 
“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER
In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.
 
Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series
Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.
 
Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix
On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.
 
The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R
In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.
 
From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS
The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.
 
Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS
US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the linkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead.  
 
 
 
 
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